(Part 1/4)
Electromagnetic propulsion of interstellar flying objects
---------------------------------------------------------
Abstract:
The main methods for propulsion vehicles in free space almost
without exception are based upon the Newtonian principle of
action and counteraction. By powerful acceleration of hot
gas streaming out, the vehicle in this way achieve a propulsing
force. Using the pressure of the "sun wind" within our sun
system belong to the more speculative methods, as well as
using ion motors for the same purposes. Hovewer, the latter
methods give no rise to any strong forces and can only be used
in the free, interstellar space.
The method here sketched on is a quite another very speculative
method based upon an electromagnetical propulsing principle,
where electromagnetical fields are used. Even if strongly specu-
lative, it is assumed that all common known electromagnetical
laws are valid for the suggested arrangement. Hovewer, it will
strongly be accentuated, that the idea just is a potential theo-
retical possibility, offering no real practical, technical
solution of the problem of realizing it by todays technology.
It may be accentuated that the researching progress in the field
of superconducting may be an important factor in the aim
of finding a technical solution in the future. Even if there will
be a theoretical possibility to realize such a propulsing mechanism
it will here not be offered any complete practical/technical
solution of the problem.
So, in the first step it will here discussed if the suggested
priciple works at all and which problems are to be awaited.
----------------------
Today, most of the methods for driving space ships are limited
to the rocket principle, which means an old fashon method of
using the first Newtonian law where the inertial properties of
mass is used for creating a counteraction on the mass body. The
amount of losed mass can be hold low if the reaction is fast,
which means a high velocity of the outstreaming gas, giving a
high degree of efficiency of the rocket.
The negative thing with high velocity of the outstreaming gase
is that the acceleration of the rocket will be high, giving low
comfort of the passengers, high temperature stress of the vehicle
mechanical parts and also high mechanical stress of the whole
vehicle. Pollution of the earth atmosphere by outstreaming gases
when launching also is a factor of consideration.
Out in the interstellar space where no gravity forces from the
moder planet is actuating the vehicle, not so high forces are
needed to accelerate. Of that reason even other methods have
been discussed, for example ion motors or using sails, pulled
by the light or particle pressure of free radiation emitted
from the sun. Also by these methods very small acceleration
forces are achieved and may only be useable in the free space.
In relation to the effective load, using fossile fuel rocket motors
is very inefficient. It is a clumsy method with great loss
of energy. The manuvrer freedoms is very low when launching and
the rocket orbit must be carefully calculated by forehand. The
fuel must by burned at very short time in order to get a high
degree of efficiency. Other methods mentioned are not useable
for direct launching from the earth surface because of the very
small forces generated.
The ideal for propulsing an interstellar vehicle must include
the possibility to start with very low acceleration and landing
with very low retardations, all that for giving comfort and
also for making the control of the vehicle easy.
It will here briefly be described a theoretical possibility
of realizing such a propulsion mechanism where not the traditional
force/impulse principle in accord with the reaction/rocket
principle is used, but a principle based upon a pure electro-
magnetical principle.
However, it will here strongly be accentated that there is not
a question about any mystical anti gravity machine which today
is discussed and speculated about. The gravitation is no
electromagnetical process and is a "one direction process",
meaning, directed towards the earth center masspoint. Hence,
the gravitationel force is uni-directional and can only be inhibited
by creating a counter force against it.
Principly, the idea is rather simple to describe, but the
problem of course is the possibility of realizing it. To work,
extremely high oscillating frequencies, hight electrical
currents and hight electrical voltages are needed, hard to
create in a practical arrangement today.
A brief description together with mathematical calculations.
-------------------------------------------------------------
First, regard for instance the light flowing out from the sun
surface. Because we know that the light propagation velocity
in free space has a limited value and with knowledge of the
distance to the sun, we can calculate that the light will
reach the earth after about 8.5 minutes.
