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START---FRONTSIDE
FRONTSIDE
START---CONTENT
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X
COMTENTFRONT SIDEFRPREFACEPRHNTRODUKTIONINCommon concepts01Space and matter02THE ELECTRIC PROPERTIES OF MATTER03The magnetic properties of matter04MAXWELLS EQUATIONS05ATOMIC QUANTUM THEORY06T HE ATOMIC CORE07THE BASIC NATURE OF LIGHT08ON GDAVITATION09
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ELEMENTARY PARTICLES
The singular forms
10COMPLEX LEMENTARY PARTICLESThe complex forms11ELEMENTARY PARTICLES
COMMON PROPERTIES12EINSTEINs THEORY OF RELATIVITY13DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS
14LiTTERATURE REFERENCES15
END OF CONTENT
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
START---INTRODUCTION
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X
IntroductiOn
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The modern physics, in the way it has been developed during this and the previous centuries, has failed to clear up the epistemological crisis that was initiated by the rise of the the theory of relativity and the quantum mechanics in the beginning of the previous century.
During a period of more than half a century, scientists in a desperate way have accepted ideas and conceptions to a great extent lacking support in the reality. The theoretical physics has degenerated to an exhausted state of chaos and confusion.
In attempts to explain Cosmos and the inherent structure of matter, one has been forced to permanent retreats. The theories used mostly have produced empty and meaningless results with no chance of a deeper insight and understanding. And in the extension Fortunately, of this trend, the conception of GOD has been used as an extreme way out.
Many speculations of the modern physics are so remarkable that they best would fit in the literature of science fiction. The theories live their own lives and their users have developed themselves
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to dreamers who have lost their foothold in reality. More and more one has removed from this reality they try to explain and describe.
Fortunately not everyone has been influenced by these destructive trends. In fact, our time is characterized by an enormous force of creativity within the applied techniques and science. The rational science, which of all others was suggested by Newton, has fully been practiced by engineers and technicians who over and over again have proved its power and usefulness.
In spite of that, the advocates of the modern physics have turned ones back away these simple and evident principles, replacing it by a barren speculative activities, that only has offered us ignorance and confusion.
A new way of thinking, breaking with these destructive trends must be offered for making future progress in physics.
Everyone having a sound thinking and being interested in truth, are exhorted to cooperate and work for such a new evolution. Matter Unified is a theory mainly founded on new hypotheses about
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matter and the vacuum space fundamental properties. The aim of the theory is to demonstrate new ways of achieving a united physics including a new sight on the theory of relativity, quantum mechanics, atomic physics, elementary particles, gravitation, the basic nature of light, cosmology and many other very fundamental things.
THE NEW THEORY
The theory will show that it is fully possible to achieve god results by using and applying sound logical and rational principles on natural phenomena..
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BASIS OF THE THEORY
The theory is founded on Newtons mass inertial laws and the preserving laws of mass, impulse and energy, applied on all levels of matter, for instance on electromagnetism, on gravitation, on the elementary Dsd
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particles and many other fundamental things. That has to be clearly accentuated because today, in the modern physical theories, clear steps aside these basic principles have been done.
Besides that, new hypotheses and ideas of properties of the vacuum space have been put forward. It is supposed that vacuum contains a pseudo material field, constituting a pre-stage of of matter.
Material particles are assumed being condensed cores of this field, which constitutes the source and reason to all known elementary forces in nature.
Elementary particles interact with the field continuously by exchanging matter with it. As to give some examples, this process is manifested in the electromagnetism and in the gravitation.
SOME COMMON COSMMENT
This theory was for the first time published in year 1981 by name Absolute Space Theory. Since then it has been subject for a number of reworks. However, the conceptual kernel has been remained intact since then.x Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
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A brief summary of the theory
Vacuum, or empty space are those concepts used for describing a void in total lack of ordinary matter. However, ever since Maxwells days, this empty void has been allotted physical properties. One such thing is the physical constant of ((( ( for which there still lacks physical signification and understanding.
When an electric voltage is connected to two metal platens, not being in galvanic contact with each other, a displacement current arises through that empty void separating the two platens If that void should lack physical properties, that phenomenon would be very difficult to explain. Therefore, it is probable that the space between the two platens contains a hidden property that could give motivation to the phenomenon.
In a capacitor arrangement of this kind, electromagnetic energy is stored and the seat for this energy can be related to this space encircled by the two platens.
When an electric current flows through a metallic wire (a conductor) , a magnetic field arises around it. Even here energy is stored and the seat for it seems to be situated outside the conductor. Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
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However, it must here strongly be accentuated that this field has nothing to do with the old ether concept that was used in the past centuries as a hypothetical medium carrying light waves in accordance with the ight wave ether theory hypothesis.Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
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Here we plead for a field that constitutes a pre-stage to ordinary matter and material particles in that way we usually apprehend them as those touchable and perceptible entities which surround us.
The field as postulated is not directly sensible by touching, but is mainly manifested in interactions on very elementary levels of matter, such as in electromagnetic interaction processes, the strong forces between nuclear particles and in gravitation as to give some examples.
Besides the electromagnetic phenomena, the gravitation, the strong attracting forces in the atomic nucleus etc., all different forces in nature have their origin of action of this field as well as even the maintenance and creation of new matter in Universe.
The field constitutes a pre-stage to matter and material particles, which are spontaneously created and destroyed in an eternal and continuous process. On these grounds, the theory supports the idea of a pseudo steady state Universe where creation of new matter not is located to any remote occasion in the distant past The Big Bang event.
Of reason that basic knowledges of the vacuum
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space is lacking, the constant of eo has been allotted a very strange dimension.
The here given theory will show, that the reciprocal value of (o has the dimension of mass density, which means kilogram per volume unit &
An elementary particleHence, an elementary particle is composed by mass of the field, but differ from it by a different mass density, a more ordered and regularly pattern of movement and a more well arranged inherent structure. The energy density of particle and field is equal, properties giving rise to special phenomena were some of them are known from common theory.
Hence, an elementary particle is a different state of the field and as a separate entity such a particle interacts continuously with it.
The interaction process goes on by exchanging mass and energy, in this way being in permanent balance with the environment space field.Xxx
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Electrical chargeElectric charge is a concept used in the electro physics science, a property of matter that elementary particles are assumed to have. There are two kinds of active electrical charges, positive and negative. In this theory these charges are associated with two degrees of freedom in the inherent spin of mass into these elementary particles.
MagnetismThe magnetic properties of matter also are associated with the electrical charge properties of matter. The magnetic field is created when an electric charged particle moves in relation to the vacuum field, where a torsion vector between in-flowing mass impulse and an out-flowing mass impulse is created.
The created vector primarily is raised by reason that the inflow velocity and the outflow velocity of the fields and the particle differ from each other.
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The nature of lightThe question of the basic nature of light has been allotted a relative large amount of space, that mainly by two reasons:
The phenomenon of light is a very important part of the physical world
the propagation velocity of light in vacuum is used by Einstein in his theory of relativity as a universal reference to which all physical events can be related.
The base for Einsteins theory of relativity is subject for a careful critical analysis
Light is in our theory regarded as neutral particles streaming out from a light emitting source. The Inherent properties of the light source in combination with properties of vacuum space determine the velocity of the light particles, which are constantly related to the source. L
The wave character of light arises because the light particles are emitted by fluctuations in the out-flowing particle stream, which arises by internal
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oscillations of the source, usually constituting of an atomic system. By this approach as a base many problems and unsolved controverts still not solved, will disappear.xx
Atomic quantum mechanics
Some problems in the quantum theories have been remained unsolved ever since this theory was introduced in the beginning of the middle of the last century. It concerns the basic mechanisms of the atoms quantum mechanical behaviour and the existence of many atomic constants that not have got any good and satisfactory explanation.
It has here been shown possible to on one hand give motivation, on the other hand computing values of these atomic constants.
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The atomic core
The atomic core is assumed being built up by structures where the blocks are alpha or alpha particles. These particles are held together by the strong forces actuated by the mass impulse pressure from the postulated universal mass field.
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The gravitation process
The gravitation process of matter is an effect from the environment space. Some effects of this process may be:
rising in temperature of the gravitating body actuated by the inflow
a growth or condensation of new matter into a body.
According to the latter alternative, the gravitation should be the visible sign on that new matter all the time is created in the Universe. This idea supports the pseudo steady state model of the Universe, hence not the Big Bang model of creation at a single event in the far past.
The gravitation turns out to be a rather complex physical process, It turns out that the gravitation is actuated by an inflow process into bodies of matter from space. A good theoretical value of the gravitation constant G in this way has been achieved.
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Quarks and gluonsEstablished concepts of quarks and gluons and other pure hypothetical and pure invented concepts, are prompt rejected. All elementary particles possess electric unit charge as a primary inherent property.
Un-charged particles are compound particles of two or more even number of opposite charge polarity. For instance, a neutron is a compound particle consisting of a proton and an electron. The electron encircles and moves with such a furious velocity that the electrons mass increases about 2.53 times in comparison with the rest state.
Hence, there exists no qarks, no gluons, no Higgs. A new theory for all elementary particles is presented, replacing the current standard theory.xxx
Dimensional analysisThe theory shows that all physical units and entities can be expressed within the framework of the MKS unit system, without using the electric units of volt and ampre.Xxx
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The purpose of the theory
Many basic problems in physics are still unsolved and many questions are still un-answered. That may depends on the fact that theories, thoughts and ideas, not founded in the reality, has been common accepted.
Of that reason its important to show that Newtons basic laws are valid for the whole physical world, something that this theory will show.
In this way a clear and easy understanding of complex physical processes is achieved.
Supernatural phenomena does not exists in nature, just lack of knowledge. In this moment a problem is solved, the deep mystery disappear.
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EINSTEIN STATED THAT THE FASTEST WAY OF LIGHT TO TRAVEL THROUGH THE EMPTY VOID NOT WAS A STRAIGHT LINE BUT A CURVED LINE IN THE SPACE TIME CONTINUUM.
EINSTEINS IDEAS HAVE TO A GREAT EXTENT INFLUENCED THE THINKING IN PHILOSOPHY AND X
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SCIENCE DURING THE LATEST 100 YEARS, BUT SORRY TO SAY, HIS IDEAS TO A GREAT EXTENT ARE EQUAL DISTORTED AS THIS ROOM-TIME HE TRIES TO DESCRIBE.
HIS IDEAS HAVE NOT LEADED TO THAT BREAK THROUGH IN UNDERSTANDING OF NATURE THAT FROM THE BEGINNING WAS AWAITED.x
Newtons lawsNewtons fundamental mass inertial laws can be applied on all levels of matter, hence even on field levels. All known forces in the nature emanate from these fundamental principles, showing that all forces in nature are of dynamic nature, hence caused by change in moving state of matter.
Particularly it is important to accentuate that Newtons second law of mass and force is those basic laws on which all fundamental processes in nature are founded. Hence, no physical law exists where Newtons fundamental mass inertial principles not can be used. That brings physics back to a state where common sense and rational thinking once again can be used. That will give us a solid ground to stand on.
END OF INTRODUCTION
START---PREFACE
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X
PREFACE
Todays established physical theories have with few exceptions, failed to find the explanations of different singular physical phenomena present in nature and to
find functional connections between them. Most of these theories are describing theories and cannot of that reason offer any reason to the phenomena in question. To make progress we must find a more deeper understanding of basic processes going on in nature.Roughly, that we include in terms of the basic, fundamental physics are as in the given figure below
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C) Cosmology
Q) Quantum physics
AC) The atomic core physics
S) Properties of vacuum space
E) Electric phenomena
M) Magnetic phenomena0
P) The elementary particles
F) Forces in nature
U) Physical units and concepts
G) The gravitation
L) The nature of light
The theory here presented constitutes a very different and unique description of basic processes going on into matter.
The theory is an unbroken chain of strongly logical conclusions with start from some very simple assumptions about matter and properties of theacuum space.
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Newtons basic mass inertial laws, constitutes the bearing principles on all subjects treated.
By applying strongly reducible principles, it has been shown possible to create a uniting physical theory that in an excellent way will give a simple and clear description of natural processes going on into matter.
It is assumed that vacuum contains a pseudo material field that constitutes a pre-stage of the perceptible and touchable world around us.
Properties of this field in some respects can be associated with similar properties as for common matter, as for instance mass, energy and mass inertial resistance against movement change.
From these starting points then all physical laws of importance are derived
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Xx
MATTER UNIFIED is an alternative physical theory, describing fundamental processes in matter.
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The modern physics works with the idea that a Grand Unified Theory can be created without firstly solve and explain more simple things, for instance the electromagnetism, the nature of light, the elementary particles, the gravitation.
Obviously that is wrong, the more simple things must be solved firstly. This is worked out in this spirit, the most simple things at first is penetrated, then the more complex phenomena are investigated.X
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Einstein, the magic man arbitrary playing
With physical laws
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A-MAXWELL
James C. Maxwell founded the theory that gave
an basic understanding of electro magnetic phenomena in nature
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THE FRUITS OF MANY SENTURIES OF PHYSICAL RESEARCH.
SCIENCE HAS GIVEN MANKIND ACCESS TO A BETTER LIFE IN MANY WAYS. BUT SCIENCE ALSO STRIVES FOR A BETTER UNDERSTANDUNG OF THE UNIVERSE AND THE INHERENT NATURE OF LIFE AND MATTER. MANY QUESTIONS OF BASIC NATURE HAVE STILL NOT GOT ANY FINAL ANSWERS.Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
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In memory of my dear wife Lena
End of preface
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CHAPTER 1
Common conceptsINTRODUCTION03The concept of DISTANCE10The concept of TIME13The concept of VELOCITY16The concept of ACCELERATION17The concept of FORCE20The concept of IMPULSe24A brief mathematical analysis of the force concept26NEWTONs SECOND LAW OF FORCE35The concept of MASS ACCELERATION37The conceot of ENERGY41The concept of KINETIC ENERGY42Calculation of the kinetic energy of a moving body43The concept of POTENTIAL ENERGY44Calculation of the potential energy in a gravitating force field45The concept of MOMENTUM (MASS IMPULSE)46PRESERVING LAWS46SOME FURTER CONCEPTS53The concept of SURFACE, AREA54The concept of MASS DENSITY55The concept of PRESSURE55The concept of POWER56
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The concept of
IMPULSE MOMENTUM56The concept of FORCE MOMENTUM57The concept of AMOUNT OF MOVEMENT, or IMPULSE MOMENTUM57The concept of FREQUENCY58The concept of WAVELENGTH58The concept of ANGULAR FREQUENCY59The concept of FLOWING MATTER60FLOWING PROCESS USING VECTOR NOTATION63USING VECTOR NOTATIONS64The concept of TEMPERATURE65Forcre and accelerating at revolving movement73Vector calculation of force momentum75BOYLEs LAW76Guldins rule77Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
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INTRODUCTIONWhat is matter, where does everything come from, do it exists a supernatural thought hidden behind The Creation or is it the natures own inherent laws striving for order in things that rule the nature?
Questions of this kind together with a lot of other closed allied things of existential nature, the life and the meaning of life etc., in all times have engaged the human thought. Religion and philosophy have taken charge of these problems, giving peoples answers on these deep associated questions.
When Galileo, Keeper, Newton and other great men entered the scene, a new and rational way of thinking was initiated. By that the power of church and religion was broken and a new productive era in the history of mankind was initiated.
Newton introduced a strict deterministic order of thinking, containing a strong coupling between cause and effect in physical events.
That approach remained a powerful position several hundreds of years after him. X
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There were ideas that if the initial condition of a system was enough well known, its complete future history for all time could be predicted. Seen from a pure theoretical point of view, that was true, but nature never could be so exact as the theory demand. Small fluctuations rapidly give rise to completely different outputs as not was awaited.
That things in nature not were so easy to determine, to a great extent changed the way of handling physical problems.
Of that reason, today, one have to a great extent taken exception of Newtons original deterministic ideology of the world.
The results of this new way of thinking can be summarized in the ideas of the modern physics , above all founded on quantum theory and relativity theory.
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Isac Newton 1647-1727
The founder of the rational way of thinking in the physics science.
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We can feel and be sensible of the presence of matter by or senses, yet not understand its true essence and meaning. Commonly we apprehend matter as something hard and intractable, but when scratching on its surface, we find that matter to its greatest part seems to be empty space, which means, nothing.
By aid of physical experiments, physicists gradually more and more have succeeded to get deeper knowledge of the inherent nature of matter. That has been done by an ever dividing of matter into smaller and smaller pieces, then investigating and analyzing its 0ropertie.
Already the ancient philosophers were speculating in this direction, imaging that matter could be divided into ever and ever smaller units. In spite of the fact that this idea in its most part was correct, it was not confirmed until the chemists discovered that substances had the ability to combine in discrete proportions in chemical reactions. Of that the conclusions were drawn that matter contained parts that separately not where able to divide ino smaller elements.
That was the initial indication of the existence of the atom.
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In the beginning of the last century, Ernest Rutherford discovered that the atom had a small but compact core, surrounded by a shell. Hence, matter in the atom was mainly concentred in a relatively small volume; the rest of it seemed to be purely empty void.
Other research gradually discovered that even the atoms and the content of the atomic shell would be able to be divided into smaller pieces, so named elementary particles.
Today a whole spectrum of such particles are known, but there are suspicions that this fauna of particles in turn consist of still smaller entities., maybe a common elementary building block of matter.. Even if we found such a least fundamental part of matter, the eternal question would remain, namely, what basically matter is?
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As a qualified guess, we never can get any complete answer of that very fundamental question.
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One of the physics most reliable laws seems to be that matter and energy not can be destroyed, just converted to other aggregation forms.
Perhaps, from that we also can draw the opposite conclusion, namely that matter and energy not either can be created, meaning that matter and energy are the eternal state of nature!!?
With this uncertainty as a start, we likely instead may ask HOW MATTER IS or HOW MATTER BEHAVE, which means, trying to find those elementary relations and laws that control and rule the nature containing matter on both a complex and a fundamental level.
Matter is characterized mainly by two special properties of very universal and common nature, that are resistance against movement change (inertia), and the influence by gravitational forces.
The reason of these effects still are wrapped in obscurity, and have in no way been explained or fully investigated by modern physical research.
If matter, as a thought experiment, would be broken up into the limits of its smallest elements, the question still would remain unanswered whether these fundamental units still would show up
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properties as shown up by common matter, as for instance inertial forces, forces by gravitation, electrical forces and magnetic forces.
Perhaps it will be so that all properties that we know from common matter, not are valid for those most smallest, hypothetical entities? Hence, in the here presented theory, properties valid on macroscopic level of matter, not taken for granted are active on the hypothetical lowest level, such as where inertial forces and gravitational forces are active.
Maybe it will be so that all properties that we know from common matter, not are valid on the most elementary and fundamental level of matter ? Maybe that question never will get any final answer, who, know.
Hence, entities on that very elementary level of matter will not interact by gravitation, electrical or magnetic fields or other forms of known interaction processes. Not either these entities will show up properties of mass inertia forces.
A thinkable possibility for interaction between entities then would be by touch, approximately in the same way as for how particles in a gas interact.XXX
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This way of interpreting nature will here be the basic ground for deriving Newtons second law of force, this law on which all known physical laws of nature are founded.
The concept of DISTANCE DISTABS Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
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The concept of distance has synonyms in length, extension and so on. And besides that, in aim to denote a place in a room in relation to other places, the concept of position is used, where distance is defined to a point in on a beforehand defined reference system (a coordinate system).
The most common known reference system used in mathematics and science is the rectangular coordinate system made up by graduated axes. Even so named polar coordinates are common used, where radii and angels are used as basic parameters.
Distance is a relative concept in the sense that it always is defined by on a beforehand determined unit or reference point.
In ancient time, the claim of precision was less than today.
Measurements of distance then was performed by using references well known, easy obtainable and of stable units. In difference of today, the references used were the length of a thumb, a hand, an arm or a foot.
Some of these unitsOve Tedenstig Sweden 2008
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are still in use today, more or less, but have at the same time been given a more precise definition. That in aim of meeting for today*s clam of precision.
In Europe the meter mostly is used as the reference unit. From the beginning, the meter was defined as one 1/40000000 part of the distance around the earths equator, but nowadays its related to the archive meter, a measuring rod made up of a special metallic and stable alloy stored under exceptional careful and controlled environment.
During later years even the wavelength of laser light has begun to be used. But still, a common thing for all types of length measurement is the same, that the reference used shall be well known, easy to be reproduced and easy available for everyone who want to use it.
As a summary, Distance always is a relative concept. References used must be easy available for everyone who want to use them. A length reference must be well known, stable and easy to be reproduced and XX
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The concept of TIMEA-TIME
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Maybe the concept of time is the most known and the most discussed concept in philosophy and science. Time is measured by watches, but even something that is subjective experienced as something real and substantial.
In todays hectic world, time has been something very real and obvious, even if we well know that time only is a fictive and imagined thing with no real substance.
Time is a measurement of change and is in the same way as the distance concept, regarded as a relative Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
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concept, that because time measurement make use of a reference from an already on beforehand, defined and known period or interval. The reference used shall be common known and stable related to other interval references.
In the history of mankind, one has made use of shifting methods for time measurements, the earth around the sun (one year), the moon around the earth
(one month), the day and night (twenty-four hours).
The need for shorter and more precise time measurements was successively more and more accentuated.
Of that reason one began to use sandglasses, sun-watches, mechanical pendulum watches, watches with ingenious mechanisms, dividing larger periods info smaller periods.
As the need of precision steadily increased, one hour was divided in minutes, one minute in seconds, and later on seconds in tenth of seconds, milliseconds, microseconds, nano-seconds, pico-seconds
In dividing into these periods, the mechanical
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methods not longer were precise enough and of that reason they were replaced by oscillating movements of atoms or by oscillating electrical circuits.
Hence, time is measurement of how many periods that have been consumed in a process of an already on beforehand defined reference period.
Defined in this way, time is a digital phenomenon, which means, can be expressed in a fix number of intervals of a well known and well defined cyclic event or period.
In other worlds, time is the number of ticks consumed during an interval of measurement in an ongoing process. One tick then is used as the least defined reference interval.
If we make ourselves aware of these simple facts, the concept of time appears some less mystical.
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
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The concept of VELOCITY
According to our definition of the concept of distance and time, a process of movement will consume time of ticks from an already on beforehand defined unit period. A course of event taking place over a certain distance will consume a different amount of time.
In aim to get a simple measurement of how fast change in position is taking place, the concept of velocity has been introduced, defined as a quotient between the covered distance and the consumed time. According to our definition of the concept of distance and time, a process of movement will consume time or ticks from an already on beforehand defined unit period.
Expressed in a mathematical form that is expressed in the following way:Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
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XXX
By definition, velocity is the time derivative of distance, hence the change of distance in accord
with time. If a movement consume an equal amount of ticks for each elapsed distance unit, the velocity is said to be constant or invariant.
Hence, observe that the concept of velocity is a complex concept, defined by two from each other independent entities, distance and time. Velocity is change in distance per unit time of a given reference period.A-APCC
The concept of ACCELERATION0 Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
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Acceleration, or change in velocity per time unit, is the first time derivative of velocity and the second time derivative of distance, see further definitions of acceleration below.A-0102 X A-0103X
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Acceleration also is the second derivative of change in position or length. Now we preliminary have defined the concept of mass, distance, time, velocity and change of velocity over time (acceleration (or retardation if negative sign of the acceleration). Mass, distance and time or mass, velocity and time then are the basic units needed to create a meaningful description of the whole physical world. Mass, time and distance are basic units and entities, all other entities in physics are just of secondary nature, all possible to be derived from these basic units.
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That also is true for the electromagnetic units according this theor here presented.
For every physical description of nature, its very important that basic, fundamental concepts and units are stable and not are due to change within the conceptual framework of the description.
Within the limits of established physical theory, its not possible to express electrical units in integer form of mass, time and length. We can do it !.XX
EINSTEINS THEORY OF RELATIVITY HAS VIOLATED THE FUNDAMENTAL REFERENCES BY WHICH MEASURE-MENTS OF MASS, TIME AND LENGTH ARE
MADE POSSIBLE. THAT HAS CREATED A VERY CONFUSED SITUATION THAT HAS CAUSED VERY MUCH HARM AND DESTROYED THE POSSIBILITY TO SOLVE PHYSICAL PROBLEMS.
MASS, TIME AND DISTANCE HAVE BEEN ALLOTTED UNCHECKED ELASTICAL ENTITIES AND BY THAT PHYSICS HAS BEEN GIVEN UP TO SOLVE REAL PROBLEMS-
THAT EINSTEINS CONFUSED THINKING HAS GOT SO MUCH COMMON WILL. AND BEEN GIVEN SO
ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 01-20XXX
MUCH ATTENTION CONCEAL THE MISERABLE AND SAD MENTALITY THAT SO LONG TIME BACK HAS BEEN PREDOMINANT IN THE AREA OF THE THEORETICAL, PHYSICAL RESEARCH.
FOR PROGRESS, IT IS NECESSARY TO BREAK THIS STATE OF PARALYS AND CONFUSION AND GIVING UP THAT DESTRUCTIVE WAY OF THINKING, LEADING US TO NOTHING.
A-FORCE
The concept of FORCEove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 01-21XXX
As we now have seen, basic concepts as used in physics are primitive but at the same time hard to grasp. One concept that in particular is troublesome is the concept of force.
Force is an entity that in physics is measured with varying methods, but something that we strongly experience as real in many different ways.
This force that we perhaps know best, yet not think so much about, is the gravitational force, this cosmic force that attracts all objects, and preventing them together with us, to be thrown out into the empty Universe void.
Another well known force is the mass inertial force. That is the force that is created when a body tries to change its moving state in accord with time. In particular we will observe this force when travelling with a vehicle that hastily is accelerating or retarding.
When we hit a hammer on a nail, that is the same sort of force. The inertial force prevents the hammer to immediately stop. The result is that the nails is driven into the wood.
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 01-22XXX
Between electrical or magnetic particles there also are forces acting, as well as even strong forces between elementary particles, especially in the atomic core.
These types of forces are those that now are classified and specified in physics. There are speculations that they all can be derived from a common principle, yet science has not succeeded making that possible, hence to bringing them together hn a common theory.
J.C. Maxwell showed that the electrostatic and the magnetic forces had a common origin. Einstein did an attempt to co-ordinate inertial mass and gravitating mass forces by the so named mass equivalence principle .
According to Einstein, gravitation is no force, just a curvature in the space-time continuum.
Besides that, today a lot of new theories exist, as for instance GUT, Grand Unified Theories, which tries to incorporate all forces in one single theory. However, science today is far apart from succeeding in this task.
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 01-23XXXXXX
The constant pressure in a car deck or the loaded force in a steel spring, usually is classified as a static force. A push that throw away a canon-ball or a hammer that drives a nail into the wood, usually are classified as dynamical forces. In a practical point of view such a subdivision of forces may be motivated, yet this theory will show that this categorization only is of superficial, fictive and imagined nature.
We will find, that all kinds of actions by force can be related to one single universal principle. That is Newtons second law of force, which is the base of all known forces in nature and also being the only principle known by which forces can be created.
We assume force as the matters limited ability to on short time transfer change from one state to another state of motion. The entities, being the constituents of matter, move with limited velocities and a change in position and velocity of that reason cannot be transferred on an unlimited short time.
During the transfer phase a restructuring is taking place on micro-cosmically level of matter, which is manifested in phenomena that we interpret as forces are being created.
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 01-024
We will find, that all kinds of actions by force can be related to one single universal principle. That is Newtons second law of force, which constitutes the base of all now known forces in nature and also being the only principle by which forces can be create.
A-COLL
The concept of IMPULSeXX Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 01-025X
When two mass bodies collide with each other, so named impact, a distribution of the movement impulse is taking place between the two bodies involved. The rule is that the total impact is the same afterwards as before the impact start.
Sometimes (at very violent collisions) a restructuring of matter occurs, (a deformation) is taking place), which implies that a remaining effect is achieved.
This effect is got when the outer force effect is larger than the inherent balancing effect, the limit of deformation is exceeded.
We will now search for a description that gives a good view of the concept of force. Then it is possible to achieve a basic understanding what force basically is and how we can interpret different effects of it.
Our starting point is that force only is a dynamical process raised when a mass is forced to change its moving state.
Because transferring of information consumes time, force is that dynamical process that appears in the transmission phase between two statically stabile states of motion. XXX
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 01-026XXX
A brief mathematical analysis of the force conceptA-BODIES
XXX
We will here briefly discuss how this transfer is taking place.
The process is thought to be as follows: All the n particles in the smaller system successively will collide with entities in the N system. When that occurs, a larger amount of entities will participate, yet with a lower velocity dependent on that the movement (momentum) available is distributed over a larger amount of entities. We will assume, on a
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 01-27XXX
After a further period, the total number of participating entities has increased and the velocities of them has been decreased, in the first state to half the magnitude of the initial value.
So, after each group collision, the number of entities involved in action will be doubled by 2, 4 , 8 and so on and their velocities are reduced by a factor , , 1/8 ...
This process will continue until all entities In the collections of particles participate and collide with each other.
For simplicity, we assume that the N collection is much larger than the n collection and that the N collection moves with velocity V in relation to an outer observer point. The n collection then moves with velocity v-V related to the same observer point.
Hence, our starting position is that we have n respective N number of fundamental entities collected in the two systems respectively, moving with a velocity v- V relative each other. The smallest system moves with velocity v-V in the direction of N and the movement is completely transferred to it.
We will here discuss how this transfer is taking place.Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 01-28XXX
The process is thought to be as follows: All the n particles in the smaller system successively will collide with entities in the N system. When that occurs, a larger amount of entities will participate, yet with another distribution of movement.
For each complete strike between nx entities with Nx new entities in the other collection, the velocity of involved entities will be increased with a factor of 2 and the velocities of these entities reduced by a factor .
After a further period, the total number of particles involved in movement is 4 times more than before, but with a velocity just a of the previous velocity.
This process will continue until all entities involved have got a common velocity. A new equilibrium state has been achieved.
x
X Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 01-29x
We will here in a some brief and simplified mathematical analytic form describe the transmission process. For that aim we imagine existence of a free mean distance between nearby entities in the systems and denoting this distance by letter s.
Hence, each entity must move with the minimum distance of s before it influence another particle in the other system. For each complete strike between nx entities with Nx new entities in the other collection, the velocity of involved entities will be reduced with a factor of 2 If the total number of pushes that participate until the equilibrium state is n, the total time consumed can be calculated by:
A-0104
XXX
The total time T before a stable situation is the sum of every single partial collision
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 01-30
This expression can be replaced by a geometrical sum series: If the number of group collisions preceding the final statistical rest state is n, we get a limited numbers of terms that we can calculate by aid of a mathematical summary rule. The total numbers of collisions in the process proceed until a stable state is reached, T is the sum of the total number of partial collisions, replaced by a mathematic formula: A-0115
The total time consumed in the collision process.XXX
The total number of collisions in the process until a stable state, is the sum of the total number of partial collisions. And replaced by a mathematic formula:A-0116
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 01-31A-0107
XXX
Equivalence between 01-5 and 01-7 now give us:
0A-0108
XXX
a) Combination of the equations 01-5 and 01-7
b) Solute the factor N from equation 01-8a
c) Multiply both sides of the equation 01-8b with the velocity V
d) Collecting factors v,V,n and s within the parenthesis
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 01-32XXX
The momentum n.v is constant unchanged during the reaction, which implies that if the whole momentum n.v is transferred, the relation, n.v=N.V is valid at the some simplified assumption that, n<>1.
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 01-067XXX
Boltzmanns constant k is for gases determined to the value of 1.38E-23 J/K, where the definition is done in relation to 1000 molecule units of the gas in question (1kmol).
Hence, temperature is the collective manifestation of small vibrations of the small parts in matter (atoms and molecules). By these vibrations energy is transferred between material bodies, directly by mechanic contact or by radiation.XXX
For a brief description of how the constant k, but not formally exact, can be calculated, we do a calculation with start from a fluid, water, as follows:
We start with our formula 0145 m= q.A.t.v .Where q is the density of the tempered medium, A is the surface on which the vibrations of matter acts, t is an arbitrary time of action, v is the velocity of the small particles in movements and m is the amount of participating mass in association to the velocity v.
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 01-068XXX
We multiply both sides of the equation with the velocity v and applies the formula 0136 and 0145 on the result, so that:A-0150
X
A further fact we ought to know is the weight of a Kg-gram molecule (Kmol) of water.XXX
The chemical formula of water is H2O, which is 2 hydrogen atoms plus one oxygen atom for each molecule of water. A hydrogen atom approximately has the weight of a proton, hence 1.6E-27kg.
An oxygen atom contains 16 protons and 16 neutrons, the neutron having approximately the same weight as the proton. Added even one electron in the atomic shell for each proton.
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 01-069XXX
The electron mass is 1/1836.12 of the proton mass, hence 9.109E-31 kg. Then the total weight of 1 Kmol will will be:A-0151A
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 01-70A-0 XX
The temperature 100 degree Celsius is determined at the boiling point of water at the air pressure of apprecroximatively 1 atmosphere, which is equivalent with 1kp/cm2, 10N/cm2, 1000N/dm2 or 100000N/m2 Hence we put F/A= 100000.
Temperature in physics is often given in degrees of Kelvin, which is the absolute temperature scale, starting at the absolute zero point (where no temperature movements occur and where nothing can be colder). 100 degrees Celsius corresponds to 373.2K.
The density of water is 1000 Kg/m3. If we input all these received values in the formula 0150b we for the velocity v get
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 01-71A-0152
We now insert known parameters and calculated values in our formula 0149 and find the value of k to:A-0153
Because the molecules attack the surface with varying angles, consideration to this effect must be taken. That will determine the value of the factor X in the equation above :
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 01-72
A-0154
XX
Hence we find a value of k= 1.426E-23 for water.For gases the exact value is equal to k = 1.38E-23 J/K. Hence we find an approximate value of k calculated on water being rather near the exact experimental value as valid for gases.
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 01-73Xhere
Forcre and accelerating at revolving movementIn connection to our interpretation of electromagnetism in the following chapters, , we need a formula for force and rotating (revolving) movement.
We in the electromagnetic theory will show that electromagnetic forces is dependent of spin of elementary particles. This spin give rise to inertial reaction forces, electric field forces and magnetic field forces. This relation we derive from Newtons formulae in accord with the following:A-0155ABX
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 01-74
A-0155ABX
XXXx
Formula 01-55b is valid for a mass m that rotates with velocity v at distance R from the rotation center point. This formula also can be expressed by aid of angular frequency in accord with formula 0143, hence:
A-01156
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 01-75
XXX
Vector calculation of force momentum
As an example, force momentum is calculated in using 01-39 and 01-47
A-01557
XXX
If we want to calculate the work in 0121 (energy) we instead must use the vector dot product, hence:
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 01-76
A-01558
XXX
BOYLEs LAW
Boyles law is specifically valid on gases and is a pure empirical tested law. This law says that the product of pressure and volume is constant if the temperature is held constant.
A-01059
XX
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 01-77
XGuldins ruleGuldins rule constitutes a useful mathematical tool for calculating surfaces and volumes of regularly formed bodies. The ruleS is as follows:1) For surfaces The surface of a regular body is equal to the surfaces limiting line multiplied with the way its medium point describes
2) For volumes A regular bodys volume is equal to the bodys section surface multiplied with the way the mass center of this section describeX
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 01-78
Later on in this theory we will find that elementary particles have the form of vortex rings, where matter into the ring is rotating. Of that reason it is of interest to here calculate the geometry, surface and volume of these entities.A-0161
XXX
And if not massive:
A-01062
XXX
START----CHAPTER1
START---CHAPTER2
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 02-01xxxX
CHAPTER 2
Space and matterINTRODUCTION02-3CREATION OF NEW MATTER02-8CREATION OF MATTER, A CONDENSATION PROCESS OF FIELD MASS.02-9INTERACTION BETWEEN PARTICLE AND THE VACUUM FIELD02-12THE VACUUM FIELD DENSITY02-13THE VACUUM FIELD VELOCITY
02-13The mass density of different particle forms02-21Associating physical constants to properties of the universal vacuum space02-22The shape of elementary particles and their parameters02-25THE MASS INCREASE PROCESS02-28MASS AND ENERGY IN THE NEWTONIAN INTERPRETATION02-33ELECTROMAGNETIC MASS INCREASE02-34Deriving E=mc202-38BALL AND WALL02-43TIME, DISTANCE, VELOCITY02-47Interaction between matter and space at movement02-49MASS INCREASE OF A ROCKET IN FREE SPACE02-50A nuclear rocket in space02-53
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 02-02xxxxxxXXX
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 02-03XXX
INTRODUCTIONWithin the limits of this theory, we assume that vacuum contains a pseudo material field, constituting source and reason to all actions and phenomena existing in the perceptible and touchable part of matter.
The visible and touchable matter has discontinuous structure that can be described in terms of solids, molecules, atoms and elementary particles. Even the elementary particles might be divided into smaller structures, described in terms of electric and magnetic fields, fields of photons, thermal fields or fields of even more elementary nature.
We imagine ourselves different forms of material structures with high degree of complexity developed from more simple and basic structures.
And in the real world we also find that as true. From a hundred of now known, basic elements, the nature is able to build up the whole complex world around us of more fundamental structures.
In established physical theory, these structures are assumed being quarks, constituting the building blocks for some of these particle forms. These parts of matter that we in some way can be aware of by our senses or being indirectly registered by aid of instrumental equipments, usually are classified as belonging to ordinary matter.
We also know, that these elements in turn are built up by still more fundamental entities, such as protons, neutrons and electrons. To be assumed, even these particles are assumed to be complex the real physical
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MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 02-04Xxx
world. That being outside this limits, usually are classified as belonging to pure philosophy or to the more speculative parts of physics.
However, when approaching the outer limits for what is possible to register, for instance in the particle physics, its obvious that even on this very extreme elementary levels of matter, nature follows strongly predictable laws and solid rules, laws that obviously are more general and fundamental than these phenomena studied.
That fact ought to guide us towards the insight, not too easily determine the limits for our exploration of Universe and its laws.
To understand the visible and perceptible parts of matter, it is necessary to even get knowledge about the underlying mechanisms being concealed behind that we see, feel, observe and register. By finding a theory even containing pure hypothetical elements, an aid is achieved by which the nature can be described and perhaps even be predictable.
The idea that vacuum, or the empty space, contains a substantial medium, fluid, ether etcetera, has old traditions in science. Above all, the need for such a medium was motivated by the assumed propagation process of light as a wave through such an ether in a similar way as for which sound propagates through air or water.
If light was a wave, the existence of a bearing ether, a medium was accentuated, quite in analogy with how waves of more traditional nature were moving through different sorts of mediums.
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MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 02-05Xxx
Moreover, a light medium could in a comfortable way give motivation for why light seemingly propagate always with constant velocity in free space, in direct analogy with how the air was determining the velocity of sound waves.
Newtons dominating idea was that light was particles (corpuscles). Still, he did not had any complete understanding in what way these particles could give rise to all those phenomena which were observed in his light optical experiments.
However, a contemporaneous scientist, C. Hyugens, was of the meaning that light was waves, an idea that got broad acceptance and confirmation by performing some important light interference experiments.
Maxwell, who in 1873 presented his famous electromagnetic theory, went a step further by stating that electromagnetic phenomena were of the same nature as light. Even the spreading of electromagnetic fields were, according to that concept, movements in a universal ether field.
Some years later Michelson and Morley performed their famous light experiment with the aim of determining the earths velocity through that hypothetical light ether field, that was thought to be in rest in space, based on the already existing ideas of light and its basic nature of waves.
The experiment could not confirm the wave ether hypothesis and after that was following a rather frustrating debate where a lot of more or less imaginative theories and suggestions were offered to a solution. The debate was partly diminished by the upcoming of Einsteins theory of relativity In year
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MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 02-06Xxx
1905, which was common accepted, repudiating the ether concept. Moreover it came out clear experimental signs on that light was made up by particles, by the exploration of the light photon.
Now one had two completely different theories for light, a wave theory and a particle theory. Nowadays, one of that reason allot light having double nature, having both wave and particle properties. This paradox still has not been given any satisfactory solution by modern established theory.
Hence, in a historical flashback we can see that the question whether vacuum has physical properties or not, nearly without exceptions has been a question of the need of a bearing medium for light propagation through empty space. The ether debate has not concerned so much about its eventual meaning for other kinds of physical phenomena in nature.
The debate whether the light ether exists or not, or if the velocity of light is variant or invariant, still is a loved subject of debate in the nature philosophical discussion. That especially in back-lightning of the fact that Einstein made use of the light propagation velocity in vacuum as a common reference for velocity in his theory of relativity.
The debates of these kinds to a great extent reminds about what was discussed in ancient time, whether the earth or sun was the centre point in the Universe or if the earth is round or flat.
Hence, the idea of an ether in space nearly without exceptions has been motivated by the idea of the lights wave nature. Not much has been discussed whether space could contain an active substance by Xxx
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MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 02-07Xxx
other reasons, not specifically associated to fundamental properties of light propagation in vacuum space..
It was on this background the development of this theory was started and initiated. To begin with some crucial questions were put forward claiming for their answers.
These questions are briefly as follows:
If everything in matter move with violent velocities, then what is the reason why the matter not fall into pieces unless there are outer balancing forces, counteracting the internal forces?
All sorts of matter seem to interact on distance. How can this interaction be taking place inasmuch there not is something common that mediate this interaction?
What determines that all perceptible matter in the Universe show up the same properties? An electron, a hydrogen atom and so on, obviously looks the same un-regarding place in Universe. That should not be possible if not a common interaction process were existing.
That initiated the idea of that vacuum only is an empty void in true meaning what regards visible and touchable matter, but contains some kind of a field that mediate interaction processes. And in addition to that, this field should be the origin and source to the creation of new matter and the source of all forces in nature.
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 02-08xxx
To avoid misunderstanding, it is important to emphasizes that the here postulated vacuum field has nothing in common with the old ether concept for assumed light propagation.Xxx
The vacuum field constitutes some kind of an origin state in space, a pre-stage of matter. Hence, if all kinds of ordinary matter was eliminated, in addition even all electromagnetic radiation, gravitating fields, free photons and elementary particles, a clean vacuum is achieved, free and primitive.
With these preliminary definitions as base, the investigation will begin of what properties such a vacuum may posses, that in relation to well known physical laws that we know about by aid of observations and experiments performed during hundreds of years of physical research.Xxx
CREATION OF NEW MATTERWhat matter fundamentally is assembled of we never can get any complete idea of. And in this theory that question has no great interest either, because we in the first place will accentuate these properties of matter which are known and how properties of matter can be described down to a suitable level where we can perform calculations and get some ideas about fundamental material structures.
In todays physical theories one has since long time been emphasized the idea that Universe, and hence
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 02-09Xxx
even matter, was created in a single event in the far past, the Big Bang theory.
But this model struggles with significant problems, mainly of reason that the physical laws that are known, not existed before that hypothetical and invented event.
Then we have a theory in lack of physical laws as start, everything will break down at this point. And above that, in later years astronomic observations have given results that highly put this model into question.
Another model that has been proposed, but in a more or less categorical manner has been rejected by leading physicist, is the steady state theory for Universe. In brief this theory implies that matter is created and destroyed in a continuous process, where it is balance between created and destroyed matter in an eternal process. We will here use parts of this model and basic philosophy in the following treatment and presentation of this theory.Xxx
CREATION OF MATTER, A CONDENSATION PROCESS OF FIELD MASS.Like the rise of how clouds on a free summer sky, seemingly coming up from nowhere, we can think of matter as condensed cores of an underlying material structure, a common cosmic field, constituting a pre-stage to that what we in common talk name, matter. This idea will be our preliminary starting point of this theory.
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MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 02-10Xxx
In the same way as a summer cloud dissolves and disappears, even matter disappears and returns to its origin state from which it has been created. A suitable amount of visible and touchable matter of that reason always will be present in the Universe, controlled and balanced by universal and eternal laws.
Hence, we can see a particle as a condensed state of that field from which it has been created. As a consequence of that idea, it is plausible to assume, that the mass density of it is different to that of the environment field.
Furthermore, we can assume, that the created particle can be compared with a plasma, where this plasma is built up by entities of the field. A continuous interaction process between particle and field is proposed taking place, and in aim for limiting the dimensions of the particle it must be assumed, that the movements of the particle plasma will balance against the outer field movements.
The movements of matter into the particle plasma may be un-regular (in the same way as how entities in a gas move) or in a more regular ordered way, as for instance in form of a rotation or a vibrating movement.
Later on in this theory we shall see, that all those different kinds of movements can be present at the same time in a particle.
The particles geometrical form claims at least two symmetric degrees of freedom, making it possible to explain and motivate the electrical properties of matter in form of positive and negative electric charges.Xxx
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 02-11xxx
Of that reason the spherical form must be rejected. A better candidate is the ring or vortex form, which permits two symmetrical states of freedom in the plasma movement. Of that reason that model will be used within the limit of this theory.
Furthermore, it must be possible to explain why elementary particles can have different masses but at the same time having the same electrical charge. One example is the electron and the proton, where the mass differ 1836.12 times but where the charge is the same
Hence, the rest mass of a particle is dependent of the type of particle. In experiments, there are several hundreds of particles known, but in this theory it will be shown that only some few of them are more elementary than others.
There are also reasons to accentuate that a difference in mass can arise by the particles own movement in electromagnetic fields, capturing mass from the surrounding electromagnetic field, an access taking place for instance in particle accelerators.
Because a particle is controlled by the environment space, it always is in some form of a balance state with that environment space.
As to give an example,
1. The energy density of particle and field is in balance independently of the particles moving state.
2. Balance between inner and outer forces limits and define the particles mass and its spatial extension.Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 02-12Xxx
3. balance between in and out flowing matter t
and from the particle is manifested by the
electromagnetic properties of matter.Xxx
We shall spend much attention to all these phenomena in aim to reach a deeper understanding of these basic mechanisms going on into matter.Xxx
Like the rise of how clouds on a free summer sky, seemingly coming from nowhere, we can think of matter as condensed cores of an underlying material structure, a common cosmic field, constituting a pre-stage to that what we in common talk name, matter.Xxx
INTERACTION BETWEEN PARTICLE AND THE VACUUM FIELDFor making an investigation of the universal mass field properties possible, we must make use of some experimental facts from the visible and touchable part of matter. By start from properties of an already known and measured elementary particle, we by using reducible methods, a fundamental understanding of the underlying field structure may be possible.
We will start with our assumption that a material particle is to be seen as a product of the underlying field structure. Hence, we assume a very intimate interaction process between particle and field by exchanging of matter, impulse and energy.
In a stable interchanging process, a stable particle is created, conserving its structure.
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MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 02-13Xxx
The field mass by which the particle is built of is in a steady movement and in this way generating internal forces that tries to split the risen particle building. However, these forces are balanced by an impulse pressure from the outer field.
This balance between internal expanding and outer contracting forces strives to hold the particle system intact and is one factor that will limit the particles mass content.Xxx
THE VACUUM FIELD DENSITYThe universal field may be allotted properties of mass density with the same dimension and unity as is used for ordinary matter.
The mass density in space is here denoted by letter q kilogram per cubic metre.
The universal mass field is postulated granular to its structure in analogy with a gas where entities are in fast movement.Xxx
The universal mass field density in vacuum space is denoted by letter q kg/m3 in this theory
Xxx
THE VACUUM FIELD VELOCITY
We denote the velocity of entities in this gas by letter C m/s. In a fictive point of this field the vector sum of all movements is zero, hence the action of the field is the same from all directions.
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MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 02-14Xxx
We see matter as condensed cores of the universal mass field. Material particles, as they are known in its most primitive from, is created and destroyed within this field in a continuous and eternal process. When a material kernel, constituting a particle, is created, it has some chance to survive by action and influence from the surrounding universal mass field with density ( q )pressureXxx
Entities in the universal mass field of vacuum space, move with a certain velocity, which we here will denoted by capital letter C.xxx
This pressure per unit area that a particle is exposed for by the pressure from the external universal vacuum field, we can calculate by aid of Newtons second law of force, the formula 0114a and from our mass streaming formula 0145:
A-02-01
Newtons second law of force, formula 0114a
A-02-02
Newtons second law of force, simplified for this case when the mass is constant, 0114b
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 02-15A-02-03
Inserting the mass from 0145 in formula 02-2. Replacing the velocity v with velocity C, the vacuum field velocity gives:
A-02-04
Solving out the vacuum field pressure on a closed particle surface from equation 02-3Xxx
Other rules valid for the interaction process between particle and field are:a) The energy density of particle and field is equivalent and independent of the moving state within the field.
b) External and internal acting impulse forces towards a particle surface are in balance.
c) A particle is characterized by a continuous flowing process by in and out-flowing matter to and from it. In and out-flowing amount of matter are in balance. We calculate the external pressure on surface of a free particle, where q denotes the density of the field and C denotes the velocity of the field entities.
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 02-16Xxx
From the equatin 02-4:
The field pressure towards a particle where the field density is q and its velocity is CA-02-06
We devide both sides of this formula by a small distance ds, giving:
A-02-07
The product of dA,ds is equal to a dmall volume element dV and the product of F.ds is equal to a small amount of energy dE:A-02-08
The quotient of dE/dV is equal to energy density, in this case the density of vacuum space.
v Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 02-17A-02-09
The pressure from vacuum space towards a closed particle surface has the same unity as the energy density of vacuum space, see below.A-02-10
-Energy density expressed in form of kinetic energy
xxx9
Later on we will find that the density q of the vacuum space corresponds to the inverse value of e0, the so named di-electricity of vacuum constant , measured and determined to the value of 8.854187817E-12 in the metric MKS(A) unit system. xxx
Furthermore, we will calculate the value of the medium velocity of vacuum space to the value of 5.35556 times the standard light velocity, having the value Which is 2.99792458E8 m/s.Xxx
We will find that the pseudo mass density in the vacuum space is 1.13E11 kg/cubic metre, the vacuum pressure against a closed surface is
v Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 02-18Xxx
2.9E29 N/square meter and the energy density in vacuum is 1.5E29 watt seconds per cubic meter of space.xxx
A particles internal pressure will be in balance with the pressure from the environment space. Because the mass density, as well as even the velocity of the particle plasma are supposed to differ from properties of space, for the expansive force of the particle will be valid to:A-02-11
xxxxxwhere F/dA is the internal pressure on surface of a free particle. Here observe that c stands for the limit of light velocity and qp the particle internal mass density. xxx
qp is the particles mass density
c is the internal velocity of the particle plasma.xxx
Putting the formulae 02-6, 0211 together, where external/internal pressure or energy are equivalent and in balance:A-02-12
v Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 02-19Xxx
The quantity of matter streaming in from the field towards the particle surface is compensated by an equal amount of outflow.