In accord with common electromagnetic theory, visible light
only is a part of an electromagnetic radiation spectrum where
also many other radiation forms occur. If we at the sun
surface mounted a radio transmitter, we should do a similar
reasoning, which means, the time delay for the radio signal
would be the same as for the light signal.
Hence, if we accept the common electromagnetical theory, no
message of any kind can be transmitted faster than the velocity
of light in free space. This assumption is also assumed to be
valid also for how elecrostatical fields and magnetostatical
fields are propagating between two points in space.
In order to further enlighten what we have said, the following
hypothetical reasoning is performed:
We regard two points in space, A and B, separated by the distance,
d. In each point A and B respective, forceful electromagnets
are situated able to be controlled by switchning the current on
and off.
Now we perform the following preparing experiment:
In points A and B, there are electrical coils outplaced, one
in each point.
In these points there are two synchronized clocks situated
together with some measuring instruments which are able to
measure induced voltager in the two coils.
First, we connect the coild A to a current source and register
how long time it will take until the magnetical field created
by this current, reach the coild B. We do the same with the
coild B, and we can note that the time it will take for the
magneteic field to travel between the two points is determined
by the quotient d/c, the distance divided by the velocity of
light, here assumed that even magnetical fields are propagating
with the velocity of light.
(end part 1/4)
(part 2/4)
That which interests us now is, in what way shall we use this
facts in aim to create an active force impulse of the two
coils of which the system consists. Someone now protest, it's
not possible to create any resulting force within a closed
system, in accord with Newton's laws all forces will cancel
each other, giving the resulting force of zero. For instance,
you cannot pull yourself in your hear, a rocket placed into
a closed room will never lift the room, unless the rocket
jet is get free to act outside the room. However, the now
suggested system is not closed, it is an open system where
the free space is the reference of the two coils and not this
room in which the coils is inhoused.
In order to get an easy understanding we perform the following
preparing reasoning :
**************************************************************
* *
* <---------------- d ------------------> *
* *
* *
* Magnet A Magnet B *
* *
**************************************************************
Figure 1
In the figure 1, we regard two electromagnets A and B respectively,
outplaced on the mutual distance, d.
We now perform the following preparing reasoning (see figure 2):
The distance, d , is so large that this time it will take for
the magnetic flow to be developed in the coil is small in relation
to the propagating time t=d/c, where c= the propagating velocity
of light in vacuum.
At the time, to, the current is put ON to the coil A.
After the time , t, this current is cut OFF to the coil A.
Because no external magnetical field counteract on the coil A at
this moment, no force is developed on it.
When the current to the coil A is put OFF, the current on the coil
B is put ON during a time, t. What will happen is now as follows:
This magnetical field which was build up by the magnet A exists
in the space around B during a time, t. During this time the
coil B don't "know" that the coild A has been put OFF, but that
make no difference for the coild B, a force impulse will be
created on B during this time. But on the coil A there will not
be any force impulse of the field from B, that because the coil
A is not active at this moment.
The result will be that a force impuls is created only on the coil
B and not on the coil A. Hence, the force impulse will be focused
solely on the magnet B, giving the result that if A and B is a
common mechanical system (which here is assumed), the system
is actuated by a resulting force. If this force has enough
magnitude it will create a lifting force in the same way as a
rocket will do when lifting a space vehicle.
*****************************************************************
* ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... *
* . t . 2t . t . 2t . t . 2t . t . 2t . t . *
* A .. ......... ......... ......... ......... ... *
* *
* ..... ..... ..... ..... ... *
* . t . 2t . t . 2t . t . 2t . t . 2t .t *
* B ..... .......... ......... ......... ......... *
* *
*****************************************************************
Figure 2
The described envelope is repeated continously and the force
developed on the coil B will be apprehended as a continous force
integrated over time.
In consideration with that a very high repeating frequency is needed
(more about that later), assumingly it's not possible to use pure
square formed pulses, but instead using sinusial currents produced
in some kind of resonance circuits where the coils are included
into the resonance circuits.