If that not was the case, the particles mass content should not be constant but growing or decreasing until the particle would be dissolved. Not all known particle forms are stable but annihilate after a very short period of time, but so long time that they can be registered and measured. Among stable particles the electron, the proton and their anti version counterparts are classified.xxx
For making it possible to derive a balancing relation, we make use of our equation of material flow 0145. Then for the amount of inflow matter is got:A-02-13
xxx
And the same for the out-flowing amount of matter from the particle:A-02-14
xxx
Later on we will see that the total exchange between in- and out-streaming mass only Is valid for the electron: But it is true for the electric charge streaming for all true elementary particles.
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 02-20A-FLOW
Xxx
The entities of the field have the velocity of C. The mass inflow density of the field is q . Out-flowing entities have the velocity of c . The mass density of the out-flowing field is qe where we assume, that the velocity of the out-flowing matter corresponds with the inherent velocity of the particle plasma, c. A is the particles limiting area and t is any time during which the in/out flow to and from the particle, is taking place.
Because Min=Mout for the same elapsed time, period, the following is valid:A-02-15
Equality between inflowing amount of matter and out -flowing amount of matter to and from a particle, during the same time, formulae 0213, 0214
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 02-21xxx
Re-working the equation 0215, solving out the inner mass density of a specificd particle, the electron, as function of the vacuums density q, , the vacuums field velocity C and the electrons inner velocity c,.Xxx
Xxxxxxxxx
Later on we shall see that qe multiplied with the outflow velocity, c, is equivalent with the electric field strength around a charged particle.Xxx
The out-streaming mass density from a particle multiplied with the inherent spin velocity of the same particle, is equal to the electric field strength density around the particle. That is true for all true elementary particles, not only electrons.Xxx
The mass density of different particle formsAnother relation of interest is how the particles mass relates to its spatial extension. The radius. The basic idea is that all particles with vortex form have a mass density related to its radius, which means, that all particles with larger amount of mass also have larger spatial dimension, radius. That leads us to:Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 02-2203277
The mass density of point formed particles (not composed) is approximately related to their radii riser to cube. The mass (Mp ) then stands in direct relation to the particle radius (Rp ) in cube in relation to a reference particle, in this case the electron masss me. re is the electron electric field radius.
The mass M p is the mass of an arbitrary point particle other than an electron, me is the mass of an electron and re is the spatial radius of that electron in the electric field vector direction.
This simple relation will have some importance in the atomic quantum mechanical process, where it will be used for estimating values of some very important atomic constants, but even in the new particle theory for calculation of mass of different point particles registered in experiments /and even predictable particle forms, Xxx
Associating physical constants to properties of the universal vacuum spaceIn aim making it possible to determine some elementary constants associated to the properties of the vacuum field, we begin to do some basic definitions. For simplicity, we make use of parameters of the electron, being a well-known and well established elementary particle form.
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 02-23xxx
The electron is an electric charged particle that appears in the atom and there forms the atoms negative charged shell.
The electron is here used as the reference particle, that because this particle is well known, very stable and being subject for very exact measurements. of its properties
In the interacting process with the environment space, it is provided that mass, energy and impulse are continuously exchanged. The particle provides to have an interacting area, a surface that is exposed for the fields impulse pressure bombardment.
Xxx
We define that interacting area to:
A-02-18
by which means, that the interacting area or surface of the particle, Ap, is equal to a constant Ka, multiplied by the particles equivalent spin radius, Rp.
Furthermore, it is provided that the particle mass interacts with the field mass in such a way that the particle mass is exchanged during a defined time, which we here name the particles converting time (valid for the electron) , defined to:
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 02-24A-02-019
which means that the time Tp is that time by witch the particles mass is exchanged with the external space (for an electron or in common terms generally for the particles spin time), is equal to a constant Kt, multiplied with the particles equivalent radius Rp, divided by its internal spin velocity vp.31
For a particles active volume, we do a similar definition:A-02-02-
xxx
The K-factors in these formulae cannot on this stage exactly be defined or determined, only approximations can be given. In a later stage an exact calculation will be performed (see 0132).A-02-21
Gravitation is a surface force acting on the whole limiting surface area of the particle.
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 02-25Xxx
The electro-magnetic force also are surface forces but acts only on a vector integral part of the particle. surface, see 0437XXX
The shape of elementary particles and their parametersA true elementary particle is assumed being a vortex ring where the mass into the ring rotates around a minor and a maximum main axis. In this way there are two degrees of freedom, corresponding to positive and negative electricity respectively..
Assumedly not the total surface area of the particle is active. More plausible is that only a vector part of the surface area is active in that process. More about that problem later-A-02-22
The active interacting area for an arbitrary elementary particle. The value of Ka later on formally will be calculated.
Later on in our theory, we will show that the result of formula 0222 is the exact valid value for elementary particles, but derived from a some different idea.
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 02-26
It is some harder to make a calculation of the particles volume, that because we not exactly know if the particle is homogenous or having an empty shell. A rough estimation will be a mean value of a vortex ring and a sphere.2-23
xxx
It will later on be shown that the 4.p value is valid in comparison to experimental data. The particle converts its mass to the environment space during time for one single envelop, spin (true for the electron, true for the electric charge mass inflow/outflow for particles in common. For a spinning movement, the factor Kt then ill be
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 02-27
A-02-24
True elementary particles are assumed having a spin around a main axis. Tp is the reving time of that spin movement.Zxxx
Later calculations will show, in comparison with experimental data, that the most plausible values of these constants are:A-02-25
For the surface component of an elementary particleA-02-26
The surface component of the gravitational interaction process of an elementary particle
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 02-28A-02-27
The volume component for a particle in the electromagnetic interacting processA-02-28
The spin time factor of an elementary particle in the electro-magnetic interaction processxxx
As we shall see later in this theory, we will find that these values of Ka and Kv are exact. Even the value of Kt seems to correspond with experimental findings.
THE MASS INCREASE PROCESSIn the case where the mass m undergoes change as function of some external physical reason, velocity for instance, meaning that m= f(mo,v) (where m is a function of the velocity v in its own reference system), the particles mass in rest
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 02-29xxx
within this system is mo and the corresponding mass when moving is equal to m ).
But, by this definition we have said nothing about the reason to such a mass change, or if such a change can be seen as being of common, physical nature, or not.
In established physical theory its a common meaning that mass of a particle when moving is changed independently of reason unless its own movement.
It is known that matter being accelerated in an electromagnetic field undergoes strong mass increase as function of velocity, but there is no experimental evidences on that this phenomenon is valid generally.
As we later shall discuss, its not evident that matter accelerated in the free space, (for instance by a rocket motor), will undergoes mass increase as function of movement or acceleration, unless loss of fuel can be neglected. But particles accelerating in electromagnetic fields obviously are able to pick up matter from this field and in this way increasing its mass content.
Seen in this way, mass increase is no common phenomenon when accelerating.
Hence, picking up mass from its environment, may not have any common application on matter as stated by the theory of relativity, but must be associated to every special situation where matter undergo mass change.
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 02-30Xxx
of several different reasons.
Lets give an example of a rolling transport band, moving with the constant velocity of v, driven by a motor. On this band peoples are jumping up in a smooth way. For each person entering, the motor must produce a new quantity of energy for accelerating this person up to the bands velocity, all in aim to keep the bands velocity constant unchanged.
A-BAND
In the case where the load on the driving motor all the time increases with time when peoples jump on the band, Newtons original and complete formula 0114 must be used.
Another case is a wagon loaded with sand. We assume a mechanism where sand is supplied during run, related to some factor of the wagons velocity. The extra mass supplied then contribute to the force needed for keeping the wagons velocity constant. And if acceleration at the same time is taking place, energy is needed even for that reason.
Xxx
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 02-31
A-Sand
xxx
Even in this case, Newtons complete formula 0114 must be used if the wagons velocity is held constant when loaded with new mass.
Hence, to find motivation for including the time derivative of mass in Newtons formula, a physical mechanism must be accounted for, hence how and why mass of a body will change with velocity or by any other physical reason.
Commonly, the mass is regarded as a constant entity and the time derivative of mass therefore is put to zero. In the particle physics, it has been observed that charged particles undergo mass change when accelerated/or when moving fast in relation to an electromagnetic field, accelerating the particles. This discovery was done in 1901, by Kauffman, hence several years before the birth of the special theory of relativity.
The relativity theory from 1905 has been credited for the theoretical explanation of this process, but that is not true. Observed is that Einstein suggested 2 formulae of mass increase for the same particle, both erroneous and not in use today. The correct formula being in use today has been suggested by other researchers, not specifically motivated by ideas and concepts used in the relativity theory.
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 02-32xxx
So, Einstein s suggested 2 different expressions of mass increase for the same particle, one in the moving direction and one transversally to it. That is impossible, the mass of a particle cannot have 2 differing values at the same time. Obviously scientists have not observed Einsteins original suggestion.
The phenomenon today is interpreted within the concept of relativity, but no physical reason of the effect is accounted for. Beside that, the phenomenon of mass increase of particles in particle accelerators has been interpreted as a common effect valid and possible to be applied on all bodies. That is an over-estimated interpretation, no experimental findings confirm it.
As a further argument is that mass not can be created from nothing, we have Newtons preserving laws as denoted in 0126, 0127.
In the particle accelerator case, the particle is fetching mass from the accelerating electromagnetic field. When the particle is accelerating in the free space, no such mass increasing effect is taking place, that because there are no mass to get from the free space.
We will study this phenomena of matter later here in our theory by a complete derivation the relation between mass and energyXA-9
ve Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 02-33Xxx
MASS AND ENERGY IN THE NEWTONIAN INTERPRETATIONn year 1901 it was discovered by cathode ray experiments (electrons) that particles when declining in an electromagnetic field, not was declining exactly in the way as described by Newtons classical theory.
Principally, this phenomenon can be interpreted in two different ways:
the particle mass increases with velocity (a real effect) or
when a particle begin approaching the velocity of the accelerating electromagnetic field, the accelerating force diminishes.
Which of these alternatives being true or most plausible cannot without further notice be decided. Both effects may have importance.
However, many things point on that the mass increasing in a particle accelerator is real, that because the particles energy, stands in direct relation to its mass content. And the particle energy can be measured in experiments.
It can theoretically be shown that there is a close relation between mass and energy. A complete mathematical derivation of this relationship will be performed below.
ve Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 02-34Xxx
ELECTROMAGNETIC MASS INCREASESomeone means that the mass increasing effect of elementary particles accelerated in electromagnetic fields, just is of fictive nature caused by reason that the driving field velocity is limited to the velocity of light, c .
Maybe its possible to defend such an idea, but some facts talk against it. One reason is that it seems as there is a real mass and energy that is measured in these experiments, hence the increased mass can not be distinguished from real mass.
If the mass increase is real, the effect may be explained by that mass is added to the particle in relation to that the particle moves closer to the accelerating field velocity.
If we assume that the particles inherent impulse is equal to mo.c at start, this impulse will be unchanged during acceleration (with a certain assumed time delay). And when the mass increases by the external supply:XXXXA-02-29
The particles inherent impulse mo.c is constant. When new matter is loaded into the particle during the accelerating phase, this new mass will load the particle with this new mass, but the inherent impulse is the same, unchanged.
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 02-35Xx
mo = the start particle mass
m = the accelerated particle mass
c = the inherent limit velocity of matter, in particle = the light velocity in the free vacuum apace.
vi = the inherent velocity of matter, in particle at accelerated state. As was assumed in the formula 0212 the energy density in a particle is constant unchanged, determined by the energy density of the surrounding vacuum field. That gives the total energy of the particle, equal to the sum of external and internal energy:A-02-30
In a closed material system the sum of the particles internal and external energy is the total systems energy
In the formula 0217 , we found that the mass density of all true elementary particles is the same, hence for all forms. Then working with formula 0230 gives:A-0-31 A-02-32 A-02-33 A-02-34
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 02-36A-02-34
In a closed system of matter, the geometrical sum of internal and external velocities are equal to the internal rest velocity c.A-02-35
In a closed system the geometrical sum of internal and external impulse are constant.A-02-35
In a closed system the geometrical sum of interternal and external velocities are constant cXxx
We now combine the formula 0235 with formula 0236 and get in this way: Squaring both sides of the equation 0235A-0237
Quadrupling both sides of equation 02-035
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 02-37A-0237
Using equation 02.034XXXXXX
which is a well known relation from the particle physics. And with aid of formula 0229 and formula 0234 we achieve an expression for the particles mass increase, hence:A-02-40 A-02-40
A-02-40 A-0241
XXX
Combining the formulae 0240 and 0241 give the expression for the mass increase in a closed system when accelerating0242
This formula is today used in particle physics, not these formulae as suggested by Einstein year 1905 on erroneous scientific grounds.
O ve Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 02-38XXX
On basis of now achieved results of mass increase of a particle accelerated in an electromagnetic field, we also will calculate the total kinetic energy of that particle in question. In accord with 0122, the kinetic energy of a particle, where the mass is constant, unchanged, is equal to .mo.v2. When the mass in accord with formula 0242 is added to the particle, a quite different result for the kinetic energy will be achieved. We shall derive that below.xxx
Deriving E=mc2Modern physical theory tell us that this expression solely is derived from Einsteins theory of relativity, but the fact is that it is mainly Newtons second law of force that constitute the ground by it. By reason that mass is added to the particle when accelerating in an electromagnetic field is not to say that is true for movemrnts in free space. For instance, that is not the case where a rocket vehicle accelerate in free space, the relation therefore not is general in any way.
In Einsteins theory, mass increase is regarded as a common phenomenon applicable on all bodies moving with some velocity in relation to an outer reference point.
So the relationship is not generally valid in other cases than where a particle absorb mass from an accelerating electromagnetic field.
O ve Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 02-39xxx
But the effect is not explained by experiment, so we have to be satisfied with a pure theoretical examination.A-02-43
xxxxxa) Newtons formula 0114
b) Newtons formula 0114b
c) Both sides multiplied with distance ds
d) F.ds = energy dE
e) ds/dt = velocity v
f) both sides divided with velocity dv
O ve Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 02-40A-02-44
A-0245
O ve Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 02-41
02-044
a) Formula 0242 b) Deriving of both sides in respect to velocity c) Deriving of both sides in respect to velocity d) End result of deriving e) Inserting dm/dv in formula for dE/dv f) Integrating energy of E/dv in respect to ve locity02-045
a) 45 Common integrals
b 45) Integrating equation 0244A-0246
O ve Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 02-42A-0247 XXX
This expression in the formula 0246 can be rewritten as follows:A-02-48
But mo/L is equal to m and then is valid for the kinetic energy Or for the total energy of the particle02-49,50
Giving: xxx
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 02-43xxx
This shows, that the famous relation E= m.c2 only is valid if a particle is accelerated in an electromagnetic field and where the particle pick up mass from this field. Hence, this relation is not of general application.
That will be illustrated with the below given example Ball and Wall .xxx
BALL AND WALLIn the here suggested though experiment, a steel ball with weight of 1kg collide with a very heavy steel wall. At the collision event the ball will bounce by an elastic impact and a slight impression will occur both in the ball and the wall at the collision event.
We distinguish between 2 different ways of observe or describe the collision process:xxx
We regard the steel wall as being in rest in our reference system and lets the ball come in with a velocity giving the ball 10% mass increase related to its rest mass (that if an assumed general mass increase as function of velocity exists).
We regard the ball as standing in the rest state and lets the wall coming in with such a velocity that give the wall a relativistic mass increase of 10% higher than in rest state
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 02-44Xxx x
In both cases the observer measurement equipment is situated in a common reference system, being the same for both the ball and the wall (see figure below).
We now will do a calculus of the impact process with purpose to judge whether the mass increase process is of common nature or not, hence even works in empty space.
The condition is, that this process must be possible to be described in the same way for both cases, in regard to in which order things are taking place and how factual physical entities like time, distance, force and mass are measured during the process and also by studying effects after the impact has taking place..
In both cases the description must be the same, in short terms, being mirror symmetric.
-BWALL
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 02-45xxx
CASE 1CASE2mstart =1.1 x momstart =1.0 x movstart = cvstart = 0F=k.sF=k.sdv=F.dt/m-vdv=F.dt/m-vds= v.dtds= v.dts=s+dss=s+dsv=v+dvv=v+dvt=t+dtt=t+dt m = m0/sqrt(1-v2/c2)m = m0/sqrt(1-v2/c2)dm = m2 m1dm = m2 m1m1 = m0/sqrt(1- v12/c2)m1 = m1/sqrt(1- v12/c2)m2 = m0/sqrt(1- v22/c2)m2 = m0/sqrt(1- v22/c2)
The impact situation is here given in parametric form, which can be solved by a computer plotter graph program. Xxx
The parameters are to the same in both cases, but differ in the starting conditions.
In case 1) our observer will see a ball with weight 1.1kg coming in, retarding its velocity to
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 02-46Xxx
zero, then again accelerating in the opposite direction. The reason for accelerating is that the material in the ball and the wall is compressed (the distance s ) and giving its energy back to the ball.
In case 2) our observer will see the ball having velocity 0 then accelerated to the walls velocity v, in relativistic terms giving the ball the mass 1.1 kg.
Hence our conclusion is that the process in those two cases not are symmetric in time, which is necessary if the relativistic interpretation is correct.
Symmetry is got only in case when no mass change is taking place due to motion. Only a pure Newtonian interpretation is valid.
A plot (below) based on the given parameters are calculated showing that the force/time parameter curves not correlate with each other, but diverge during the ongoing process.02-WPLOT
Hence, the result of our investigation is that bodies moving in free space not undergo mass increase as claimed as true in the theory of relativity.
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 02-47xxx
TIME, DISTANCE, VELOCITYThe modern physics is full of pre-destined meanings about how we shall apprehend or interpret concepts of time, distance, mass and velocity.
The main reason to that is of course that the dogmas of the theory of relativity have been accepted as scientific truth. Of that reason its important that we try to return to the order of things, regarding these basic concepts of nature as rigid and unchangeable, conclusions, results that every scientist, lowing truth, ought to reflect on. The experiment is as follows:.
One example of such an absurdity is Eunsteinss dogma of tje constant velocity of light. See below figure.
At the time 0, 3 particles are situated in the centre of a particle detector. The particle A is moving at right with velocity 1/2c, the particle C is moving at left with velocity -1/2c. Particle B is at rest. Particle C outburst a light flash at time 0. This flash is registered by light sensors out-placed into the detector. The detector also can register the positions of all particles in every time moment. The light bulb and position of all particles are registered after 3ns (the elapsed time where the light bulb has been spread approximately 1 meter from the centre or start point.
That is the experimental situation to be evaluated in relation to Einsteins dogma.Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 02-48A-CERNxx
A picture illustrating the measurement situation in the CERN particle detectorXXX
Because the light flash is emitted in this moment when all particles A,B and C are at the same position, in accord with the theory of relativitys thesis of the constant light propagation, all particles must be in the light bubbles center after a while. Every physicist performing experiments with particles know well thats impossible. The light bulb only may have one center, assumedly the centre for the emitting particle, C.
Hence, we can conclude, that the propagation of light only is invariant in relation to this source sending out the light, but variant to A and B. By that we in a convincing way have shown the invariant of light velocity dogma in accord with the relativity as being false. We will come back to this subject later.
A-0 Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 02-49xxx
Interaction between matter and space at movementA particle, hence matter, constitutes a part of the vacuum space. Hence, the process of moving is an exchange of matter, energy and impulse between particle and space field.xxx
The inflowing amount of matter in the particles front and in the back front direction, will be: (se the base formula 0145 ) A-0251
Mass streaming in to the particles front side from the vacuum field when movingA-0252
Mass streaming in to the particles back side from the vacuum field when moving
Both sides of the equations 0251 and 0252 now is multiplied with the inflow velocity of the field of C-v and C+v respectively, giving:
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 02-50
A-02-53
xxx
Adding impulse from the front side with impulse from the back front side gives the bodys impulse where the field parameters are eliminated:xxx
Xxx
MASS INCREASE OF A ROCKET IN FREE SPACEIn established physical theory it is assumed that the process of mass increase as taking place in electromagnetic fields, even is valid for acceleration in free space.
According to the myth of relativity, a space ship never
0 Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 02-51Xxx
can reach or exceed the velocity of light in free space in relation to the starting point. That is motivated by that, ss is said, the mass of the space ship increaces
to infinity when approaching the critical velocity. But that is just a myth, never expeerimentally proved or tested by experiment. In the following example a space rocket driven forward by an atomic reactor, boiling water to steam, will accelerate faster and faster as the fuel is consumed. If a small part remain after the fuel is consumed, the space sgip will reach or even exceed the light velocity related to the starting point, -
A-ROCKET
XXX
But these two physical situations are not equivalent. In an accelerator there is an active electromagnetic field that is accelerating a particle, in free space there are a rocket engine that is driving the spacecraft forwards by use of inertial forces of the out-streaming
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 02-52Xxx
gases mass will increases infinitely. The extra mass is said from the own motor. The mass increase phenomenon is said to be such, that when the rocket is reaching the velocity of light (in relation to what?), the spacecrafts to be coming from the rocket fuel and the energy the motor is producing.
The problem with this reasoning is that the amount of fuel lost is the same as the extra mass increase. Hence, if this hypothesis would be true, the net effect would be zero..
Hence, in this way we can calculate with the fact that a spacecraft accelerating in free space proceed accelerating unlimited. The only limiting factor is the access to fuel and how much mass that will be left in this situation when all fuel is consumed. Such a calculation based on a un-limiting acceleration until the fuel is consumed, shows that the spacecraft will reach a velocity which is widely exceeding the light velocity in relation to the start position, that proposed that a very high effective atomic reactor machine is used as the driving engine..
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 02-53Xxx
A nuclear rocket in space
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 02-54Xxx
1 -- The total rocket mass in every time moment is the start mass minus the loss of fuel mass as function of time.
Mt -- the total mass in every time moment
Ms the start mass
T -- the time for consuming all water
t -- the momentan time of travel
2 The outstreaming mass of the rocket
motor per time unit, being constant over timefunction of time.
dm the amount of mass streaming out from the rocket motor during time dt
dt the time increment of the outstream of the mass dm as above defined
3 Newtons second law of mass and force
Fr -- the inertial force of the rocket mass m
Fa the driving motor force
v -- the rocket velocity in relation to the start point
dv/dt the change in velocity of the rocket as function of time
m is here the actual mass of the rocket after time t as above defined
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 02-55Xxx
4 The force as given out by the rocket motor, being the same as Mf/T as in formula 2)
Xxx
5a Putting 32, 3, 4 together function of time.
5b Re-organizing the formula 5a)
5c Revorking formula 5b
5d Revorking formula 5c
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 02-56
6-- Defining a constant k as function of parameters Mf, Ms, T and t
7-- Introducing constant k in formula 5d
8-- Common definition of Laplace transform of derivatives and functions
8c-- Common definition of Laplace transform
8d-- Common definition of Laplace transform
8e-- Laplace of the main function F(t)
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 02-57xxx
8f-- Laplace operation of the main function derivative
9a-- Combining formula 7 with 8f
9b-- Revorking formula 9a
10a,b,c-- PERFORMING Laplace transform of formula 9b
10d-- partial result of the transformation
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 02-58
xxx
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 02-59xxx
12a-- Re-arranging formula 7 and solving out the main function of v
12b,c,d-- Calculating the function of f(s) and s.f(s) in accord with Laplace functional rules
12d-- Developing 12c
12e-- Developing 12d
12e-- Combining with 10d
13a-- Combining 12c with 10d
13g-- Re-arranging 13a
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 02-60Xxx
13c,d-- Performing reverse Laplace of 13d
14-- End function of the rocket velocity after time t as function of mass distribution between fuel Mf and the start mass Ms.
Somw conclutions:
At start, t=0 giving no velocity of the rocket
If no fuel Mf=0 giving no velocity of the rocket
If t=T all fuel is consumed at the end velocity, the relation v/u will be determined by the relation Mt/Ms. If Mt/Mf = 1/0.9 will be 70E8
If v=3E8 m/s, the light velocity, and the gas velocity is 1000 ,m/s, the relation Mf/Ms = 0.95, the time it will take for the rocket to reach the light velocity will be 0.6T.