******************************************************************
* Oscillator A Oscillator B *
* ----. ______ *
* . . *
* .. .. *
* . . *
* . . .. *
* . . *
* . . *
* ____. .______ *
* *
* *
******************************************************************
Figure 3
Now, the next step is to try computing the efficiency of this
system, hence trying to calculate the effective force or effect
on the system in respect to the current amplitude, the distance
between the coils, the phase between the oscillation currents and
the frequency of the oscillation currents.
We denote the AC current function from the coil A :
1) f(A,0)= sin (w.t) , where w = 2.Pi.f
Because the magnetic field from the A coil is spread in the
room with the velocity of, c , (the velocity of light), the
magnetic wave at coil B will be delayed in relation to the
coil A. In the point B; hence, this magnetic wave in point B
can be expressed :
2) f(A,D) = sin(w(t-d/c))
In the same way for the coil B, we can write :
3) f(B,0) = sin(w.t)
that in case the sine wave is in phase with the A coild wave.
But if that not is true, the current in B is phase shifted
the time, x, giving the source magnetic field from B equal to:
4) f(B,0) = sin(w.(t-x))
where x then is the phase shifting time.
The corresponding action of this field at the A point, hence on
distance D will be ;
5) f(B,D) = sin(w.(t-x-d/c)
We know that the developed force is in proportion to the product
of the B value from respective coil. We denote the B-value on
distance 0 equal to B and on distance B.(r/d)**2, where r is
the radius of the A or B coil.
Hence, at the B coil the acting force will be :
6) f(B) = f(B,0) * f(A,d) =
2 2
B*sin(w.(t-x)) * B*r /d * sin(w.(t-d/c)) =
2 2 2
B*r/d * sin(w.(t-x)) * sin(w.(t-d/c))
(end part 2/4)
(part 3/4)
and the corresponding force effect at the A coil :
7) f(A) = f(A,0) * f(B,d) =
2 2
B*sin(w.t) * B.r /d *sin(w(t-x-d/c)) =
2 2 2
B.r /d * sin(w.t) * sin(w(t-x-d/c))
and the effective force on the whole system :
2 2 2
8) f(A)-f(B) = B .r /d .( sin(w.(t-d/c) * sin(w(t-x) -
sin(w.t) * sin(w.(t-x-d/c))
sin(a+b) = sina*sina + cosb*sina
sin(a-b) = sina*cosa - cosb*sina
cos(a+b) = cosa*cosb - sina*sinb
cos(a-b) = cosa*cosb + sina*sinb
9) sin(wt-wd/c)*sin(wt-wx) - sin(wt)*sin(wt-wx-wd/c) =
/sin(wt)*cos(wd/c)-cos(wt)*sin(wd/c)/*/sin(wt)*cos(wx)-
cos(wt)*sin(wx) -
/sin(wt)*(sin(wt-wx)*cos(wd/c)-cos(wt-wx)*sin(wd/c)/ =
2
sin (wt)*cos(wd/c)*cos(wx)-sin(wt)*cos(wd/c)*cos(wt)*sin(wx)-
2
cos(wt)*sin(wt)*sin(wd/c)*cos(wx) + cos (wt)*sin(wd/c)*sin(wx)-
/sin(wt)*(sin(wt)*cos(wx)-cos(wt)*sin(wx)*cos(wd/c)-
-(cos(wt)*cos(wx)+sin(wt)*sin(wx)*sin(wd/c)/=
2
sin (wt)*cos(wd/c)*cos(wx)-sin(wt)*cos(wd/c)*cos(wt)*sin(wx)-
2
cos(wt)*sin(wt)*sin(xd/c)*cos(wx)+cos (wt)*sin(wd/c)*sin(wx)-
2
sin (wt)*cos(wx)*cos(wd/c)+sin(wt*cos(wt)*sin(wx)*cos(wd/c) +
2
sin(wt)*cos(wt)*cos(wx)*sin(wd/c)+sin (wt)*sin(wx)*sin(wd/c) =
2 2
sin(wx)*sin(wd/c)*cos (wt) + sin (wt)*sin(wx)*sin(wd/c) =
2 2
sin(wx)*sin(wd/c)*(cos (wt) + sin (wt)) =
sin(wx)*sin(wd/c)
Hence :
-------------------------------------------
2 2 2
10) f(A)-f(B) = B .r /d .sin(wx)*sin(wd/c)
-------------------------------------------