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 02-61
After that point the rocket will exceed the light ve
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 02-62
Comments by the reader
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
START---CHAPTER3
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 03-01XXXX
Chapter 3
THE ELECTRIC PROPERTIES OF MATTERIN GENERAL03THE NEW THEORY OF ELECTROMAGNETISM07BASIC RULES OF INTERACTION BETWEEN PARTICLE AND VACUUM SPACE.07IN AND OUTFLOW OF MATTER08MASS DENSITY AND VELOCITY OF IN AND OUTFLOW09The electric field strength around a particle and COULOMB S LAW14THE ELECTRIC FIELD STRENGTH AROUND A CHARGED PARTICLE33THE STORED ENERGY IN A PLANE CAPACITOR36DEFINITION OF ELECTRIC VOLTAGE41THE ELECTRIC VOLTAGE OVER A PLAN ELECTRIC CAPACITOR43DEFINITION OF ELECTRIC CURRENT45DEFINITION OF ELECTRIC RESISTANCE48THE CAPACITANCE CONCEPT OF AN ELECTRIC, PLANE CAPACITOR50
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 03-03Xxx
The electric field strength from an electron and a proton57
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 03-03XXXXXX
IN GENERALElectromagnetic theory as developed by many great scientists during more than two centuries, has been very successful in describing electromagnetic phenomena in nature. But many problems remain unsolved. Source, reason and origin of electromagnetism and its true basic nature are still not fully investigated and understood.
It will here be presented and discussed a new theoretical and mathematical model, which applied on the electromagnetic phenomena in nature will offering a new and different understanding of electromagnetism. As base for this model, Newtons second law of force is used, combined with new basic assumptions of properties of the elementary particles and properties of the vacuum space.
As result, new basic insights of electromagnetic mechanisms are achieved together with already known results and discoveries got from common electromagnetic theory.
Vacuum or empty space is a common concept used when trying to describe a void in total lack of matter. Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 03-04XXX
However, ever since Maxwells days, this vacuum space has been allotted physical properties by associating physical constants to it, indicating that this vacuum may have properties that can be expressed in physical meaningful terms like for instance mass and energy.
Two such constants are the permittivity of vacuum space constant e(o and the magnetic of vacuum constant( uo, associated with the electric and the magnetic properties of the electromagnetic field respectively.
When an electric voltage is connected to two metal plates, not being in direct galvanic contact with each other, a displacement current seems to flow through the empty void situated between the two platens.
A corresponding electric current of electrons then flow through the wires connecting the two platens via the external supplier source (the feeding battery).
The question we may ask is, is there something hidden between the two platens mediating this current to flow?X Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 03-05XXX
In any case it seems hard to explain this phenomenon without doing the assumption that some active substance really is hidden in the space between the two platens.
When the voltage over the two platens has grown up (the capacitor has been charged), it has stored electric energy that later on can be supplied to an outer user. Then the interesting question is, where is the seat of that energy situated?
A similar problem arises when letting an electric current flow through a metallic wire (a conductor). A energy is stored and the question may be repeated, where is the seat of that energy stored? In the magnetic field created by the current or by the kinetic energy in the charge carrying particles, the electrons?
However, a rough estimation shows that the latter alternative not can be true, this kinetic energy is too small. And in the capacitor case there will be no chance of motivating energy storing in kinetic energy by moving charges.
Therefore, the answer of the question seems to be something else. In a careful study below, we will here come to the conclusion that vacuum itself is responsible of this energy storing and that the X X Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 03-06XX
principles for it has much in common to how energy is stored in a flowing medium, water or air for instance. That will lead us to a hydro-mechanical model of electromagnetism, a model that we here will discuss and develop and which we shall investigate more carefully.
Energy is by common definition dependent of two main variables, mass and movement.
Transmitting these definitions to space and electromagnetic fields means, that space itself has capabilities of storing mass and energy. We can imagine that property of space as a field of an invisible and untouchable fluid, responsible for this energy storing.
However, it must here carefully be accentuated that these hypothetical properties of space has nothing to do with the old ether concept, used solely as a carrier of light in accord with the old light wave theories concept.
The medium here postulated is of common nature and not specifically aimed to support properties of light propagation in the free space.
The field may be seen as a pre-stage of what we normally define as matter. Material particles then may be seen as parts of this field being fluctuations like condensed cores or drops in a cloud of rain.Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 03-07XXX
Prticles interact with this field by exchanging energy and matter by it continuously. This interacting process then is a part of the electromagnetic field.
As a consequence of these basic ideas, elementary particles, as for instance electrons, are built up by stuff of this field but having a different and more ordered internal structure compared with the common field structure. This order in chaos then makes it possible for us to understand the electromagnetism.
XXX
THE NEW THEORY OF ELECTROMAGNETISMBASIC RULES OF INTERACTION BETWEEN PARTICLE AND VACUUM SPACE.Some important criteria for the electromagnetic process is listed below: A-0301
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 03-08A-0302
A-0303
XXXXXX
IN AND OUTFLOW OF MATTEROur idea is that electromagnetism is a result of a continuous interaction process between particle and space. Internal forces of the particle and external forces generated by space are in balance.
Space matter is streaming in to the particle and the same amount of matter is streaming out from it
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 03-09XXX
during the same period of time. In this view a particle may be seen as a swirl of rotating and vibrating matter (in a rough analogy for easy understanding, a rotating smoke ring)..A-0304
XXX
MASS DENSITY AND VELOCITY OF IN AND OUTFLOWMass from the field of the density q, and of the velocity C, (observe, not light velocity), streams in to the particle and the particle converts this mass into another mass field streaming out from the particle, having density qe, and the velocity c ,(the electric X
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 03-10XXX
field density, the light velocity, see 0215, 0216).
The product of these quantities is the same over time, giving balance in the hydrodynamic interacting process. The mass impulse streaming out then is equivalent with the electric field strength as defined by common electromagnetic theory.A-0305
XXX
The physical/mathematical base for our model will be the common Newtonian mechanical laws and the common hydro-mechanical laws.
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 03-11XXXX
Newtons fundamental laws are fully applicable for the whole physics, hence even on the most basic levels of matter.XX
Newtons second law of force is known by the relation (see formula 013, 0114) :A-0114
or in words: force is the time derivative of the product of mass and velocity, or derivative of the momentum of the moving body.
In most cases the mass is a constant entity and then the mass term may be ignored. The expression 0114 then can be simplified to (0115) A-0115
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 03-12XXX
Newtons second law of force when mass of the body is incariant.XX
As a consequence of these basic laws. a set of other well known results are established, here briefly presented as follows:A-0116
Definition of the concept of acceleratioN in common terms and acceleration as defined in association to mass and force.
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 03-13
Kinetic energy of a moving body where the mass of the body is held constant.A-0121
Kinetic energy as expressed in differential form respective integral form-:X A-0123
Potential energy for a body in rest in a static force field
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 03-14A-045
0145 is a some simplified version of a flowing process, got from the hydro-mechanics of flowing media. A media with density q is flowing through a window dA with velocity v. During the time t then the mass dm is streaming out through that window.A-0307
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 03-15
a) Equation 0150a, b) Equation 0150b
c) Re-writing 0306c, d) Equation 0101
e) Equation 0101
That will be the main base to start with for deriving our electromagnetic theory. We will now apply these laws on electromagnetism and derive most of all important relationships known from this part of the science, also by deriving and adding some new results to it.
To start with, we define an elementary reference particle (an electron for instance) as a closed entity with the interacting area A. The internal pressure on its surface is derived by 0206 as followsA-0307
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 03-16XXX
And the corresponding external pressure from the vacuum space usung 0205:A-0308
XXX
The external and the internal pressure are in balance, giving equality between 0307 and 0308, giving :A-0309
XXX
Then the density of a point formed particle is calculated to:Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 03-17A-0310
XXX
Where the following definitions are done:A-0310
XXX
Some re-transform of 0310 together with done definitions:A-0311
X
XX Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 03-18
By aid of the formula 0145 for flowing media and with the assumption that the amount of inflowing matter and the amount of out-flowing matter to and from the particle is the same during the same period of time, we get :A-0312
a) Inflowing amount of matter
b) Outflow amount of matter
c) Equality between natter flowing in and out the during same time xxx
We solve the equations 0312,and find the relationships between in and out flowing mass density:A-0313
XX Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 03-19XXX
Hence, because this field density of mass is defined closed to the particles surface, this field will decline in accord with the inverse square law around the particle space, hence :A-0314
XXX
Later on we will show, that this entity multiplied with the outflow velocity of the field from the particle, is equal to the electric field strength around the particle as defined by electromagnetic common theory.XXX
xFrom our formula 0145 we achieve the amount of field mass streaming in during the time it take for converting the particles own mass:
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 03-20A-0315
XX
Here we have defined the mass of a reference particle, the electron mass me. The electrons active surface is defined to Ae, the spin time around its own axis equal to te. Furthermore we assume the electrons spin velocity being equal to c,XXX
Now we have 2 separate expressions on the vacuum mass density q, in formula 0311 and in formula 0315. We join them, giving :XXX
We cannot take for granted that the conversion of mass exactly corresponds to the electron mass for each time of revolution spin time. The factor Kt therefore must be some little adjusted in aim of getting exact values of the electric charge unit and the density of vacuum unit. Then the following definitions are done:Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 03-21A-0315B
Where:
The adjusted mass converting time parameter
The particle spin time parameter
The effective velocity of space parameter as function of the standard light velocity
The Kt patameter adjusted
The Kc parameter adjustedX
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 03-22
XX
Re-solving the space velocity as function of electron parameters:A-0316
XXX
We now make use of definitions done in 0225, 02,,27:A-0225
Ka= 4.pThe particle surface parameterA-0226
Kg= 4.p2The particle gravity parameterOve Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 03-23A-0227
Kv= 4.pThe particle volume parameterXXX
We apply these relationships on the equation 0316 and get:A-0317
XXX
We uses the result from 0317 and inserting it in formula 0311, giving:A-0308
XX Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 03-24
Now we have defined some properties of the vacuum space, its pseudo density q and its mean active velocity o C. Later on we will show that XXX x
the inverse value of the mass density q is the same as the vacuum constant e0 as defined by Maxwell and also used in common electromagnetic theory.XXX
The electric field strength around a particle and COULOMB S LAWA-0309
XXX
Coulomb s law of electric force is the most well known law in electromagnetism, a law mostly
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 03-25Xxx
derived on pure empirical, experimental basis. We will here show that this force is an effect of the in and outflow of matter to and from the particle, where also the internal spin of the particle is an active factor.
We are studying particles of point nature, electrons or protons, with a number of N1 and N2 such particles in each point, with radii, R1 and R2 , having spin velocity v1 and v2 respectively.
The electric field strength around these particles is got from the formula 0314 by multiplying the mass outflow by the velocity of that flow:A-0320
XXX
a) By multiplying the out-streaming mass density with this
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 03-26Xxx
mass velocity, equivalent with the particles spin velocity related to its surface, the electric field strength around the particle is achieved
b) On distance r from the particles center point the field strength has declined to a value in reverse square relation to the distance. n is a unit vector in line of the field out-flow.XXX
We now make use of the mass flowing formula 0145 and calculate the in-flowing mass, that goes out from one particle and reach the other particle on distance r. This mass is captured by the other particle and generates a counter acting mass inertial reaction force, that is equal to the Coulomb force. (see formula 0155b for revolving movements forces).
The field mass from a charged particle on distance r is captured by a particle and its spin throw this mass back, creating a counter force in accord with mass inertial laws.
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 03-27A-0325
XXX
where min is that mass that is captured by the second particle from the first particles mass outflow. When the inflow mass is captured, this mass is thrown out again, caused by the particles own rotation movement, which is the electrical Coulomb force generated. By using Newtons formula for revolving movement 0155b, the absorbed mass give rise to a counter reaction force on the second particle by the spin movement of this particle.
We will here calculate this force generated in accord with Newtonian laws.XXXxx
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 03-28A-0322ABC
A-0322DEF
XXX
a) Newtons formula of revolving movement around a center point, 0155b
b) Inserting the value of the inflowing mass from 0321Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 03-29Xxxx
c) Re-arranging parameters in 0322b
d) Identifying of charge parameters in relation to Coulombs law for particles 1
e) Identifying of charge parameters in relation to Coulombs law, particles 2
f) The electric force expressed as in the Coulombs law. Identifying of the physical constant eo(XX
We conclude some of now achieved results:A-0323
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 03-30XX
There Q1 and Q2 are the charge quantities of each point of an electric charged particle collection, and eo is the uniting charge quantity of a singular charge, an electron for instance, as defined by common theory.
By these definitions then we can formulate Coulombs law in its more common form as got from electromagnetic theory, to :A-0324
XX
The inverse value of q is equal to the physical constant of e0 as defined by Maxwell s electromagnetic theory, hence:
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 03-31XXX
eo = 1/q0324BXX
THE COULOMB S LAW EXPRESSED WITHOUT THE CHARGE CONCEPTAs now pointed out, it s not absolutely necessary to express electromagnetic properties in electromagnetic units.
Hence the Coulomb force formula may be expressed in pure Newtonian parameters of mass(k), time(S) and length(M) in the MKS(A) unit system, even if that in a practical point of view not is motivated.
As to observe, charge is the same as flow of volume or transport of volume vacuum mass per time unit.
1 A,pere then is equal to mass transport of q kg per second.Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 03-32A-0325
XXX
We know that the electric charge is constant both for a an electron and a proton or another point formed particle. Of that reason the product of r2 .v in the formula 0322 must be a constant entity, hence :A-0326
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 03-33XXX
a) The square of the particles radius times its periphery spin velocity is constant
b) The spinning time for an arbitrary particle
c) Spinning time for an electron see 0219XXXXXX
We can also derive this relationship by start from the following statements:
Converted mass per time unit is constant for all true particles
The particles mass is converted during the period of one spin turn of its rotationX
THE ELECTRIC FIELD STRENGTH AROUND A CHARGED PARTICLEElectric field strength commonly is defined as the force per unit charge, hence by calculating the relation F/Q. Using results from 0324 then we get the following result :X
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 03-34XXA-0328
XXX
We now convert this expression in terms of our own theory and do a comparison with result from our formula in 0322f, 0323
A-0311
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 03-35
A-0329
a) The equation 0328
b) Inserting charge parameters from 0323a,b. Replacing e0 ., with 1/q in accord with 0322f
c) Reducing 0329. Using results from 0317 and 0322 and reducing the equation 0329c
Results in accord with equation 0320 of the electric field strength
XXX
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 03-36
Observe that the end part of the expression will be =1 if Ka =4.p((((Kv =4.(p
A-0330
In the end of this chapter we will derive these values based on the model of a vortex particle form.A-0331
THE STORED ENERGY IN A PLANE CAPACITOR Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 03-37XXX
For demonstration, we will here apply our ideas of electromagnetism on an electric plane capacitor. This arrangement has the ability to store electric energy and of that reason brimg frequently used in electric circuits.
For simplicity, we choose a capacitor with two plane parallel metal plates, having area A placed out on a mutual distance of D from each other. (See enclosed figure). We know that this arrangement is capable of storing electric energy in the space between the two platens, and that this energy is stored in the field of density q . For making it possible of explaining the energy storing of that capacitor, we assume that the common field with density q between the two platens and partly even outside it, is actuated by the outflow from the free electrons situated on the two platens.
We start by computing the volume enclosed between the two platens:A-0332
X Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 03-38XX
And by reason of that, the amount of enclosed vacuum mass is equal to :A-0333-03-33
XXX
We assume that the vacuum mass is transported with a velocity vf, activated by the free electrons acting as small generators holding the flow in an active state.
The amount of mass transported over the capacitor surface area A, during the converting time te, of the free electrons then will be (see 0312):XXXxxXX
X
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 03-39XXX
XWe calculate the amount of matter transported by the electrons being activeon the capacitor platens:A-0334
a) Mass streaming in to the capacitor from the free electron mass conversions
b) Mass streaming back to the electrons from the activated vacuum field
c) In-streaming and out-streaming amount of mass is equal over timeXXX
Hence, this amount of mass that is converted is the same as that mass converted by the free electrons on the same amount of time, hence being equal to the electron mass times the number of such free electrons per spin revolution time of these electrons.
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 03-40XXX
V From that equality, we solve out the field velocity between the two platens. Observe here that the stored energy must be calculated on the total vacuum mass enclosed between the two platens, not primary on the electric field density field.A-0335
Because Newtons simplified energy formula is valid as long as the mass involved is held constant, the energy can be calculated by the formula for kinetic energy 0122A-0336
XX
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 03-41X
We convert this expression to a more conventional form, that in aim to make comparison with established experimental theory possible. Using earlier results gives0337
Formula 0336
Inserting the factor e((0 (1/q) , see formula 0322f and 0323
Re-structuring a)
Re-structuring using the charge concept in accord with 0323a,b Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 03-42XXXXX
Hence, even here we see that exact correspondence with experimental outcome is got if Kv = 4.p, hence:A-03-34
XXXXXX
DEFINITION OF ELECTRIC VOLTAGEElectric voltage is by common theory defined as the length integral of the electric field strength, hence :
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 03-43A-0339
XXXXXX
a) 0339a, the common definition of the concept of electric voltage
b) 0339b, derivative operation
c) 0339c, vector derivation expression
d) 0339d, vector derivation expression, see vector notation mathematical function 0147
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 03-44
THE ELECTRIC VOLTAGE OVER A PLAN ELECTRIC CAPACITORIn accordance with done definitions and results, we will now calculate the voltage over a plane, parallel electric capacitor, by using the same arrangement as given above. A-0340
We make use of the definitions of the electric field strength from the formula 0314,20 :Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 03-45XXX
a) The electrical field strength, formula 0320
b) Definition of voltage in accord with 0339. Inserting electric field strength from 0320
c) Inserting expression for electric charge from formula 0323a,b
d,e) End expressions for the electric voltage over an plane capacitor
A-0341
XXX
Hence, If Kv= 4.p the expression in formula 0340 will correspond with result from common theory.XXX
DEFINITION OF ELECTRIC CURRENTElectric current usually is defined as the amount of electric charge passing a cross section of a
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 03-46XXX
conductor per unit of time.
Another way to define electric current would simply be by denoting the number of unit charges passing the same section per time unit, hence not using the charge concept at all. Then, there may be two ways of defining current in accord with these two principles, namely
A-0342
XXX
I is the electric current in the conductor expressed in the unity of Ampere (A)
Q is the total charge passing a section of the conductor expressed in the unity of Ampere Secon ds (As)
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 03-47XXX
In is the electric current expressed in the number of unit charges passing an area of the conductor per time unite, as defined by our theory.XXX
The relationship between these two ways of defining electric current then will be :A-0343
XXX
1 Ampere is defined as this current that deposit 0.0011180 grams of pure silver from a silver nitrate solution during each second, equivalent to N=6E18 electrons per second, passing through the same cross sectionXXX
Another method to determine 1 Ampere is to measure the force effect between two straight parallel conductors.
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 03-48XCCC
Then, 1 Ampere is that current that produces a force of 2E-7N (Newton) per meter on these conductors. That method mostly is founded on pure theoretical basis, on the relations between the magnetic and electric fields, based on theory of Maxwell and others. We will later on show, in the magnetic part, how this calculation will be performed.XX
DEFINITION OF ELECTRIC RESISTANCEIn common theory, resistance of a current flow in a conductor is defined as the quotient between the driving voltage and the resulting current flow in the conductor (Ohms law), For alternating voltage or current in a conductor the concept of resistance is replaced by the concept of impedance, (Ohm). Hence if the alternating frequency is zero, the impedance also will be zero.A-0345
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 03-49
XXX
X
We make use of this definition to calculate the vacuum zero impedance. The idea of calculating this physical entity is to study this case where the limit value of a plane capacitor are two naked electrons and where the distance between these electrons is two times the electron radius.
XXX
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 03-50XXX
Hence we see that even in this case for the zero impedance in space, we get agreement with common experimental theory if Ka= 4.p and Kt = 2.(pA-0346
XXX
THE CAPACITANCE CONCEPT OF AN ELECTRIC, PLANE CAPACITORThere is a need of describing a capacitor s ability of storing electric energy in terms of the capacitor s geometrical and spatial extension and material performance. We wish to express this ability as a function f(x), where the stored energy W and the stored voltage U are the two other parameters. Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 03-51
-03-47
a) The energy in the capacitor defined as kinetic energy in accord with Newtons formula 0122
b) The capacitors voltage in accord with formula 0340
c) Stored energy in the capacitor in accord with the formula 0337
Inserting results from 0340 and 0323 in our formula defining the capacitors capacitance together with simplifying the formula:XXXXX Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 03-52
Even in this case with comparison with common theory, we find that:A-0348
XXX
The reason to the values of Ka and Kv in association to elementary particlesThe outflow of matter is depending of that this part that moves towards the particles center get less volume compared with the particles outer parts. When this compression occur, an outflow of matter from the particle is taking place.
We shall calculate these factors with start from this idea- See figure above, where the particles
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 03-53
Xxx
maximum radius is Rx and the minimum radii Ry. The particle is assumed consisting of a shell with thickness dr.
When the mass of the particle rotates towards its center point, the more narrow volume causes matter to flow out from the particle. This outflow is compensated by the inflow from space.
Firstly the area of the maximum radii with thickness dr is calculated. Then is calculated the corresponding area for the minimum radii with thickness dr. The difference is related to a mass outflow.A-0349
XXX
The constants Ka and Kv respectively, are not directly associated to the particles area/volumes geometry, but are associated to a flow in surface /volume with a given velocity.X Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 03-54
XX
The outflow of matter is depending of that this part that moves towards the particles center get less volume compared with the particles outer parts. When this compression occur an outflow of matter from the particle is taking place. We shall calculate these factors with start from this idea- See the figure above, where the particles maximum radius is Rx and the minimum radii Ry. The particle is assumed consisting of a shell with thickness dr.
When the mass of the particle rotates towards its center point, the more narrow volume causes matter to flow out from the particle. This outflow is compensated by the inflow from space.
Firstly the area of the maximum radii with thickness dr is calculated. Then is calculated the corresponding area for the minimum radii with thickness dr. The difference is related to a mass outflow area.-03-50
XXX
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 03-55
The same calculation is performed for the min radius:A-0351
XXX
We calculate the difference between these entities, hence being equivalent to an area:A-0352
XXX
But the Ry is a function of Rx, hence:
A-0353
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 03-56
But r is here the particle radius and if the particle is massive, also dr is equal to the particle radius, hence:A-034
XXX
Where we can calculate the volume as the radius multiplied with the outflow area. hence:0355
XXX
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 03-57
XXX
The electric field strength from an electron and a protonXXX
On the same distance from the center point of a charged particle, an electron or a proton, the electric field strength is the same.
Xx
XXX
In experimental efforts aimed to estimate the spatial extension of elementary particles, probing
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 03-58
technology is used. In these experiments particles are registered as charged points and not as particles with geometric extensions. Of that reason probing an electron or a proton will give similar results. Of that reason the protons spatial extension has been erroneous estimated, having the size of 35 fermi, not 2 fermi as officially state.
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
Start----chapter4
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 04-01XXXX
Chapter 4
The magnetic properties of matterTHE MAGNETIC FIELD AND ITS PHYSICAL EFFECTS03BIOTSAVARTS LAW OF THE MAGNETIC FIELD10MAGNETIC INDUCTION14MAGNETIC FLUX19THE INDUCTANCE CONCPET20THE FORCE EFFECT ON A CONDUCTOR IN A CONSTANT, MAGNETIC FIELD25The energy stored in an magnetic conductor28THE MAGNETIC FORCE BETWEEN TWO STRIGHT, PARALLEL CONDUCTORS32THE FORCE DEVELOPED ON AN IRON ARMATURE PLACED BETWEEN THE POLES OF A MAGNETIC AIR GAP35DEFINING THE ELECTRO MAGNETIC PARAMETERS OF Ka, Kv, Kt37
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 04-02XXX
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 04-03XXX
THE MAGNETIC FIELD AND ITS PHYSICAL EFFECTSA-04-01
Xx
When a charged particle moves, the environment void will be effected in a very special manner. The physical phenomena and properties of the space associated to it has been given the name of magnetism.
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 04-04X XX
The electric field, as well as the magnetic field with associated physical phenomena are well described by existing electromagnetic theory, founded on works by the great investigators of Ampere, Faraday, Maxwell and many others, all pioneers and great contributors of the fundamental physical research.
In particular Maxwells work have been of significant importance since he succeeded to demonstrate close relationships between the electric and the magnetic phenomena by arranging them in a common theory.
Maxwell made clear that electric and magnetic phenomena had a common source, hence being different sides of the same thing.
A simple way to distinguish between electric and magnetic phenomena is to say that electric phenomena are result of charges in rest and magnetic phenomena are associated with charged particles when moving.
Maxwells theory was founded on the existence of a mechanic ether, where all ordinary matter was taken Xx
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 04-05
away. Today, only a barren mathematical formalism remains as result of his thinking. We shall here make an attempt to in some degree repair this damage of his work and allot electro-magnetism substantial properties of space and matter. We will do that by applying the same basic ideas as we have used before when treating the electric field with its associated phenomena.
We start from a very simple arrangement, a straight metallic wire in which an electric current flows. This electric current consists of a lot of free charges carrying the electric current charge, put forwarded by an external voltage source connected to the end points of the wire loop.
In aim of demonstrating this arrangement, we make use of the adjoining figure (see above). The wire is placed out in a x,y,z coordinate system. The current carrying particles- here assumed being electrons - are supposed being smoothly distributed over the whole wire length. In a small section with extension ds, we suppose there are N number of such free charging carrying particles with one unit charge each (see equation 0323c).
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 04-06xxxXX
Then the relation N/s, is constant, giving :A-04-02
a) The number of charge bearing particles is assumed being constant over the whole conductor length.
b) The total number of charge bearing particles N, over the conductor length sXx
A simple way to distinguish between electric and magnetic phenomena is to say that electric phenomena are associated to charges in rest and magnetic phenomena are associated with charged particles when moving.Xxx
The free charge bearing particles (the electrons) in the segment, generates a static electric mass field, which density in a point outside the conductor is determined by, see the formula 0314:
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 04-07A-0403
Xx
and then the corresponding electric field strength in this point is equal to: A-04-04
a) The formula 0320 for the electric field strength around an electron. Observe that the spin velocity c is different for another type of charged particles, protons for instance
b) The electric mass field strength solved out from the formula 0404aXxx
Now, in aim to get a basic understanding of the nature of magnetism, we will once again study the
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 04-08Xxx
figure above. In the chosen point outside the conductor, field mass is streaming in and out from the electrons in the chosen segment of the conductor.Xxx
The mass streaming in to the particle is faster (see 0317b) than the corresponding mass streaming out from it, having only the velocity of light, c. The effect of that when the electrons move, will be a torsion effect in this space point, creating two separate field vectors with an angle difference of a between these field vectors. Then In accord with the sinusoidal theorem, the following relation is valid:xxxxA-04-05
Xxxx
We define the magnetic field strength B(as the product of the electric field mass density strength in this point and the sin(b) factor, giving the following relations: Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 04-09
A-04-06
Xx
Using the definition for sin(b) in accord with 0405 gives:
Xx
Xxx
Now we make use of a common mathematical function for vectors :
A-04-08
Xx
Hence, the relation between the electric field, the magnetic field and the current strength in the conductor is defined by
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 04-10A-04-09
Where B is the magnetic field strength, E is the electric field strength, v is the equivalent current velocity in the conductor, c is the standard velocity of light.Xxx
BIOTSAVARTS LAW OF THE MAGNETIC FIELDBiot-Savarts law of the magnetic field strength outside a conductor is a law of the similar importance as Coulombs law of the electric field. Xxx
Our aim is here to show how to derive this law with start from our own theory.
We start by repeating the definition of electric current, as done in the formulae 0342 and 0343 above and convert this definition to vector form:
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 04-11A-0410
Inserting these parameters in the equation 0409 for the magnetic field strength, together with earlier achieved results, gives:A-04-11
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 04-12Xxx
a) The formula 0409, Inserting the streaming velocity v from 0410
b) Inserting the electric field strength from equation 0320
c) Inserting the electric mass density from 0314 and the electric charge quantity from the equation 0322
d) Simplifying and re-structuring the equation. Inserting the vacuums mass density from the equation 0322f
e) The final expression for the Biot-Savarts lawXx
For the parameters Ka and Kv we find the relation containing these parameters=1, then::A-0412
X Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 04-13
Inserting these parameters in the equation 0411 for the magnetic field strength, together with earlier achieved results, we get Biot Savarts law of the magnetic field in integral form:A-0413
xxx
The factor 1/(eo.c2) usually is replaced by the symbol mo, equivalent with the permeability of vacuum constant , hence giving:A-0414
xxxxxxXx
x Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 04-14
MAGNETIC INDUCTIONWhen a metallic conductor moves in a magnetic field, an EMF (current or voltage) is generated, represented by a flowing current in the conductor or an electric voltage over it. The effect will arise mainly by the following reasons:
if the magnetic field density is changed in accord with time or
if the conductor accelerate or retard in the B-field or
if the enclosed area around a loop is changing.
xx xThe primary reason to the effects is that the free charged particles have a spin and their spinning planes are in a neutral position. When a magnetic field is applied the spinning planes are twisted towards a new equilibrium state. In this transition phase a voltage is created, pushing a current through the conductor if closed.
Of that reason the effect is intermittent in time, hence appears only during that time the magnetic field is changing in strength or direction.xxx
There are several reasons to change of the B field, for instance the current in the source conductor is
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 04-15
changed or a wire loop is moved in a homogeneous B-field and where the enclosed flowing area is changed.
The source of the EMF generated, mainly emanates from the two terms in Newtons second law , 0114. Based on earlier achieved results, we now perform a calculation of the voltage generated when changinging the B field.A-0415
Xxx Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 04-16
In the case where the term dv/dt in Newtons equation =0 and only the mass is changed in accord with time
Look at a very small volume dV outside the conductor. Divide both sides with dV
ds is the side of the small volume element dV. Multiply both sides with ds
The impulse of the electric field acts on the volume element on time dr/c, where dr is the side of the volume element dV. Multiply both sides of the equation with dr/c
The left part of the equation is equal to voltage, the right side contains the time derivative of the magnetic field strength B, multiplied with the area ds.dr which is an area in right angle towards the current flow direction.Xx
Hence, our equation of magnetic induction will be:A-0416
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 04-17
Xx
Now we take a look on the other term in Newtons second law of force, when the mass is constant and were we have change in velocity of the conductorA-0417
Newtons second law of force, where the mass is constant
Dividing both sides with the volume element dV
Multiply both sides with the distance ds, the side of the volume element dV
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 04-18Xxx
The electric field vector has the velocity of c in direction of element dr through the volume element dV. Multiply both sides with the impulse time ds/c
Both sides of the equation has the dimension of voltage, Hence :A-04-18
Xxx
Combining results from the equations 0416 and 0418 gives:A-0419
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 04-19Xxx
In common theory only the first term is present. The reason for it may be that the second term commonly will be relative small and may be ignored.Xx
Hence, a voltage is generated if the B-field is changing in accord with time, and/or the B-field is constant, the velocity of a conductor in this field is changed. If the conductor moves with constant velocity in a constant field, an EMF is generated only in case where the enclosed area, A, is changed.Xxxx
MAGNETIC FLUXIn common electromagnetic theory, magnetic flow (or flux) usually is defined as the product of the magnetic field strength B and the enclosed area A The induced voltage is given by the time derivative of this flow, however its not fully clear if the change in area shall be included into this derivative.Xxx A-0420
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 04-20
So, if the area change is enclosed, the generated voltage in 0416 may be expressed by the time derivative of flow in accord with definition in 0420:xxx
THE INDUCTANCE CONCPETIn the same way as for the electric capacitor, there is a need of describing the ability of a conductor or wire loop of storing magnetic energy in it, expressed in terms of the conductors geometrical performance and some other properties. For completeness, we perform a calculation of the inductance factor for a simple single wire loop, see the above figure:ere A-4-21b
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 04-21Xxx A-0421a-d
Xxx
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 04-22xxx
Xxx
The definition of magnetic energy density as function of current and inductance.Xxx
Xxx
The definition of magnetic energy density as function of magnetic field strength and the vacuums magneyic properties (see below).Xxx
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 04-23
Xxx
Combining 0421e with 0429:Xxx
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 04-24Xxx
Combining 0421d with 0421d:xxx
Xxx
Solution of the wire loop inductance factor with N numbers of turns, having diameter D and length S:Xxx
Xxx Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 04-25 Xxx
THE FORCE EFFECT ON A CONDUCTOR IN A CONSTANT, MAGNETIC FIELD
The B- field represents a mass flow with density B. This mass flow give rise to an inflow of matter to a charged particle (the electron in a metal for instance) and this matter is absorbed and thrown out by effect of the particles spin or rotation movement, creating a counter reaction force.
Using this idea on how a force is generated on a conductor moving in a magnetic field gives:A-0422
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 04-26 Xxx
a) Magnetic mass streaming in to the charged particle, formula 0150a)
b)Newtons law of force for revolving movements, 0155b. The mass captured is creatinga counter force
c) Formula (a) applied on the magnetic field. The magnetic field strength B
d) Formula 0101
e) The number of unit charges times the unit charge is the total amount of charge on which the B-field is actuated, 0342
f) Solving out the number of unit charges N actuated by the B-field
g) The electric unit char, formula 0323
h) The spinning time for an electron, 0326c
i) Inserting Min from c) in b), then the value of v from d) and the value of N from f) in j) .Adjusting the expression in I), extracting the terms B,i and ds and at last adjusting the expression in regard to the K-parameters 0326c Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 04-27A-0423
xxxxxx
a) Magnetic force in respect to the current flow and conductor length, formula 0422
b) Magnetic force in respect to electric charge and the velocity of the charge
c) Magnetic force in respect to electric current and a straight conductor lengthXxx
In respect to our constants Ka, Kv and Kt we find ;A-04-244
Xx
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 04-28x
The energy stored in an magnetic conductorWe now have calculated the magnetic field strength B, in a magnetic field outside a conductor. Obviously, this B-field represents an energy stored in the space in the same way as for the electric field in an electric capacitor.
The magnetic energy stored is a form of mechanical energy in the same way as for energy in the electric field. The movement of mass in the field, is slowly in relation to the limit velocity of matter, c, then for the stored energy in the magnetic field Newtons ordinary energy formula may be used.A-0425
The kinetic energy in accord with Newtons laws 0122X
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 04-29x
The mass m, represents the mass content in a small volume element in the common space field of density q, calculated before in 0318.
The velocity v, is the momentary velocity of this mass, hence not equivalent with the flow velocity in the conductor current.
As calculated before, in the formula 0406of the magnetic flux density equal to B=qr.sin(a), the quantity of B.c is representing a mass impulse density in the volume element dV, that in the way it has been generated by the movement of the electric current and induced by it.
When this impulse influence the universal mass field in space with density q, this impulse is re-transformed to the q- field that get the velocity of vf..
From that the following equality is achieved:
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
ATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 04-30
A-04-26
a)The impulse from the B-field with density B and with velocity c being transformed to the universal mass field of density q and the transformed velocity of vf
b) Calculation of the transformed field velocity vfxxx
The mass in the volume element dV with density q is:A-04-27
Xx
Now we apply achieved results on the initial formula 0425 ;
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
ATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 04-31
A-0428
xxx xxx
See results from formulae 0122, 0426a,b and 0414Xxx
Hence, the end result for the energy density in a magnetic field will be:A-0429
The value of mo is 4p E-7 which for a density of B= 1 Tesla corresponds to an energy density of 398000 watt per cubic meter. Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
ATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 04-32xxx
xxx xxx
THE MAGNETIC FORCE BETWEEN TWO STRIGHT, PARALLEL CONDUCTORSIf we have two parallel conductors, through which flows a current of I1and I2 respectively, a mutual force between them arises.
If you have these two conductors with length oo meter (infinitely in length) and placed them on a mutual distance of 1 meter, a force of 2.1E-7 N will be measured. This measurement is now used in aim to determine the current strength of 1 Ampere, earlier defined as this current that extracts 0.00111800 gram of silver per second from a silver nitrate solution. Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
ATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 04-33
A-0430
xxAnother way of defining current is by defining the number of electrical unit charges passing a cross area each second, which for 1 Ampere is 6E18 electrons/secondG.Xxx
We imagine two conductors defined as infinite in length. A medium point is selected, then the B-field is integrated from this point to infinity in both directions in line with the x-axis, in directions of the
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
ATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 04-34Xxx
conductors. Inserting x=0 give zero, inserting x=oo gives 1/y2. And because the integration is performed on both sides of the medium point, the received expression shall be multiplied with a factor 2. That gives for the B-field strength in an arbitrary point outside the conductor:A-04-31
In common we know (formula 0423), that the force on a conductor with length L and with the current flow of I2 is actuated by the force on the conductor by:A-0432
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
ATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 04-35Xx
We know that uo= 4.p(E-7. If we insert I1= 1 Ampere and I2= 1 Ampere, and the distance between the conductor y=1 meter, we get the force per length unit of the conductor F/L = 2.0E-7 N/m, which is this reference that today is used as a current flow in a conductor.
Someone assert that electric current flow is an arbitrary chosen physical unit, as well as the definition of the electric charge magnitude. Hence, that is not true, the physical effect is the same un.regarding basic unit system chosen..Xxx
THE FORCE DEVELOPED ON AN IRON ARMATURE PLACED BETWEEN THE POLES OF A MAGNETIC AIR GAPxxx
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
ATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 04-36
We make a study of a magnetic armature moving in an air gap of 2 magnetic poles. We make a study of the magnetic energy density in 2 cases where the armature is situated in position S1 and S2 respectively.
In the position 1, the magnetic field density is B1, then the energy density in this position is written :
A-0434
xxxxxxx
And if the armature is in the second position
A-04-35
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ATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 04-37
A00-0430
Xx The energy transferred to the magnetic armature, the performed work).-Xxx
DEFINING THE ELECTRO MAGNETIC PARAMETERS OF Ka, Kv, KtNotation of Ka, Kv, Kt in comparing with common theory
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
ATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 04-38Xxx
FormulaFormula Kt, KsKaKvElectric field03295.35570 (Kt)4.p4.pElectric energy03375.35570 (Kt)-4.pElectric voltage03405.35570 (Kt)4.p4.pElectric impedance03452.p (Ks)
5.35570 (Kt)4.p-Electric capacitance03475.35570 (Kt)4.p4.pMagnetic field strength04115.35570 (Kt)4.p4.pMagnetic force04225.35570 (Kt)4.p4.pElectric charge03235.35570 (Kt)4.p4.p eo, uo03225.35570 (Kt)4.p4.p
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
ATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 04-39
Xxx
Hence we find a number of uniting values of Ka, Kv and Kt as associated values of the elementary particles geometrical and accessing properties, that together with properties of the vacuum space give rise to the electromagnetic phenomena.
Summarizing :
A-0437,38
X
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
ATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 04-40
x
x
When deriving electromagnetic relations from our theory, based on Newtons fundamental laws, we get the same results as for common electromagnetic theory, but a tail of expressions containing the K parameters as defined by us, appear. However these expressions will all be equal to 1, hence disappearing from the equations.
Xxx
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
ATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 04-41
Some common physical constants
eo = 1.60217733E-19
Unit charge. measured
c = 2.99792456E8
Light velocity in vacuum, measured
(o = 8.854187817E-12
Vacuum electric constant, measured
(o= 4.((( E-7
Vacuum magnetic constant, measured
me =9.109389754E -31
Electron rest mass, measured
re = 2.8179409238E-15
Electron rest radius, calculated
Some other relations:
eo = 1.60217733E 19
eo*=2Kt.Ka.sqrt((((v).re2.c = 1.602E-19
( o = 8.854187817E-12
( o((= Kt2.Ka2.re3 /(me.Kv) =8.85E-12
eo 2/(o =2.899161673E-27
eo* 2/( o* =2.899107802E-27
By dividing the measured experimental value of the electric unit with value of the (o, we can calculate the exact value for the entity of Kt.
= 5.3557000.
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
ATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 04-42
Readers commwnts
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
START---CHAPTER5
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 05-01XXX
Chapter 5
MAXWELLS EQUATIONSMAXWELLS EQUATIONS03DERIVING THE EQUATION 0501a07DERIVING THE EQUATION 0501b08DERIVING THE EQUATION 0501c10DERIVING THE EQUATION 0501d12DERIVING THE EQUATION 0501e13DERIVING THE EQUATION 0501f14DERIVING THE EQUATION 0501g15DERIVING OF THE EQUATION 0501h17THE COMMON WAVE EQUATION18The common wave equation STEP119The common wave equation STEP2
20THE GENERAL WAVE EQUATION STEP 321IF THE FIELD IS A MEDIUM STEP3/a21THE ELASTICITETS MODULE IF THE SOURCE IS A PARTICLE SOURCE, STEP3/b23The common wave equation STEP 427
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MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 05-02Xx
The common wave equation STEP 531LIGHT AND ELECTRO-MAGNETIC WAVES34THE GENERAL WAVE EQUATION38Correction of Maxwells equation 0501f and 051140
tig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 05-03XX
MAXWELLS EQUATIONSJames Clerk Maxwell published his famous electromagnetic field theory in 1873 by name Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, one of the most gigantic and important scientific achievement worked out by a single scientist ever.
An important result of his theory was that he found a close relationship between the electric field and the magnetic field, two sides of the same thing and from the same source. Another interpretation of the theory was that electromagnetic energy was assumed propagating in free space with the finite speed c, the same as light velocity in free space (from a source and observer in rest)..
The nucleus of this theory was a theoretical and mathematical interpretation of the electromagnetic field phenomena summarized in a couple of formulae named Maxwells equations of the electric and the magnetic field as propagating in free space.
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MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 05-04Xx
Maxwells theory was built on the assumption of existence of a mechanical ether carrying light and electromagnetic waves through the free space. This assumption was later on faded out of the theory and today mainly a shell of mathematical formalism remains. In spite of the successes of the theory, the theory has not escaped from criticism. One point of criticism is,
that the theory is assumed to give a correct description of electromagnetism, but explain nothing.
Other criticism is that the equations not are symmetric in respect to the Lorentzs transform and relativity theory, a problem we not have to worry so much about, because both these theories by themselves may be put into question.
But the most serious remark is the idea that electromagnetic energy is assumed to propagate like waves, disturbances in an ether sea, this ether that never was detected experimentally. Maxwell come to this conclusion by comparing the common, or general, wave equation with results from his electromagnetic theory mainly because of mathematical symmetry reasons in these equations.Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 05-05Xx
Inspired by Maxwells theory, Michelson and Morley in 1887 performed an experiment aimed to measure the earths velocity in that assumed ether see. But the attempt was failed, hence denying the Maxwellian ether wave hypothesis, necessary for the validity of his theory.
All that gave rise to an exhausted debate of the nature of light during the subsequent part of the nineteenth century, a debate that declined by the birth of the theory of relativity from 1905. But today the problems still remain unsolved and all the old questions remain unanswered as in Maxwells days.
Our ambition here is not to discuss and penetrate everything in Maxwells work, not either to dig our way through all these formulae contained in this work. Our main interest is only to investigate if similarly results can be achieved with start from our own theory and at the same time trying to understand his way of thinking.
We begin by making a brief list over some of the most common used equations that are enclosed in
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 05-06Xx
his theory, with the name of Maxwells equations of the electromagnetic field and how these results can be achieved with start from our own theory.A-0501
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 05-07xx
DERIVING THE EQUATION 0501aWe will now derive these Maxwellian equations with start from our own electromagnetic theory. We start with the equation 0501a, where we define a vector quantity D, which is a velocity of the electric field.
From equation 0328 for the electric field strength we have:A-05-02
xx
and from equation 0322 :A-0503
XX
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 05-08
and by multiplying 0502 with 0503 and using 0523 is achieved:
A-0504
A-05-0
DERIVING THE EQUATION 0501b
We integrate the electric velocity vector D over a flux area 4.p.r2, giving
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 05-09
xx
xx
Hence, if we integrate the charge in respect to the out-streaming area dA related to the total enclosing area 4. p r2 we get:A-0506
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 05-10Xx
D is the charging flow velocity, A is this area or window through which this flow is passing, Q is the total amount of charge flowing out through that window.A-0507
DERIVING THE EQUATION 0501c
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 05-11Xx
We start by defining the vector field D, where D= eo.E (see our derived formula 0504 above). We select a small volume element within this vector field D with sides dx, dy, dz (see figure above). D constitutes a field vector where each term Dx,Dy,Dz contains a quantity of charge expressed in variable of x, y and z.
Hence we define our field vector D in the way as is shown below:
In addition, with start from the equation 0323, we denote the partial charge streaming out from one of the unit surfaces limited by the edges dx, dy and dz:A-0508
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Xx
As we here will see, Maxwells equations contain not much of information of the real source and nature of electromagnetism. And as we even will see in the following investigation, most of it is mathematical manipulations of facts mainly already known from other parts of electromagnetic theory.
xx
DERIVING THE EQUATION 0501d
This equation is just a vector manipulation of radiation out from a point source (that can be a point source of light radiation or a point source of an electrical field sending out radiation from the source in the radius direction.
A-0509
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DERIVING THE EQUATION 0501eThis case is approximately the same as the case above, with difference that it here is a magnetic vector field. Streaming out from a magnetic point formed source in all radii directions. A-0510
Xx
X
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DERIVING THE EQUATION 0501f
The change in the magnetic field in accord with time give rise to a vector cross product of the electric field.
But there is a problem, it seems as there is something strange with the Maxweells equation being not in agree with how energy is transformed between the charge and the vacuum space. See equation 0426 where the B field impulse is transformed to vacuum with another parameters. More about that later.
A-0511
ObS: in agree with Maxwell only if v=c!!! That is a mystery. In the end of this chapter we do a correction of this formula !Xx Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 05-15
DERIVING THE EQUATION 0501gThe equation 0501g is achieved when changing the E field as function of time. There is many reasons for such a change. One reason may be change in the current flow or when the conductor moves in an in-homogeneous magnetic field.
We limit here our investigations for the first mentioned case. We begin with our equation 0408 :A-0512
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The equation which shall be derived isA-05-13
Hence, when an electric field is changed in accord with time, a magnetic field is created transversally to this electric field.-0
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DERIVING OF THE EQUATION 0501h
XXX
a) Equation 0504
b) Equation 05508
c) Combining 0504 and 0608XX
XXX
XX
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THE COMMON WAVE EQUATIONThe general wave equation describe how energy in a field is transported as function of time. The equation has since long time been known, so even on Maxwells time when he formulated his electromechanical theory.
Because the equation mainly is used for describing how energy is transported in medium, it was natural for him to do a comparison between how electric and magnetic fields move through the hypothetical light ether. According to this idea, even light was such a wave, by common terms denoted as electromagnetic waves.
In this comparison the mathematical expression got from the electromagnetic theory was in agree with the common wave equation. By that Maxwell considered it as proved that light was electromagnetic waves and that these waves were transported in an ether sea in the same way as for sound in air was transported.
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However, experiments later performed could not confirm the ether hypothesis. The reason to that is to find in a miss-interpretation of the common wave equation. This equation is valid even for the case when the source is a particle source, meaning this case where energy is transported longitudinally by a flowing process of matter from the source point (particles). In order to demonstrate this fact, we will here investigate the background of this famous equation and even to see how to derive it.xx
The common wave equation STEP1In this purpose we begin with studying a small volume element in the room outside the emitting source point. We let the edges of the element dx,dy,dz be parallel with the axis of the used coordinate system with axis x,y and z respectively.A-05-15
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A-0515
Xx
The common wave equation STEP2
The propagating wave or transport of matter generates a pressure p, in the direction of movement. The pressure is a function of time, the waves velocity and the density of the medium.
A-05-16
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a relation which is valid presupposed the field density q, is the same in all directions, which we here can assume being true with good approximation.XX
THE GENERAL WAVE EQUATION STEP 3This step encloses a study of the relationship between pressure and density (if a medium) or the number of particles in a particle field is related to volume (in case of a particle transport).XX
IF THE FIELD IS A MEDIUM STEP3/aIn the case of energy transport in a medium, we make use of Boyles law (formula 0159), saying that the product of pressure and density is a constant entity. A-0517
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MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 05-22
a) Boyles law0159, state 1
b) Boyles law 0159, state 2
c) Equality between a) and b)
d) Calculation of the pressure difference between state 1 and state 2
e) Reduction of the formula d)
f) End expression, approximation V1=V2X
THE RRELATION IN PRESSURE AND VOLUME AS FUNCTION OF CHANGE IN THESE PARAMETERSA-0518
From equation 0517f
Pressure contra common definition for the elasticity module of the medium
Combination of formulae above
Relation between the elasticity module, change in pressure, volume.X Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
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THE ELASTICITETS MODULE IF THE SOURCE IS A PARTICLE SOURCE, STEP3/b
If the source is a particle source, the energy is transported as a longitudinal stream of matter. In a medium wave, the matter mediating the energy is not transported any long distances but work only as an intermediary substance, where the energy transport is realized by successive impacts between parts of the medium. In the case of a particle wave (a wave of matter stream) the pressure over a surface is got from formula 0204 to:
A-0519
The wave of matter (a particle wave) pressure on a closed surface
a) Pressure when medium density qo and medium velocity v
b) Pressure when particle density q and particle velocity v
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A-0520
The particle mass density in a volume element V and VO respectivelya) The mass density in a volume element Vo
b) The mass density in a volume element V
c) The density difference between 2 successive states a) and b)
d) Reduction of formula c), with approximation V=Vo
e) End relation for the density difference and change in volume between 2 successive states
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and from these relationships we get:A-0521
a)Divide 0519a) and b)
b) Subtract both sides with entity =1
c)Re-organize
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d) The p-po is a difference dp in pressure
e) Suppose m=mp approximated
Re-organization of 0521e. End expression for the pressure as function of change in pressure, in volume and change in volume
Hence, the equivalent elasticity module when the source is a particle sourceA-0522
Hence we find that the elasticity module for a medium and for a particle source is represented by a similar mathematical expression.