If we assume x being a factor 0 --> 1 of the time d/c, we
more comfortabely can write this formula :
-------------------------------------------------
2 2 2
11) f(A)-f(B) = B .r /d .sin(w.k.d/c)*sin(w.d/c)
-------------------------------------------------
where k= 0 -->1
Maximum effective factor is achived when k= 1, hence
for simplicity :
-------------------------------------
2 2 2 2
12) f(A)-f(B) = B .r /d .sin (w.d/c)
-------------------------------------
CALCULATION OF THE MAGNETIC FIELD STRENGTH OUTSIDE A CIRCULAR
-------------------------------------------------------------
ONE TURN CONDUCTOR
-------------------
**************************************************************
* x I *
* *
* O . *
* ! . r *
* ! . *
* _________!_________.________________________ *
* ! *
* ! *
* ! *
* O *
* *
* . I *
**************************************************************
Figure 4
In accord with Biot-Savart's law of the magnetic field strength
outside a conductor, it can be calculated in accord with the
following formula:
uo s 3
13) B = ----- I (r/r x i ).ds
4.Pi
where r= x.i+y.j+ z.k ; x= r*cos(a) ; y=r*sin(a) ; z=z
i= I.sin(a).i - I.cos(a).j + 0.z
We calculate the cross product r x i , giving :
i j k
----------------------------------------
r x i =
r.cos(a) r.sin(a) z
=
I.sin(a) -I.sin(a) 0
(r.sina.0 - (-z.I.cosa)).i +
(z.I.sina - r.cosa.0)j +
2 2
(-r.T.cosa - r.sina)k =
z.I.cosa.i + z.I.sina.j -r.I.k
It is possible to make a complete calculation by an integrating
dator for all points outside the current loop, but here for
simplicity z is put to zero, meaning that the B-flow is measured
at the center axis. Hence :
uo s 3
14) B = ------. I (r.I/r )ds
4.Pi
(end part 3/4)
(part 4/4)
We put ds=r.da and perform the integration, giving :
uo.I uo.I
15) B = -------- = -------
2.r 2.d
The next step is to try calculate the force effect on a current
loop. We start with the formula for magnetic energy density :
2
26) E/V = 1/2*B /uo
2
V = A.s = Pi.r .s ; E = F.s
---------------------------------
2 2
F = 0.5 * Pi * B * r /uo
---------------------------------
We insert the value of B from 15). giving :
2 2 2
uo .I r 2 2
27) F = 0.5 * Pi * ----2--. ---- = 0.5 * uo * I * (r/d)
4.d uo
The efficiency factor from 12) is introduced into 27), giving :
28) ===================================
2 2 2
F = uo * I * sin(w*d/c) * (r/d)
===================================
appr.
The sin factor will be maximum if w*d/c = 1, hence
2.Pi.f.d/c = 1, giving :
c
29) f = ---------
2.Pi.d
Example : We set r= 1 meter and d= 0.5 meter. Then
f = 3E8/(2*pi*0*0.5) = 1E8 Hz = 100 Mhz.
2 2 2
F = 4E-7 * I * 1 * (1/0.5) = 16E-7 * I
If the lifting force shall be, let say 1000kg (or 10 000 N)
in this modulary unit, the coil current will be :
2
10 000 = I * 16E-7 ; I = 8000 ampere appr.
Conclusions: The todays technology is not enough developed
to reach these extreme data needed to perform
any practical use of this principle. A limited
ambition to begin with may be to do a basic
experiment in a small scale in order to establish
the basic principle, if it work or not. Super-
conducting coils are supposed to be used.
(end part 4/4)
********************* end of the article *****************