Why we here will point out this fact mainly depends on that we now with the same degree of reliability as Maxwell argued for, light being a wave in an ether sea, we can say that:
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light is a stream of particles, hence not an electro-magnetic wave as commonly argued for.
and a lot of experimental contradictions that are present in Maxwells equations then will disappear when we re-interpret his equations to be valid for another physical background than from the beginning was assumed valid.xx
And a lot of experimental contradictions that are present in Maxwells equations then will disappear when we re-interpret his equations to be valid for another physical background than from the beginning was assumed valid.Xx
The common wave equation STEP 4In aim of constructing a vector formula for the energy transport from the source point, we now make use of some of the received results above.
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a) From equation 0518
b) From equation 0523b
c) Combination of formula a) and b)
d) Re-organization
e) Deriving both sides of formula in respect to distance, ds 0523 in vector form
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MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 05-29A-0524
Using results from formula 0516A-05-25
xxxx
Combinin0g equations 0524 and 0525, reducing the expression of pressure, gives:
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MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 05-30A-0526
a) Combination of equations 0524 and 0525
b) Equation 0101
c) Replacing the parameter of velocity with the relation ds/dt
d) Re-organization of parameters ds=nabla in the left side, dt is time derivative in the right side
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The common wave equation STEP 5We derive a new expression of the elasticity module, the field density and the energy transport velocity:-0527
a) Newtons second law, the reduced version
b) Divide right side with the volume element dV, multiply right side with the same entity Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
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c) Replace the relation m/dV with density q
d) Divide both sides with the volume V
e)) Replace the volume V on left side with the product of area A and distance ds
f) Replace the relation ds/dt with the velocity v on the left side and transfer it to the right side of the equation
g) Transfer dV,/vfrom right side to left sideXX
We combine this result in 0527 with results from formula 0518 A-0528
e combine this result with formulae 0526, giving:
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XA-0529
XX
Maxwell compared results from the common wave equation and results achieved from the electromagnetic theory about distribution of electromagnetic waves.
The conclusion drawn was that even light was of electromagnetic nature, assumedly a wrong conclusion.
In the here done investigation we have come to the conclusion that the wave equation even is valid for energy transport performed by movement of matter.
And to end with we even shall derive this wave equation got from the electromagnetic theory as base.
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LIGHT AND ELECTRO-MAGNETIC WAVESNow we have derived some of Maxwells most famous equations by applying vector operations on some of the results achieved from our own physical theory.
Mathematical operations can make relationships more simple and clear, but do not in itself supply anything that not was present from the beginning. It is a common misconception that mathematics supplies new facts, it just will disclose hidden facts doing them more clear and easy to grasp.
Another important part of Maxwells theory includes ideas of how electric and magnetic fields propagate in free space. By manipulating 0320 and 0409, that describe basic relations between electric and magnetic fields, he showed, that these
fields were spread in the same way as waves in a medium, for instance of how sound in air is
Xx
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xspreading and propagating in accord with the description of the common wave equation as treated and derived above..
However, his conclusion was, that these electro-magnetic waves, were fluctuations in a mechanical ether, a hypothetical medium through which these waves were transported. He come to these insights by manipulating results from his electromagnetic theory and by comparing the result with the common wave equation valid for ordinary media.A-0530
XX
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A-0532
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XX
These results from the electromagnetism were compared with the general wave equation (t0529) as derived above, describing the way by which fields are propagated in media. Mathematically there exists a agreement between these mathematical expressions, but physically there are serious problems. Hence our conclusion may be to be very careful in interpreting mathematical results in physical terms. Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
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THE GENERAL WAVE EQUATIONA-0529
A-0534
XX Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
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where we easily can see that the mathematical structure is the same.
What these equations describe is how the energy is propagating and distributed out from a source point, but in fact giving not much information about the nature of electromagnetisms real nature.
And beside that, the equations are true both for a wave source and a particle source,.
Because light commonly is generated by oscillating charged particles in matter, Maxwell postulated that even light was an electromagnetic phenomenon, hence waves propagating in a mechanical light ether.
However, when interpreting mathematical results one must be very careful regarding the coupling to the real physical world, hence trying understanding what the formulae stands for physically. Xx
Subsequent experiments have shown that Maxwell was wrong on this point. Why and where he was wrong we shall investigate more carefully later when studying the nature of light. xx
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Correction of Maxwells equation 0501f and 0511xx
v in this equation re-presents the mean current velocity in the conductor. The same velocity component is transferred to the electric field in transversal direction to its outflow.
From equation 0320 we see that the E vector contain 2 components, a field mass density and its
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velocity out from its source. Hence, by dividing the E vector with the outflow velocity vector, we achieve a scalar, the electric field mass density:
This mass density is transported transversally to the electric field vector with the velocity of the current flow. This impulse is converted to an impulse in the vacuum with density q and another velocity vf (see equation 0426). That give us the relation: A-0536
Xx
The magnetic product of q.vf of B.c is the same as the product of /E/c).v as generated by the electric field and the current move, giving:
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Xx
Squaring the current velocity and inserting it in our equation 0511 gives:A-0538
xx
Hence. It seems as needed an extra term in Maxwells equation 0501f constituting the quotient between 2 mass densities. B for the magnetic mass density and E/c for the electric field mass density, multiplied by c squared.. If the magnetic and the electric field mass are the same, there is full agreement with Maxwells original equation. Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
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Readers comments:
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START---VHAPTER6
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 06-01XXXX
Chapter 6
ATOMIC QUANTUM THEORY
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SOME HISTORUC FACTSCurrent knowledge's of matter on atomic level is founded on discoveries done over a long period of time. Some famous names are Ernest Rutherford, Max Planck, Niels Bohr, Ervin Shrdinger, Werner von Heisenberg, that to mention some of them all.
Max Planck is most known from his work of measurement and analyses of light and heat radiation from black radiating bodies. He formulated an energy distribution law related to wave length of the emitted radiation and found in this way that the energy emitted over different wave-length's were emitted in a discontinuous way, hence not as a continuous flowing stream.
These revolutionary insights constituted the beginning of a new branch in fundamental science, the quantum mechanics. He introduced a new physical constant bearing his name "the Planck's constant" -usually
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denoted by the letter h, having a very small but exact numerical value, by experiments determined to yTHE value of 6.57E-34 Ws2 given and defined in the At this time the inherent structure of the matter was common MKS(A) unit system.
At this time the inherent structure of the matter was
very indistinct and unclear. Niels Bohr- using
results from Rutherford, Balmer among others - was the man who by his very simple atomic model in a theoretical way for the first time succeeded to describe the emission spectrum from the most simple known atom- the hydrogen atom.
in spite of its simplicity, this theory was revolutionary for this time and started up an enormous researching activity and development in the fundamental physical research.
But the model was only an approximation of the real nature of the atom. Of that reason the model later on was improved by other theories that in a better way explained observed phenomena in the atom. These efforts were above all aimed to describe atomic
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systems of more complex nature than that comparatively simple system represented by the hydrogen atomic system.
However, if we look some closer to Bohr's origin model, we find that he was forced to make some pure hypothetical assumptions, witch not were given any clear theoretical motivations for. One of these hypotheses was the quantum mechanical relation written m.v.D = h.n/(2p), that shall be interpreted so that the electron orbital momentum, the product of m.v.D is an integer value of Planck's constant, h/(2p),However, Bohr never succeeded to give any plausible motivation to this relationship and got criticism because of that. But because his theory so well predicted experimental results, the idea was common accepted in spite of its incompleteness and shortcoming.
This relationship still today is not explained by the modern quantum mechanical physics, which clearly points on that the fundamental mechanism of the quantum behaviour of matter still not is fully understood. And it seems as modern quantum research even neglect to search for such knowledge, a fact that has prevented us to reach a full and deep understanding of these very fundamental phenomena in nature.
Furthermore, Bohr's model was not able to explain why the frequency of the emitted radiation not was the same as the orbital frequency of the electron around the atomic core, but having a quite another value.
Hence, in spite of all success with Bohr's model, it never was explained why matter showed up such apparently very strange behaviour, why energy only existed in some very narrow intervals within the atom.
Why was matter quantified, why was not the energy of the atom emitted or absorbed in a continuous way?
The answer of these questions were hidden in thequantum mechanical relation: m.v.D=h.n/(2p), a pure hypothetical relation only justified by the good agreement with experimental data.
The very fundamental reason why the matter behaved quantified never was explained and has not even since then been explained by the modern quantum mechanical theories.
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Associated with these fundamental questions there are further more questions marks of highly interest, for instance the presence of some very elementary atomic constants, all the time appearing in the quantum mechanical mathematical relationships.
These are Planck's constant (h) and the atomic fine structure constant ( a) that especially arouse our curiosity.
These constants never have been given any plausible explanation, instead been surrounded by an aurora of mysticism, entities of matter regarded as being of supernatural nature, not possible to be explain in a rational way. One also are taking about hidden parameters in this context.
But it is fully clear, that the existence of the atomic constants says a lot about the quantum mechanical processes going on in the atom, presupposed we are able to interpret them in a correct way. Of this reason we here shall spend some attention to these constants and see what they stands for.
Some points that we shall devote special attention to are as follows:
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On pure speculative ground and without any mathematical, physical base, Bohr assumed that the electron's orbital momentum m.v.D was equal to h.n/(2.p), where m is the electron mass, v the momentary orbit velocity, D the mean radius of the orbital, h Planck's constant and, n an integer value, the main quantum number. Any real explanation to the validity of this relation never has been presented.
The reason why the emitted radiation not directly was related to the orbital frequency of the electron was not explained in Bohr's model.
The presence of some very fundamental atomic constants, like the Planck's constant (h) and the atomic fine structure constant (a) never have been given any trustworthy physical motivation.X
X Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
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The answer on these questions are of extremely importance, not only concerning the behaviour of matter on atomic level, but also in the understanding of how matter works on all levels, in particular concerning the area of particle physics. The latter is of special importance, that because the quantum mechanical ideas from the atomic physics partly have been transferred to the particle physics, where necessarily not the same rules are valid.
Heisenberg's uncertainty principle says that conjugating quantities as for example energy and time not simultaneously can be measured with the same degree of accuracy, where the product of energy and time always is a multiple values of Planck's constant.
This principle has been miss-interpreted as a limiting property of nature itself, not just as a limit of measurements on atomic level or in atomic systems.
The principle- originally deduced from the atomic milieu - later on has been applied as common rules for all sorts of matter. The principle has been used in
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the atomic nucleus when describing the fundamental nature of the strong nuclear force for instance) and even in the particle physics when describing the strong forces between elementary particles. Louis de' Broglie's idea of the wave particle duality of elementary particles is another typical example of how physical phenomena can be miss-interpreted in an unlucky way.
According to this idea each particle is associated with a wave being related to the particle mass and Planck's constant. Maybe that will be possibly true for a moving electron inside an atom, but not true or valid for a free particle in free space. Free elementary particles can move with arbitrary velocities and posses arbitrary energy levels not bounded to multiples of Planck's constant.
The Shrdinger's wave theory later on replaced Bohr's very simple and visual atomic model, describing matter in terms of probability. Even if these theories gave a more complete description of the phenomena in the atom, no deeper understanding of the quantum mechanical processes in matter has been achieved by these improvements.Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
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XXXXX xhere
THE NEW THEORYA-0601
XXX
OUR SYSTEM CONTAINS HAVE THE FOLLOWING COMPOMENTA-0601
THE ATOMIC CDRE 0601 The central particle in an atomic system is one or several particles with a mass content of 1836.12 times the mass of the electron (protons).A-0602
ORBITING ELECTRONS 0602 Around the centre particle(s) electron(s) move(s), having the relative individual mass content of one electron mass unit.A Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
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FORCE ELECTRIC COULOMB 0603 Both protons and electrons are electro-statically charged particles and because of that electrostatic forces act between them calculated by aid of Coulomb's law (0324).XXXxxXXX
INERTIAL FORCES INTO THE SYSTEM 0604 The orbital particles are assumed to move in some form of orbit around the central particle(s). This movement give rise to an out-turned force in accord with well known Newtonian mass inertial laws (0114).XXX
NEUTRONS IN THE ATOMIC CORE 0605 We do not account for the fact that the atomic nucleus also contains uncharged particles (named neutrons), that we here assume will have no influence on the calculated results of the model.XXX
The most part of all that more or less already are known and well established facts from atomic quantum theory. However, to proceed we must add some further assumptions, especially regarding properties of these elementary particles included into the atomic system. These new assumptions will be unique for our theory.A
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These complements are necessary for solving the quantum mechanical behaviour of the atom, once times for all.A-0606
MASS DENSITY OF PARTICLES 0606There is a close relation between a particles mass and its spatial extension, created by a quantum effect in particles mass..XXX A-0607
POLARIZING OF THE ELECTRIC FIELD 0607The electrostatic force field surrounded an elementary particle is polarized so that a torque force will appear on it when the particle is turned out from a neutral position. This property may be compared with how a current loop will turn in a magnetic field.A-0608
PRINCIPLES FOR THE QUANTUM PROCESS 0608 The quantum behavior of the atom is based on a system property of matter where particles in the system interact by inertial and electrical forces. The proton will in this system oscillate with a frequency that disturb the the orbiting electron in its movement. Hence, the quantum behavior on the atomic level is no property of a solitary elementary particle (as in for example De Broglie's and Shrdinger's wave theories), but is a system property of the atom.A-0609
THE OSCILLATING PROTON 0609The oscillating proton in the centre of the atomic system creates disturbances in the electron's orbit. Together with a memory effect in the electric field,
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these disturbances will force the electron to move in an orbit where the oscillating proton creates a complete number of oscillations constituting an integer value of the orbital period.A-06-10
THE FREQUENCY OF RADIATION 0610The frequency of radiation emitted from or absorbed by the atomic system constitutes the mean value of the difference frequency between two successive proton resonance frequencies.
These complementary properties of singular particles or properties of the atomic system constitutes one bit of the puzzle for solving the quantum problem.XXX
In aim of making it easy to follow the necessary calculations, we at first define a list of some symbols and variables that will be used in the succeeding calculations and discussion.A-0611
DIFFERENT VARIABLES 0611 meElectron rest massmpProton rest massMcRest mass of an arbitrary centre particleMoRest mass of an arbitrary orbital particlevoVelocity of a particle in orbit around the atomic core.
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cLimit velocity of matter in a closed system, equal to the light velocity in the vacuum space, measured when the source and the receiver are in relative rest state..reRest radius of the electronRoRest radius of an arbitrary orbital particleRpRest radius of the protonRcRest radius of an arbitrary centre particleDDistance between the orbital particle and the centre coreFoThe electrostatic attracting Coulomb force between the orbiting particle and a centre particle in the atomic systemFcThe centrifugal force acting on an orbiting particle as a result of its revolving movement around the centre particle in an atomic systemEkThe kinetic energy (or moving energy) of an orbiting particleEpThe potential energy of a particle situated in an electro-static force field (the Coulomb field).EtotThe total energy of a moving particle, constituting the sum of kinetic energy and potential energyZc= ZThe number of electric charged particles in the atomic core
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ToThe time it will takes for an orbiting particle to move one turn around the system's centre pointTc,pThe time it will take for the proton in the atomic core to perform one oscillating period envelop.fc,pThe frequency of the oscillating protonlThe wavelength (the distance between two successive fluctuations in a propagating wave front)aThe atomic fine structure constanta-1The inverse value of the atomic fine structure constanthThe Planck constantn((((((An integer value, being equivalent to the main quantum number in Bohr s atomic modelXXX
MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS OF THE NEW QUANTUM THEORYTo begin with we establish that Bohrs simple atomic model in its main parts was correct, yet not complete. We accentuate that because Bohrs theory erroneously has been judged as wrong or false only for reason that it has been replaced by more sophisticated quantum mechanical models later developed.
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But we will here show, that in the bottom of these new and improved theories, for instance Shrdingers wave equation for the atom, there is still Bohrs basic idea behind.
We make use of an atom consisting of Z, protons in the core centre and the same Z number of electrons in the orbits.
Between these particles, electrical forces act in accordance with Coulomb's law of electric force (0324). To begin with we do not considerate whether the neutrons in the core have any active effect on the quantum process, or not. . We do the following definitions:A-06-12
A more simple way of expressing Coulombs law is by the following expression (0325):Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
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Fq= force on a single orbital particle
me = the electron rest mass
re = the classical electron radius
c = light velocity in relative rest
D = distance between charged particles
Z = the number of charged particles in the core XXX
The orbital electron moves with velocity vo. We suppose the velocity is small compared to the limit velocity c in the system, so the kinetic energy of the electron may be computed by Newton's simplified formula (0115).XXX
THE ORBITAL ELECTRON KINETIC ENERGYThe orbiting electron has the kinetic energy in accord with Newtons second law of mass and force (0122):_A-0122
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And the potential energy of the same electron (0123):XXX
In a system where the energy content is constant, unchanged (with no radiation of energy and no absorbing of energy) the sum of kinetic and potential energy is all the time constant, hence by the equation 0122, 0123. A-0613
The total system energy of an orbiting electron is the sum of kinetic and potential energy. (By definition potential energy is defined by negative sign).XXX
Some further hypotheses about the elementary particlesIt is well known that the frequency of the emitted radiation from an atom (light) cannot be associated directly with the frequency of the orbiting electron,
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but differs from it. The reason for it will be described here in terms of some new hypotheses involving properties of those elementary particles contained in the system. Two of these hypotheses are as follows:
A-06-14
MASS/RADIUS OF PARTICLES 0614In established physical theory the belief is that the extension of a particle (or particle system) is in an inverse proportion to its mass or energy content. However, this belief is, in the author's opinion, founded on a miss--interpretation emanating from De Broglie's formula D = n.h/(2.p.p), applied as a universal rule for particles, or particle systems. Many experiments have been performed but there are no exact knowledge about size parameters of particles.XXX
In our theory we regard electrons, as well as protons, as point particles having vortex form of different dimensions. By a quantum resonance process is valid: (see 0217,1232 )A-0217
This equation cannot be derived in this stage but is derimore exact later.
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MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 06-19XXX
Polarized electrical forces 0615The electrostatic Coulomb force acts in a polarizing way on the proton, much in analogy with how a torsion momentum arises on a current wire loop situated in a magnetic field.
In accordance with this hypothesis, a torsion force is created on the proton particle and the magnitude of this torsion force or momentum will be in proportion to an angular divergence from a neutral position. In combination with mass inertial forces an oscillation is created in the system.xx
When the proton is twisting in the electrostatic field, inertial forces are created in accord with Newton's second law of force (0116), giving:A-0616
Fm is the torsion force on the proton, acting on the protons radius Rp. Mp is the protons mass. Even see the common definition of the concept of acceleration in connection to the force, formula 0103A-0617
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MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 06-20XXX
When the proton twist around its axis actuated by the electric force field and the inertial forces, the oscillating amplitude is a small distance s on the particles surface periphery with radius Rp from the centre point.XXX
BALANCE BETWEEN FORCESThese forces Ft, and Fm, here defined, are in balance at each moment of time, creating an electro-mechanic oscillator, described by the differential equation:A-061
XXX
THE OSCILLATING PROTONWe define two parameters for simplifying our mathematical description and analysis of the quantum mechanical effect,Ko and Kc. KoOve Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 06-21xx
and Kc respectively, divided by the distance D squared between charged particles, give the Coulomb force of particles involved. Ko is associated to the electric force acting on the orbiting particle, Kc is associated to the electric force acting on the centre particle in the core. Zo and Zc respectively, being the total number of active unit charges in each point = Z.A-0619
XXX
The force Fc is acting on the centre particle (commonly a proton) in the atomic core. The Coulomb force is polarized in such a way, that if the proton tries to twist around its neutral axis, a torque momentum arises on it. The easiest way to illustrate this effect is to reduce the proton mass to a point mass situated on a pendulum axis distance with radius Rc=Rp, then calculating the torque force on it.
For small amplitudes in the oscillating, the torque force approximately will be in direct proportion to the relation s/Rp, where s is a very small angular distance on this circle that the pendulum axis
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MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 06-22XXXXXX
describes on a pendulum axis distance with radius Rc=Rp, then calculating the torque force on it.A-0620
Solving the differential equationEquations 0616, 0617 are put together to form a differential equation where the proton's oscillation time and frequency is computed.a) The searched differential equation
b) System constant for the oscillating period
c) The protons oscillating time in the electric field
d) The Coulomb force on the proton particleXXX
tc is here defined as the oscillation time of the proton particle of the atomic system, caused by existing electrostatic forces and mass inertial forces that are involved in the process.
Because the proton, as well as the electron, is an electrical charged particle, both particles are 0surrounded by electrical fields. But there is a great
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MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 06-23XX
difference between these two particles, they differ approximately in the ration 1:2000 in mass, with the result that the lighter particle, here the electron, will be more sensitive to disturbances in the surrounding electrical field.
We introduce, in a similar way to Bohr, a quantum number n, constituting an integer value between these two time periods giving:-06-21
XXX
and the corresponding oscillation frequency of the proton:A-0622
a) An integer relationship between the protons oscillating frequency and the orbital frequency. n is an integer value 1,2,3n
b) The electrons orbiting time
c) The electron or biting frequency
d) The protons oscillating frequency
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MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 06-24XXX
For simplicity, we here assume that the orbiting electrons move in a circle or an ellipse. But that must not be perfectly true for validity of the relations above. We can assume that the orbiting radius and the orbiting velocity only represents a mean value of the movement.
With aid of all other results as achieved here before, we work with the equation 0621a in aim to solve out the orbital velocity of the electrons.A-0622
a) Combining equations 0621a, 0621b
b) The equation 0620c
c) Combining 0622a, 0622b
d) Solution of vo, from 0622c e) The equation 0620b
f) The equation 0620d Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 06-25XXX
g) The equation 0619a
h) Calculation vo, by the equations
0622d, 0622e, 0622f and 0622g i) Extracting the atom fine structure constant from equation 0622h
j) Using the equation 0217 on 0622i
k) Converting the orbital velocity in 0622h with aid of the equation 0622j XXX
The factor a ((is usually named "the atomic fine structure constant" having the exact measured value of 1/137.03 (no dimension). Our value as defined by the relationship of the proton mass and the electron mass, risen to 2/3 is 149.xx, hence diverging approximately +9.4% from the measured exact value. We do not know the exact ratio Rp/re in 0217, maybe that is the reason to the discrepancy.623
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MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 06-26XXX
a) The atomic fine structure constant is the relation between the proton mass/the electron mass raised to power of 2/3 (approximately)
b) The inverse value of the atomic fine structure constantA-0624
XXX
The electrons orbital radiusFurthermore, there are a balance between the orbital centrifugal force (0155b) inertial force and the electrical Coulomb force, givingA-0625
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MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 06-227
XXX
a) The centrifugal force (inertial force) on the moving and rotating electron 0155b
b) The Coulomb force of the revolving electron 0620d
c) Defined constant for the Coulomb force 0619a
d) Balance between the centrifugal force and the Coulomb force
e) Combination of 0625a and 0625b
f) The electrons orbital velocity, 0624
The atoms orbital radius, the end result of the calculation 0625
A-0626
The orbital radius of the electron in the atomic system Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 06-28XXX
THE SYSTEMS TOTAL STORED ENERGY We now can compute the total energy stored in the system by using 0122, 0123,0619a, 0619bA-06-27
a) Kinetic energy 0613
b) Potential energy 0613
c) Combining 0613a and 0613b
d) The orbiting velocity 0624
e) Equation 0619a
f) The orbiting radius 0626
End formula for total system energy 0625
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MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 06-29XXX
THE ENERGY DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TWO SUCESSIVE ENERGY LEVELSWe study the energy in two different cases, when n=n1 and when n=n2, corresponding to the total system energies of E1 and E2 respectively.
When the orbital particle jumps between these two states of energies, the energy difference E1- E2 is emitted in the form of radiation (light) or absorbing radiation from the environment. We find this energy difference to be:A-0628
a) The energy difference between two successive states
b) Using the energy equation 0627XXX
THE FREQUENCY OF THE EMITTED RADIATIONAs have been stated here before, the frequency of the radiated or absorbed energy of the atom is not the same as the frequency of the orbiting electron as computed from the equation 0621. Instead, the
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 06-30XXX
emitted or absorbed frequency of the atom constitutes a medium value of the difference value between two successive proton resonance frequencies at states n1 and n2 respectively.
Hence, by this hypothesis we can define:A-0629
A-0630ab
RADIATION FREQUENCY AT JUMP BETWEEN TWO SUCCESIVE ENERGY LEVELS Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 06-31XXX
a) Combination of the equations 0624, 0621b
b) Using the equation 0141
c) Combining equation 0630a and 0630b
d) Equation 0626
e) Equation 0629
f) Inserting results in 0630eXXX
THE PLANCKS CONSTANT hThe Planck is the relationship between the emitted energy quantum (see equation 0628 ) and the frequency of the same quantum (see equation 0630).Hence, if we divide the equation 0628 with 0630, we get the Planck constant, which is :A-0631
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MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 06-32xx
We compute the numerical value of h in 0641 by inserting known numerical constants, giving 6.62E-34 Ws2 as the official known value where the atomic fine structure constant inverse is defined to 137.03 Our preliminary value is 149 (appr). .
The reason for the small discrepancy is that the relation Rp/re is some 19% too large in comparison to the measured value of a((=137.03. In turn the reason for that is due to imprecisely known parameters of mass distribution, difference in mass density between the electron and the proton, and charge distribution of the proton and the electron particles respectively.XXX
Anyhow with that the relation 0631 shows that Plancks constant is a system constant for the atom, only, and not any general constant usable for other types of particle systems.A-0632
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MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 06-33XXX
BOHRS QUANTUM MECHANIC RELATIONIts well known that Bohr made use of a mathematical relation that he not on pure theoretical ground could motivate. Even r quantum mechanical
theory has not succeeded to present any good motivation of this relationship. late
Bohr's quantum mechanical relation, written m.v.D=n.h/(2.() then is computed in the following way: Inserting the result of 0624,0626,0631 in the product of m.v.D: :A-0633
a) The equation 0604
b) The equation 0626
c) Combination of 0624 and 0626
d) The equation 0631 for Plancks constant
e) End expression for the product m.v.D, the Bohrs quantum mechanical relation.
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MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 06-34XXX
which is the quantum mechanical condition that Bohr used for his quantum theory, but without giving any physical/mathematical or logical motivation to it. From equation 0217 we compute the proton radius to approximately 35 fermi (1 fermi=1E-15 meter). The official sanctioned value for the proton radius is assigned to the charge radius of a point particle, hence not the same as the mass inertial radius (or the spatial extension) of a particle. The charge radius being in the range of 1 to 2 fermi.
Its important to make this distinction very clear, that because otherwise its easy to make mistakes in the interpretation of this particle or system parameter. XXX
RYDBERGS CONSTANTRydberg's constant is the inverse value of the emitted light wavelength, the f(n) and Z terms not included. We calculate Rydberg's constant to:
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MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 06-35XXX
a) The equation 0630f
b) Equation 0619b for the limit force between 2 electrons on distance 2x re
c) The wave length when the radiation velocity is equal to c, the equation 0142)
d) Rydbergs constant is defined as the inverse value of the wave-length , f(n) and Z not included.XXX
THE MINIMUM ENERGY QUANTUMThe minimum energy quantum as emitted from an ordinary atom is 13.6 eV (electron Volts), calculated bY :A-0635
The equation 0628
b) Common definition of energy expressed in units of electron volt, (see definition 0636
Emitted or radiated energy in electron Volt
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MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 06-36XXX
DEFINITION OF THE UNIT 1 ELEXTRON VOLT 1 electron volt is defined as this work performed by a charged particle with unity charge when moving in an electric field and where the voltage drop is 1 volt. Electron volt (eV)=mass (kg) times light velocity (m/s) squared devided by the unit charge (As)NUMERIC DETERMINATION OF SOME ATOMIC CONSTANTSBy inserting figures of known physical constants in the formulae above is achievedre= 2.817 940 923E-15
a_((= 137.035 989 561
c = 2.99 792 458 E8
vbohr = 2.187691417E6 .Z/n
Dbohr= 5.29 174 2489E-11 n2/Z
RRydbergr= 1.09797E7
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THE SHRDINGER EQUATIONShrdinger's wave equation has been of central importance in the development of atomic quantum theory.
The equation is represented by the function y(. Much has been speculated about what this mystical equation really stands for and what it represents or how it shall be interpreted physically. The most usual interpretation is that it describes the probability of finding an electron in a specific point in the atomic system.
It will here be shown that it, in principle, is the same as our equation 0620, but transformed to conditions at the orbital level of the atom. In our equation the function stands for this deviation from a neutral position the proton in the nucleus show up in each time event, transformed to the electron shell level by the electric fields. In its most simple form, Shrdinger's equation may be written as:XXX
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MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 06-38XXX
We derive this formula with start from results got from our own theoy:A-0639
a) Equation 0620a , b) Equation 0626a
c) Equation 0101 , d) Equation 0620b
e) Equation 0627c ,f) Equation 0624
g) Equation 0623c ,h) Equation 0627b
i) Equation 0631c , j) Equation 0619b
k) Equation 0619b XXX
If the value of k/v2 is inserted in 0639, Shrdingers equat ion In 0638 is acheived.
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MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 06-39A-0640
XXX
SOME CONCLUSIONSMost of all the results here achieved correspond well with known results, accepted in current quantum physical theories, but there are also differences that deserve some attention. In some distinct points we here summarize the most important and unique results that have been so far arrived:
Quantum mechanical processes within an atom can be described in terms of well known physical laws from electro physics and by using Newton's mass inertial laws on it. In this way the model gives a full deterministic description of these processes going on in the atom.
Planck's constant is an atomic system
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MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 06-40XXX
constant limited to atomic systems or atomic like systems, and having no common use. The constant is composed by four other more fundamental entities, the electron rest mass me, the electron rest radius re, the velocity of light c and the proton rest mass, Mp.
The atomic fine structure constant is a relation between the electron rest mass me, and the proton rest mass Mp, risen to 2/3, (the exact value corresponds to the exponent of 0.65467 instead of 2/3 = 0.6667. This constant is contained in Planck's constant, which can be written h= 2p me.re.c.a-1, where a-1= Mp /me risen to 2/3 approximatively.
The model explain why the radiated or absorbed frequency not is the same as the electron orbiting frequency, but a medium value of a mix of 2 successive proton resonance frequencies.
Elementary particles of extreme nature, since they have a point-structure, have polarized electric fields as well as even magnetic polarize field.
The proton is a point particle with an isotropic distribution of matter (no quarks as current theory suggests). Mass density in all point-formed particles is regarded as a constants entity, question mark for electron.
The proton radius or its geometrical extension is in the range of 35 fermi, hence larger than given by official data, 1 to 2 fermi. The proton Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 06-41XXX
The radius as here discussed is the proton's spatial extension, not its charge equivalence radius as seen by another charged particle at probing experiments.
xx
COMMON DISCUSSIONThe numerical value of the atomic fine structure constants (inverse) as here estimated to the value of 1/149.9 that is to be compared with the exact measured value of 1/137.03, that means 9.4% too small. But in pure theoretical calculus as here performed, where many uncertain factors are involved, a result within limits of 10% may be seen as a good result.
One source of error may be that we not exactly know the distribution of mass in a proton and an electron. Another factor of error may be how the electric force field is distributed around a particle body.
From history is well known that many have tried to find logical explanations to the atomic constants with start from mostly pure philosophical speculations. In most these cases one have started from the idea that these constants not can be explained by rational methods but are associated with mystical numbers , like for instance the number of p, and the base of the natural logarithms, the number of "e".
It is a matter of fact that these speculations are erroneous, leading nowhere. As said before, these Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 06-42Xx
atomic constants have no common use, valid in atoms or atomic like particle systems, only.
Another parameter we briefly shall discuss is the radius or extension of a particle. Much researching activities have been performed, aimed to get an idea of this parameter, both regarding systems of particles as well as for single elementary particles.
Ernest Rutherford was the first scientist who by experiment and theoretical calculus, estimated the size of the atomic nucleus. He found that the atom mostly was empty void, where the active mass was concentrated in a centre point, the atomic nucleus core.
He bombarded a thin barrier of gold atoms target with alpha particles (a two valence atomic fragment, equivalent with a helium nuclei) and studied how these particles were spread in the environment after the collision event.
He estimated the gold atom nucleus as having an extension of about 47 fermi (1 fermi is 1E-15 meter).
Recounting this value to the particle level of a single nucleon entity (using the drop model of the atomic core) , a proton or neutron entity, give a value of about 7 fermi (presumed that the nucleons in the kernel are very hard packet), that we not are exactly sure about however).
Newer experiments, using other experimental methods, have given values around 1-2 fermi,
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MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 06-43XXX
hence largely diverging from Rutherford's origin result (Obs! The charge radius, not the spatial radius).
But as a remark, it is usually pointed out that these results not shall be taken too seriously, there are always many unsure factors involved into these measurements, also indirectly interpreted by mathematical tools.
Its fully clear it is not the geometric radius that is measured in these probing experiments, but instead an equivalent "charging radius" that is seen by the probing charged particles. This "radius" will be the same un-regarding particle type of a unit charged particle forms and is independent of mass or geometrical extension.
The "classical "electron radius is got by pure theoretical calculus to 2.83 fermi, by integrating the charge force from infinity to the limiting radius limit. In our theory, we have not derived the electron radius in this way, but instead from start how the electrical Coulomb force is generated. In this context it's hard to believe that a particle, like for instance a proton being nearly 2000 times heavier, has the same radius (spatial extension) as an electron has. But that will be the case if we shall believe on current "experimental" interpretations in this task.
However, later in this theory we shall further investigate these properties of elementary particles.
In classic theory its usual to do a rough estimation of
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MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 06-44Xx
a particle's spatial extension by using De Brogue's idea that each particle or body moving, is associated with a wave. The relation that is used is l =h/(2.p.p), where l is the wavelength or the spatial extension, h is Planck's constant and p is the particle's momentum, the the product m.v.
If for test we do an estimation of the electron's radius with aid of De Broglie's formula for the innermost orbit, is valid that vo = c/a-1, which gives l=re.a-12 = 18774 x re, which of course is a completely erroneous value.
If we are kind we may put vo =c, then we achieve a considerable smaller value, but still more than 100 times larger than the classical radius of the electron. If we for a proton that moves with the velocity of light uses the same formula, we achieve 0.2 fermi, giving 10 times smaller result than this value that can be established by probing experiments measurement. Hence, De Broglie's idea is not useable when estimating the spatial extension of elementary particles.
Then, what is the reason to this great uncertainty of the spatial extension of elementary particles? Of course the most simple answer is that all measurements must be done by indirect methods, by pure mathematical estimations, or by a mixture of them both.
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MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 06-45XXX
Most of all experiments are performed approximately in the same way as Rutherford did, meaning charged particles with high energy being shot towards for instance an atomic core, then studying the spreading effect in the environment space.
What the probe particles in all these experiment see is a point-formed charge and not a particle that occupy a specific volume in space. The measuring result will be the same un-regarding content of mass. Hence the extension of an electron and a proton will be the same in this probing.XXX
Therefore, we must make distinction between a particle's "charge radius" and a particle's "spatial radius".XXX
The spatial radius only can be achieved by collision experiments "head on" with aid of uncharged point particles, and where the extension of the probe particles itself are well known. But that is not the case, even the probe particles have spatial extensions with value that is not known.XXX
THE u-MESON ATOMIn an "ordinary" atom the orbiting particles are electrons. However, if these electrons are substituted by u-ons, which are some kind of heavy electron particles, but having a mass approximately 207
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times larger, a new sort of atom is achieved, or a new sort of matter is created.
Atoms of this kind decay very rapidly, however, but they live so long time that they can be registered in experiments.
We apply our theory on this type of atom. By starting from the formula 0636 and making some transformations on it, using results from our theory. we find that the results will be the same as from conventional quantum theory.
The following transforms are performedA-06-44
a) Equation 0626 b) Equation 0631c
c) Equation 0323c d) Equation 0322f
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MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 06-47XXX
e) Equation 0323 f) Equation 0437
g) inserting parameters in equation 0641aXXX
Reducing the expression in 0641 to a more conventional form, giving:A-06-42
End result for the orbital radius according equation 0626 where the orbital particle of an electron has been replaced by a u-on particle.XXX
THE BOHR MAGNETONWhen an orbiting electron moves in an atomic system, that is equivalent with a closed electric current loop. This current loop generates a magnetic field and a magnetic momentum, which by tradition is computed by: A-06-43
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Where u is the calculated magnetic momentum, i is the current strength and A is the area that the current loop encloses.XXX
The electron that moves in the innermost orbit in the hydrogen atom, generates a magnetic momentum in accordance with the above equation. This momentum has been given the name of "Bohr magneton". We make use of the following equations for deriving the "Bohr magneton".:A-6-44
a) Equation 0621b, b) Equation 0624
c) Equation 0626, d) Equation 0342
e) Equation 0631cXXX
The orbiting electron encloses the following area:
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MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 06-49A-0645
A-0646
Now we insert the values in equation 0644 and get:XXX
This equation can also be converted to an equation where the magnetic constant uo is included. That is done in the following way
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MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 06-5006-47
XXX
ARTIFICIAL ATOMSA new favourite sport in the physical research is to catch single atomic ions (charged atoms) or single particles in electromagnetic traps where they can be studied during very long time.
A sole electron caught in this way and where the electron moves in a closed orbit loop , can in some respect be compared with an artificial atom without material core in the revolution centre. And in this way sometimes this arrangement has been presented and interpreted.
We compute the revolution frequency of the electron in accordance with the formulae:
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008XXX
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 06-51A-0648
a) Equation 0431b
b) Equation 0551b
c) Equivalence between 0648a and 0648b
d) Equivalents between 0648a and 0648b
e) Extracting of the velocity v
f) Equation 0141b
g) Calculating the orbiting time of a circular orbit, equation 0621b
h) Combining 0648f and 0648g
i) Inserting the value on v from the equation 0648e in equation 0648h
j) Inserting 0646j in 0646i
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MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 06-52XXX
When studying this formula seduces us to believe that these artificial atoms not have something to do with the conditions in an ordinary atom having an active charged core.
However, as said before, every attempt to generalize the atomic constants and relations outside the atom is doomed to fail. With a simple operation performed on the formula above, we can easily see that Planck's constant can be eliminated. We compute the revolution frequency of the electron in accordance withA-0649
XXX
hence, contains no factor from the common quantum mechanics.
Clearly talking, Planks constant is a pure atomic constant, having no common use for all complex particle systems. Thats also true for all other constants associated with common matter.
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THE QUANTUM MECHA-NICAL HALL EFFECTOhms law is known and defined as the law where the electric current flowing through an electric conductor is in exact proportion to the voltage amplitude applied over the substrate.
In 1985 Klaus von Klitzing (Nobel Prize awarded) discovered that this law was not exactly true during special conditions. When cooled down the substrate to a temperature very near the absolute temperature of 0K, it was shown that the current flow and hence even the electrical resistance in the substrate was quantified in integer quantum steps of the material.
We will here derive a formula for the phenomenon, using basic concepts of our own theory as a base.
We assume elementary charges (electrons for instance) are out-placed in an array structure. Between each point in this structure there exists an exchange of matter BY the electric field, E
We study such pair of electrical charged points as a small capacitor. The virtual impedance between two such charged points in the array is equal to the quotient between the electric voltage between these point and the equivalent imaginary electric current between these points.
When an external magnetic field is applied over the substrate a force is created and a torque is generated on the electrons, in turn creating a voltage, the HALL effect.
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MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 06-54A-0651
XXX
When the external B-field is applied over the substrate, transversally over it, the electric field lines will be effected by a force.
Then the electrical point charges will be effected by a twisting force and the capacitor parameters will be changed by a little divergence in distance, dD. Hence we name this change in distance between the charged points by dD.
The B field will create a force B.e.v (0423), where B is the applied magnetic field density, e the point charge and v the point charges velocity in the magnetic field (formula 0432 some re-structured).
The force holding back the magnetic force, is the
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Coulomb force acting between the charged points ( (electrons) and the core particles into the atom. These two forces (Fb, Fe), act on a momentum arm of distance D, where D is the electrons intermittent distance to the core. Calculating the deviation distance dD of the point charged placement in the matrix positionXXX
A-0653
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Calculation of the deviation value dD when applying a magnetic field with density B over the substrateA-0654
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XXX
The first term has the unity of ohm and the complete expression has the unity of ohm per length unit over a square.
h/(e2.n) = 25 990 ohm
eo/(a2(((re) = 0.16666
2/p = 0.63662Then the total factor after the main impedance expression will be:
0.1666 x 0.6666 x 7.3 = 0.8 = appr A-06-57
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MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 06-58A-06-58
XXX
Expressing the same thing in a more fundamental way as here derived, it will be:A-06-59
075
06-60
Picture got from Quantum Hall Effect 05/02/87 by David R. Leadley
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The Hall effect has got many practical applications in probes and sensors, especially useable in dusty and dirty places.
Even used as non-mechanic commutations in electric motors.
READERS NOTES:
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READERS NOTES:
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START---7
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 07-01XXXX
Chapter 7
THE ATOMIC COREOve Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 07-02XXX
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MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 07-03XXX
FORCES IN NATURECurrent description of forces are classified in the following way:
electromagnetic forces
gravitation
strong interaction forces
weak interaction forces
In all these cases the basic idea is that inter-mediating particles are thought to mediate the force. Each such force has its own force particle. In electromagnetism this particle is the photon. Gravitational interaction forces are mediated by gravitons Other kinds of intermediating particles are gluons, mesons, bosons and so on.
All that is very unclear and diffuse and associated with a lot of logical problems and contradictions. Some of these particles must be without mass (virtual mass less) but having energy, properties that contradict both Newtons and Einsteins ideas of relations between mass and energy.
Some of these force particles have mass in free Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 07-04Xxx
state but are not weighted in the total mass of a particle system (mesons in the atomic core for instance), hold together by these particles. No believable logical/physical theory can be offered that can explain how attracting forces between particles in this way can be created. Our opinion about different forces in nature are as followsXXX
electromagnetic forces are associated to the particles spin or rotation movement and are generated by jet propulsion forces caused by that matter is streaming in and out of the particle. Of that reason these forces are both attracting and repulsing due to direction of spin.
the gravitational force are created by a creation process of new matter in the Universe, where substance of the vacuum field is condensed to cores of real matter.
the strong force is a shadow force created by the full vacuum field pressure of the universal vacuum field acting on the limiting surfaces of elementary particles.
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 07-05XXX
In this sense gravitation primarily is a surface effect and secondarily a mass force proportional to the number of elements taking action in the process. That means that gravitation not exactly is in proportion to mass.
Hence the mass equivalence principle, meaning the exact equivalence between heavy and inertial mass, not is valid.
Then Einsteins general relativity theory is invalid beqause thus theory entirely is founded on the validity of this equivalence.
the weak force is no force but only a statistical method of describing the decay process of a particle system.
As a complement, we even mean that the inertial force got when mass change itsXxx
moving state in accord with Newtons laws, also may be included in the list of very fundamental forces.Xx
Hence we find that we can distinguish between 4 to 5 different sorts of forces with significant and differing Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 07-06XXX
character. However, all of them have its origin from the same source and process, namely the mass inertial force and the action of the vacuum mass on matter.
In this chapter we will interpret the strong force and how this force is coming up in accord with our theory.xxx
A NEW MODEL OF THE ATOMIC COREThe atomic research workS by investigating the inherent structure and properties of the atomic nucleus. Of course, the problems of investigation depends on the extremely small dimensions of the core, related to the atom in its wholeness.
The methods used for investigating the atomic core mainly are of indirect nature, i.e. probe particles are shot towards the nucleus, and by studying how these particles are spread in the environment void, it is possible to draw conclusions of the building structure, Ssize and other properties of the atomic core.Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 07-06XX
The first known scientist who used this probing method was Ernest Rutherford, who shot 2 valence electric charged particles (helium cores) towards a target consisted by a thin barrier of gold (a gold sheet). The radiating source was a radioactive material emitting alpha particles having very high velocity when emitted.
Rutherford discovered that the alpha particles declined in a varying manner and sometimes so much that they bounced back in opposite direction.
By processing these measurement data by mathematical statistical methods, it was possible to get a picture of the atom systems inherent building, even included the approximate extension of the atomic core.
He found that the nucleus of the gold atom had an extension of about 47 fermi (1 fermi is 1E-15 meter). By the knowledge of the number of particles that occupy such an atomic core and with the preliminary assumption that these nuclei particles were tight packed together, an individual extension of each single entity could be calculated in the range of 9 fermi.Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 07-07XXX
Many similar experiments have been performed since then, and today the extension of a proton or a neutron is estimated in the range of 1(2 fermi, even if these results still are very unsure (Observe ,the charging radius, not the spatial radius or extension).
In spite of intensive efforts, there is still no clear idea of the building and structure of an atomic core, even if there exists several models where the drop model is one of the most popular ones.
And the situation is approximately the same regarding these forces that are assumed holding the nucleus together. What is known, these forces cannot be of electromagnetic nature because they are considerably larger than what can be motivated by electromagnetic interaction. And strong forces are always attracting, not repelling as electrical forces can be.
In an attempt to on pure theoretic basis describe, and eventually even explain, the strong force between nuclear particles, modern physical theory make use of force particles in a similar way as how electromagnetic forces are described in electro- magnetic theory.
However, these ideas create a lot of oddities, among them it is not possible to explain how an attracting force really is created, furthermore its not possible Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 07-08XXXXxx
to account for why the mass in these force particles, obviously bounded in the atomic core, not are included in the cores totally weight when weighting them in atomic mass spectrometer measurements.
Therefore, our opinion are that these ideas of describing and trying to explaining the strong nuclear force are deeply erroneous, and therefore we shall devote attention to another idea.
The idea is that the strong force is the result of the full pressure from the vacuum field towards nearby particles, hence a force acting only on very close mutual distances.
Furthermore, we disclaim the drop model for the atomic nucleus. In most radioactive decays, alpha particles appear, constituting a collection of nuclear particles, 2 protons and 2 neutrons in a common cluster..
Furthermore, when studying curves on the nuclear binding energy, is found a periodicity of 4 that seems to reflect the fact that the atomic core is made up by modules of alpha particles or alpha particles.Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 07-09Xx
Furthermore, it is an open question whether nuclear particles are so tight packed that they touch each other. If so was the case, it would be natural to motivate some details that are known about properties of the atomic nuclei
1) the strong force is about 150 times larger than the electric force
2) the nuclear force is saturated, which means that it reach a limit on a distinct distance
3) an atomic nucleus contains less mass than the nuclear particles together in free state.
4) Other facts are, that the binding energy for each single nucleon for lighter elements is about1 Mev,
but increases for heavier elements, reaching a limit at about 8 Mev, thereafter decreasing in a small degree for very heavy elements. The fact that the binding energy is influenced by the number of elements in the nucleus core, points on that all particles in the nucleus are contributing to the binding force.
If this hypothesis is true, that nuclear particles are so tight pressed together, nearly touching each other, we can imagine that the mass defect depends on that the particles involved are touching or are Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 07-09XXX
sharing a common amount of mass.
This mass defect (decrease in mass) is related to how hard the particles are pressed together, which in turn is determined by the total number of particles in the core.
But there may be quite other reasons for this mass defect.
The binding energy for heavy nuclei is in the range of 8 Mev for each single nucleon entity, expressed in energy units, but is only 1( 1.5 Mev for lighter elements.
xxx
SOME KNOWN FACTSThe strong force is in the range of 150 times larger compared with the electromagnetic force, calculated on the same mass and on the same relative distance.
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MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 07-10XXX
The strong force has a very short action active range in the atomic core.
The strong force is only attracting, not repelling as for the electromagnetic force.
The binding energy between nucleons is in the range of 1( 8 Mev and high for very heavy cores.
For binding two protons in the atomic core, one or more neutrons are needed.
The strong force is saturating at some level, meaning, increases not unlimited.
The weight of an atomic core is less than the weight of the individual parts in free state, named the mass defect.
We will do an attempt to sketch a rough idea of principles how the strong force works, in the way we assume it to be. Our basic idea of our theory is that all forces in nature are created in interaction with the action of the universal mass field, hence so even for the strong nuclear force as here will discussed.
The force that conserves an elementary particle is that surface, inertial force that is generated by the universal mass field inflow of density q, (see 0323 ) acting on the limiting surface of a particle.
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 07-11
xxx
We must imagine that this force, at least in a limited degree, even acts between individual particles on very short distances, for instances between two nearby nuclear particles situated very closed together.
If we study a particle with analogy of a black hole, meaning that the particle screen everything that tries to penetrate its surface, a partial shadow is achievedbehind the particle and a corresponding pushing impulse force is achieved in the shadow direction..
The maximum acting impulse force we calculate from the formula 0308 to:A-0707
xxx
If this particle is shielded by another nearby particle, a pushing force, or an equivalent attracting force, will Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 07-12
XXX
be created, which acts as long as the distance between the two particles is small in relation to the free mean part of the fields free entities , however a factor that we has no full knowledge of. But as an approximation we can estimate this force to:
A-07-01
F is the created shadow force
D is the centre to centre distance between two A1 and A2 are the limiting interacting areas of nearby particle
The value of x=2 if the inverse square law is valid, in other cases x= 1->2
xxx
We here re-define some of earlier done definitions in our theory (022):
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 07-12
A-07-02ab
-07-02cdeh
a) Equation 0222 b) Equation 0237 c) c) Equation 0217 d) Equation 0317 e) e) Equation 0318b f) Equation 0437
Applying these results on equation 0702 gives:
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 07-13A-0703
XXX
THE PROTON
We begin with to find a simple and natural Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 07-14XX
mechanism for the existence and creation of singular point formed particles, to which even the proton belongs. Contrary to the current standard particle theory, we do not believe on quarks and gluons being building blocks of protons and other similar particles, having fractional and color charges and other similar properties, concepts invented by theoretical physicists only in aim to conceal lack of basic understanding. Instead we will found our ideas on already well-known properties of nature, Newtons mass inertial laws and the electromagnetic properties of matter in cooperation.
In our model, a point formed particle is build up with a collection of very small particles in analogy with how gas or a cloud of raindrops is composed, that analogy in aim of doing our model more visual.
Our main basic hypotheses of point formed elementary particles, to which the proton belongs, may be listed in the following way:
In a rough analogy with a cloud of gas, the movement of the gas particles create expanding forces which try to annihilate the particle.
External forces act on the particle surface, emanating from the common vacuum field of density q.
Where q=1/eo,, and where eo is the permittivity of the vacuum constant, in our theory being the value of the vacuum mass density (see formula 0322).
Working external and internal forces are in equilibrium state, giving stability of the particle.
Interaction between internal forces (forces associated with mass) together with internal and external impact forces giving rise to oscillations within the particle mass, mainly in the radius direction. The oscillating amplitude is denoted by symbol s. Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008 XHERE
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 07-15Xxx
the gas particles rotates around its own axis (spin). This spin movement is coupled to another property of the particle, the electrical charge field that surrounds the particle. Because of this rotation the electric field is distributed like the light from a lighthouse in the environment space.
The oscillating movement in the particle radius direction creates disturbances in the surrounding electrical field. In combination with an assumed memory effect in this field, a quantum state arises, a phase condition between the oscillating movement in the radius direction and the oscillating movement of the particle in its own electromagnetic field , in addition even the spin movement).
That is the mechanism that create the mass of point formed particles, to which even protons belong.
Xxx
DEFINITIONS
With start from these hypotheses, we develop our theory for the proton (as well as even for other types of elementary particles of similar type). We start by defining some symbols :
Ro
The mean proton radius
R
The intermittent proton radius
p
The intern pressure in the proton at rest state
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 07-16
Xxx
VoThe protons volume when R=RoVThe protons volume when R=RAoThe protons active surface when R=RosThe oscillating amplitude in radial directionPoThe total pressure towards the proton surface at restPThe total pressure towards the proton surface at active statePeffThe differential pressure P-Po over the proton surface MThe protons masscThe limit velocity into matter, equal to the light velocity in vacuum space as measured in a static arrangement qThe mass density in vacuum spaceTcThe protons spinning time TrThe oscillation time in the particles radius directionnThe protons quantum number in integer being a relation between oscillating time in the radius direction and the protons spinning time. Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 07-17xxx
DERIVING AN DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION FOR THE PROTON OSCILLATIONWe begin by formulating a differential equation that will determine the oscillating movement of the proton particle in the radius direction. In this aim we start with using Boyles law (0159) for gases, saying that the product of pressure and volume in a closed system, is a constant entity, presupposed that temperature is held constant unchanged.A-0705
Boyles law; if the temperature is held constant, the product of pressure and volume is always constant (even see equation 0517)xxx
The particle has a volume that is a function of the radius, risen to cube and multiplied with a constant, Kv.A-0706
a) The particle volume in neutral state
b) The particle volume in active state Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 07-18xxx
We insert result from 0706 in 0705 and get:A-0707
The total acting force on the particle surface in a neutral state or in a compressed state then will beA-0708
Xxx
The particles active limiting surface in neutral respective compressed or expanded state will be:A-0709
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 07-19Xxx
The effective acting force on the particles surface in each moment of compressed or expanded state then will be the active surface multiplied with the acting pressure:A-0710
A-07-10
xxx
In each moment, this force interact with the mass inertial force in accord with Newtons law of force, where force is mass times acceleration (see formula 0116c )
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 07-20
A-0711
A-0712
In each moment of time, this force is in balance with the total force acting on the particles surface in accord with the formula 0710, giving
A-0712
Xxx
Making it possible to solve this equation, we must know the value of Po and in what way the particle mass is related to the particles radius. We begin with by computing. Po In each moment of the oscillating period. A mass of dm is exchanged between the outer field, having the density 1/eo ,(see 0322), and the particle, giving: Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 07-21A-0713
We make use of the equation 0250 that makes it possible to convert mass to energy0714
But in accord with Newton energy is e force times distance (0121), which for equation 0714 givesA-0715
A-0217
The mass content in a particle is in direct relation to its radius in cube (0217) givingxxx
We simplify the equation 0715 with aid of earlier achieved results , giving: Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 07-22A-0706a,b
A-0716cdefg
a) Equation 0715
b) Simplifying the equation 0716a, dividing both sides with the mass M
c,d) Equations 0437
e) Equation 0217
f) Equation 0323
g) Inserting c,d,e,f in equation 0716b
We combine this result with equation 0712, giving
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 07-23A-0717
xxx
If x<<1, which we here can assume when the oscillating amplitude is very small in relation to the particles radius, this equation can be simplified to the form of a harmonic differential equation, giving the solution:A-0718
The time for an oscillation period of the particle in the radius direction
Simplifying the equation 0718 with use of result from equation 0217xxx
These vibrations in the particles radius direction generate disturbances in the environment electric field, where resonance is created between these vibrations in the radial direction with vibrations in the particles own electromagnetic field, which is: Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 07-24A-0719
a) Common equation for a harmonic oscillation where the pendulum arm Is R, the active mass M and the active force F
b) Equation 0217
c) The electric force from a point charge, the equation 0325
d) Inserting 0719b,c in S gives the protons oscillating time in its own electric force field
We combine 0718 with 0718d, and assume there is an integer quantum relationship between the protons oscillation time and the orbital quantum time. That is the same process as described for the quantum process ion the atom.
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 07-25FA-07-20
xxx
The quantum number n means that the particle oscillation in the radius direction is an integer multiple by the particles oscillation time in its own electric field.For the proton the quantum value n=4A-0721
AGGREGATING OF 2 PROTONS
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 07-26Xxx
When 2 protons are closed together, they rotate on a common distance of =D , hold together by the strong force (0703).
The orbital frequency is the same as some of the protons self resonance frequenciesxxxxxx
From these relations the revolving distance between the two protons preliminary can be calculated, as well as even the protons orbit velocity:A-07-22
a) Equation 0703, b) Equation 0155b
c) Equation 0718 ,d) Equation 0719d
e) Resonance between the protons oscillation time and the orbital time
f) The equation 0217
g) The system radius from 2 possible proton resonance states Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 07-27xxx
Hence we see that the protons are moving very closed to each other, but without touching. That may means that a common amount of mass exists, motivating the mass defect in atomic cores.Xxx
THE NEUTRONThe neutron is composed by 1 proton and 1 electron. The electron moves in orbit with a very high velocity, then increases its mass in relation to the rest state (see formula 0242).
That will do that the neutron will have a larger mass than the proton, the electron included, weighted together in free, rest state. The electron mass will be 2.53 times larger than corresponding mass in rest according to this model.A-07-23
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 07-28Xxx
a) Equation 0703, the strong force between a proton and an electron
b) Equation 0155b, the electrons centrifugal force
c) Equation 0719d, the protons oscillation time
d) Common equation for the orbital time of an orbiting particle
e) Equation 0242 for the mass increase of an electron at movement in an electromagnetic field
f) The electron in the neutron increases its mass 2.53 times and moves on distance 11 proton radii,. And having velocity 0.91 times the light velocity.
THE CHARGE DISTRIBUTION IN THE NEUTRONThe name neutron says that this particle has no electrical charge. However, that is not perfectly true because a close examination of the neutron shows that it contains structures of both positive and negative charge.
The current ideas of protons and neutrons are that they are built up by quarks. In contrast to it, it will here be presented a somewhat different model, where the neutron is composed by a proton and a single orbiting electron moving with very high velocity. Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 07-29Xxx
Experiments have been performed showing that the electrical field strength distribution around and into a neutron, which from long distance is an electrical neutral particle, but showing up a charge distribution on a very close distance to the neutron cernel.
A graph of this distribution is presented in David Parks popular scientific book from 1965 with the title The modern physics and looks like as follows (the blue curve):A-07-24
xxx
This graph demonstrates the neutron as being an electrical neutral particle on large distances. Next, what happen when coming closer the neutron core, is that a small positive dip appear from the proton. Then the graph get through zero, then a negative dip and after that a positive level when coming very close to the neutron core, the proton. Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 07-30Xxx
At a closer examination of this model it is shown that this graph is composed by two individual curves or functions, the negative potential from the orbiting electron (green curve) and the positive potential from the more stationary proton (the red curve).
The aim shall here be to reconstruct this graph by doing a theoretical calculation based upon the suggested model. For this purpose firstly some formulae shall be derived, then putting them into a computer program for creating a plot over the desired function.
At first we make a study of the orbiting electron and define a number of parameters for use in the calculation.A-07-25
Xxx
SOME DEFINITIONSDThe distance from the probe point to the centre point of the neutronrThe neutron radius (the electron orbiting radius)rThe scalar vector in the direction of rDThe scalar vector in direction of D
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 07-31Xxx
AThe scalar vector connecting the end points of vectors D and raThe angle between vectors r and vector DaThe angle between the vectors A and vector DXxx
By using these vector notations, we get the following set of equations:A-07-26
Vector analysis of figure 0725 abovexxx
If an electron is used as a probe particle shot towards the neutron, it will be repelled by the orbital electron from the orbit outside. When the probe particle is on Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 07-32Xxx
the other side, hence somewhere between the electron and the proton core, the Coulomb force will change direction.
The Coulomb force is calculated by the common formula 0612a,b toA-0727
Coulombs law in accord with 0612Where we for simplicity express D, and r, in units of electron radii re, (the computer program then not need to make use of extreme small values, which usually is a problem in computer calculus).xxx
The effective force developed on the probe particle from the orbiting electron then will be:A-0728
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 07-33xxx
THE CHARGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE PROTON IN THE NEUTRONFor the proton, the calculation is performed in approximately the same way. The difference is that the protons charge is distributed on a static surface and not as a moving point, as for the electron.
A small surface element as a part of the total surface of the protons charging sphere is:A-0729
xxx
the + sign here denotes that the force developed is a positive force (an attracting force), that because we assume a negative charged electron is used as probe particle.
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 07-34xxx
With aid of a computer program the charge distribution can be calculated
The electrons orbital movement will be divided into 256 or more angular steps
The probe particles position is defined from the neutron centre point
For a given position of the probe particle the resulting force between the electron and the probe is calculated. The force will be repelling negative outside the electron orbit but attracting positive on the inner side.
The force between the probe particle and the proton is always an attracting force
The force between the probe particle and the electron from outside is repelling
The force between the probe particle and the electron from inside is attracting (reversed repelling)
On very long distance the neutron is electrically neutral
On some closer distance it will be weakly positive from the proton charge
Some further closer it will be electrically neutral again, then going over being strongly negative
Then again being electrically neutral in balance with the protons positive charge and the electrons negative charge potential
Then at end, being positive by an dominating influence from the protons positive charge potential.
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 07-35A-0730
A ALPHA PARTICLEA proton and an electron build a neutron. We also assume that 2 protons can be encircled by one electron, giving rise to a alpha particle.a) Equation 0703
b) Equation 0155b
c) Equation 0719d
d) The orbiting time for a rotating movement
e) Equation 0242
f) Calculated radius for the systemxxx
THE ALHA PARTICLEIn the same way we assume 4 protons can be encircled by 2 electrons, where 2 protons and 2 electrons are 2 neutrons.
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 07-364-0731
Xxx
THE ATOMS PERIODIC SYSTEMThe electrons of basic atoms are ordered in separate shells around the core. Each such shell show up a special energy structure.
Our idea is that this structure is a mirroring of the the internal structure of the atomic core building.
Hence, if we find such a structure in the core, our hypothesis may be verified.
OUR CORE MODEL
From our simple atomic model we found that each individual electron in the atom was coupled to a singular charge into the nucleus (statistically and in time). Of this though follows that the different energy levels that are present on chemical level of the atom, also responds to a corresponding structure in the core. Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 07-37Xxx
Assumedly this thought is new and not tested before. So, let us investigate if this structure is possible to be found in the core.
The simplest atomic core consists of a single proton, equivalent to hydrogen.
An isotope of hydrogen is got by adding a neutron, which is done without changing the atoms chemical properties, meaning that the orbiting electron not sense any difference. When a further proton is added to the hydrogen atom, a new basic kind of matter is created. The net charge in the core now is 2 units, and we have got a new basic material, helium. Even here neutrons can be added, giving a helium atom or an alpha particle.
Creating a new atomic core particle is performed after a special pattern, which will be illustrated below. The simplest way of describing the building of the core is to see it as built up in rotating discs made up of alpha particles. If we assume each alpha
particle having an extension of D , we will find, that the first shell of such a disk has place for 2p.(2.R)/(2.R) = 2.p, which means 6 alpha particles. In the proceeding shell we in the same way get 2. p.(2.R+R)/(2.R) = Apr. = 10.
Hence the exact number of alpha particles having room in a disc is calculated by the formula:
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 07-38A-0732
which gives the integer series of 2,6,10,14,18, 22 ...xxx
As pointed out in a preceding part of this theory, each orbiting electron is bounded to a proton in the core (statistically).
For a more complex atom, the electrons are found in different shells, usually denoted by letters: K,L,M,N,O,P. We will find that in each shell there is a small shifting in energy level for the K-shell in s, for the L-shell in s,p, for the M-shell in s,p,d, for the N,O,P-shell in s,p,d,f. xxx
The reason for it will be described in the model below. One rule is, that those electrons that are associated to a specific energy shell, belongs to the same disc of rotating alpha particles and to the same mean distance to the core..
We begin by listing data of the periodical atomic system as got from official data source4s.
OOve Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 07-39A-0733-1
PERIODIC ATOMIC TABELL KLMNOP Q1H12He23Li214Be225B2216C22 27N22 38O22 49F22 510Ne22 611Na22 6112Mg22 6213Al22 62 114Si22 62 215P22 62 316S22 62 417Cl22 62 518Ar22 62 619K22 62 6120Ca22 62 6221Sc22 62 61222Ti22 62 62223V22 62 63224Ci22 62 64225Mu22 62 65226Fe22 62 66227Co22 62 67228Ni22 62 68229Cu22 62 610130Zn22 62 6102
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 07-40A-0733-2
PERIODIC ATOMIC TABELL KLMNOP Q31Ga22 62 6102132Ge22 62 6102233As22 62 6102334Se22 62 6102435Br22 62 6102536Kr22 62 6102637Rb22 62 61026138Sr22 62 61026239Y22 62 610261240Zr22 62 610262241Nb22 62 610264142Mo22 62 610265143Tc22 62 610266144Ru22 62 610267145Rh22 62 610268146Pd22 62 6102610047Ag22 62 6102610148Cd22 62 6102610249In22 62 61026102150Sn22 62 61026102251Sb22 62 61026102352Te22 62 61026102453I22 62 61026102554Xe22 62 61026102655Cs22 62 610261026156Ba22 62 610261026257La22 62 6102610261258Ce22 62 6102610226259Pr22 62 6102610326260Nd22 62 6102610426261Pm22 62 6102610526262Sm22 62 61026106262
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 07-41A-0733-3
PERIODIC ATOMIC TABELL KLMNOP Q63Eu22 62 6102610726264Gd22 62 61026107261265Tb22 62 6102610926266Dy22 62 61026101026267Ho22 62 61026101126268Er22 62 61026101226269Tm22 62 61026101326270Yb22 62 61026101426271Li22 62 610261014261272Hi22 62 610261014262273Ta22 62 610261014263275Re22 62 610261014265276Os22 62 610261014266277Ir22 62 610261014269078PrT22 62 610261014269179Au22 62 6102610142610180Hi22 62 6102610142610281Ti22 62 61026101426102182Pb22 62 61026101426102283Bi22 62 61026101426102384Po22 62 61026101426102485Al22 62 61026101426102586Rn22 62 61026101426102687Fr22 62 610261014261026 188Ra22 62 610261014261026 289Ac22 62 6102610142610261 290Th22 62 6102610142610262 291Pa22 62 61026101426102261 292U22 62 61026101426103261 293Np22 62 61026101426104261 294Pu22 62 6102610142610626, 295Am22 62 6102610142610726, 2Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 07-42A-0733-4
PERIODIC ATOMIC TABELL KLMNOP Q96Cm22 62 61026101426107261 297Bk22 62 61026101426108261 298Cf22 62 61026101426101026, 299Es22 62 61026101426101126, 2100Fm22 62 61026101426101226, 2101Md22 62 61026101426101326, 2102No22 62 61026101426101426, 2103Lr22 62 610261014261014261 2104105106107108109110111112113114115116117118119Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 07-43A-0734
OUR MODEL FOR THE ATOMIC CORE
-0735
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 07-44
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MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 07-45
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-0743
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, Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
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-07-53
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MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 07-55
Readers notes:
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 07-56
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
START---8
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-01xxx
Chapter 9
ON GRAVITATIONINTRODUCTORY DISCUSSION01THE NEW THEORY09HELP PROGRAM FOR CALCUATING THE GRAVITY CONSTANT33THE COSMIC RED SHIFT FROM DISTANT STARS37THE MODERN GRAVITY RESEARCH41Quotatio from New Scientist 0940 Magazine REGARDING OLBERS PARADOX 45THE EARTH EXPANSION BY THE GRAVITATION INFLOW47
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-02
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-03Xxx
INTRODUCTORY DISCUSSIONIn this chapter we shall treat the process of gravitation in terms of an inflow process of matter into material bodies, with a rate over time equal to the Hubbles constant H. The cause of this flux is assumed to be the free thermal radiation in space of 2.73K (Kelvin) known as the thermal background radiation of space.
Newton was the first man who understood that celestial objects were affected by an invisible force, the same force that attracts earth-bounded objects to the surface of the earth. With the aid of astronomical data for planets and stars, he formulated the gravitation law of force between massed objects, given by the known relation:A-0902
Xxx
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-04xxx
Where M1 and M2 are the two masses involved, G is the gravity constant, D is the distance between the two bodies and Fg is the mutual gravity force acting on each body.Xxx
The formula asserts that the attracting force between two objects is in direct proportion to the product of their masses and in inverse proportion to the square of the relative distance between them, multiplied by a cosmic constant G, the gravity constant, determined by Newton himself on an pure empirical basis (based on experimental experiences or dirwct stadium of natural processes).
Commonly, we experience the force of gravity as a very strong force by comparison with other force effects known in nature. However, in fact, the force of gravity is the weakest force of them all.
If we, for instance compute the force developed on the same piece of matter, firstly in respect to the gravitational force and then in respect to the electrostatic force actuated at the same mutual distance, we will find a large discrepancy.
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-05Xxx
With purpose of elucidating this fact, we may make a small calculation of the force relationship between these two kinds of forces. We take two electrons as our reference masses. By using Coulombs law of force (the formula 0324) we get:A--0903
a) The mutual electric force between two unit charges in accord with the formula 0324
b) The numerical value of a unit ch
arge
c) The numerical value of the de-electricity of vacuum constant
d) The calculated numeric electric mutual forc between two electrons
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-06Xxx
where we make use of the MKS(A) unit system, From Newtons law of gravity 0701 we have:A-0904
a) The mutual gravitation force developed through the gravitation process between the two bodies m, on the mutual distance of D. G is Newtons gravity constant.
b) The electron mass
c) The gravitation constant
d) The calculated force between the bodies developed by the gravity process
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-07XXX
Hence, the relation between these two forces is:A-0905
The relationship between the electromagnetic force and the gravity force as calculated on the same amount of mass and on the same mutual distance D
It is well known that Newton himself never suggested any cause and origin of the force of gravity. He accepted that this force was of cosmic un-known nature, an action at a distance, activated by some unknown physical mechanism inherent in the nature of matter.
n spite of all efforts done since the days of Newton, this deep secret of nature still remain unsolved.
A remarkable property of the G-force is that this force does not seems to be activated by any known properties of matter: as for example:
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-08Xxx
chemical structure
heat (temperature)
mass density
electric or magnetic charge
state of aggregation (solid, liquid or gaseous states)
content of energy
state of motion
and so on; or in any way other than the content of mass of the bodies involved and the mutual distance between them.Xxx
However, perhaps there are exceptions. Recently, there have been found indications on that there are some very small discrepancies between the force activated on lighter and heavier basic elements, discovered by repeating Roland von Etvs experiments of 1889.
If that is true, it will destroy one of the basic hypotheses of Einsteins general theory of gravity, namely the thesis that relates to the perfect equivalence between inertial and gravitating mass.
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-09Xxx
There exists also suggestions that the gravitational force is not a constant but varying with time of any un-known reason..
For instance, Diracs theory of 1938 contains such a proposal. However, experiments have not confirmed it.
In modern physics one tries to connect particle physics with the existence of different kinds of forces existing in the physical world, including the force of gravity. There are ideas that the gravity force is caused by intermediating particles in a similar way to that in which photons create electromagnetic interaction forces. Not even these theories have proven successful.Xxx
THE NEW THEORYOne important reason why the riddle of gravity has not yet been finally solved maybe that this force is of a very complex nature and where so many processes of fundamental physical nature are involved in its final process.
Our basic idea is that the gravity force emanates from a free thermalor electro-magnetic field in space, disturbing Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-10Xxx
elementary particles in ordinary matter by an inflow process.A-0906
xxx
We identify this field as the thermal background radiation of 2.73K and the rate of inflow by Hubbles Cosmic constant H, with an approximate value of 2.32E-18 s-1. Also Xxx
involved as a basic hypothesis is that light is made up by pure neutral particles, having mass, meaning
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-11Xxx
that all of Newtons fundamental laws work on them. That means that light hitting the surface of a particle will create impact forces as well as even thermal energy on them.With the help of Stefan Boltzmans law, we begin by converting this mechanical impact energy inflow of the thermal field to entities of mechanical energy according toA-0907
Xxx
where dP is the developed mechanical power, dA is the area on which the thermal energy acts, T is the temperature of the medium in Kelvin and S is the Stefan Boltzmans constant equal to 5.6703E-8 in the MKS(A) unit system.
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-12
Xxx
If the inflow amount of matter during each time unit is denoted by the symbol dm, and the velocity by which this matter interacts with an elementary particle is denoted by vf, we can compute the mechanical energy gene rated by the inflow matter as:
A-0908
Xxx
The interacting velocity of the inflow matter is lower than the limit velocity of light, c. In this case
v Newtons formula (0122) for kinetic energy is valid. The common hydro-mechanical formula for a material inflow over area dA, as function of flowing density qf, velocity v and time dt, is given by (see 0145) :
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-13
X A-0909
xxx
We combine 0908 with 0909 and obtaining
A-0910, A-0910
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-14Xxx
a) Formula 0908
b) Formula 0909
c) Combing formula 0908 with 0909
Now we have 2 expressions describing the relation dP/dA. We combine the equation 0907with the equation 0910:A-0911
a) E quation 0907
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-15xxx
b) Equation 0910c
c) Combining the equations 0911a and 0911b
d) Solving out the thermal field strength from equation 0911cA- 0912
Xccc
Now we have an expression that provides the relations between the mass density qf, of the thermal field T, as function of its velocity vf, and
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-16Xx
Stefan Boltzmans constant S.
The next step here is to find out a basic process by which the inflow of matter from the thermal field reacts with elementary particles in solid matter.
Mass in normal solid matter mainly consists of protons and neutrons, the mass content of all electrons being negligible in this context. It is therefore here natural to state that the interacting velocity vf, is equal to, or nearly equal to, the spinning velocity of a proton and that this inflow matter will create disturbances in the spinning movement of these fundamental particles, causing a slowing down effect on them.
Hence, each hit of a randomly inflow electro magnetic particle from the field (a photon) in the first step will cause a disturbing effect which is a retardation of the spinning movement and as a secondary effect, an absorbing of matter from the surrounding space (see equation 0322f, space density 1/eo= 1E11 kg/m3).
Furthermore, this absorption of matter will create a corresponding absence of matter around the body
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-17xxx
and this effect is spread in the vicinity void, disturbing another mass body situated at some distance from it by a pushing effect.
Our hypothesis is that a mass quantity of dma, is absorbed by the body of mass m, during time dt. During time T, the absorbed mass constitutes the mass of the body itself /approximately).
We can express it by the following analogy:A- 0913
xxx
Change of mass is in direct proportion with time. During a period time T((the mass content of a body has been doubled (roughly).
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-18Xxx
We designate the relation H (by the symbol R, representing that frequency (or Rate) by which the mass body doubles its mass content in the gravitational process. That gives:A-0914
xxx
We now assume, that the inflow of matter per time unit stands in relation to the Hubble constant R=H x k,where 1/R is the time period were the inflow of matter to a particle corresponds with the particles own rest mass, but because the mass all the time will grow, the inflow function will not be exactly linear with time, more like an exponential function.
So naturally, when a bodys mass increases with time, the mass inflow in absolute figures will icreases.
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-19A-0915
0916At time t= 0 ; m= m0At time t= 1 ; m= 2*m0At time t= 2 ; m= 4*m0At time t= 3 ; m= 8*m0 Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-20Xxx
Hence, the conventional Hubble-formula can be re-written:A0917
A-0918
xxx
At short distances when t<1/H the relation R=H will be true approximately. At t= 0.5, 1/H, R=1.41*H approximately: Hence, the inflow rate is assumed some higher than the start value of
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-21Xxx
1/Ho. At the inflow of matter from space, a retardation effect is achieved of a particle. The retardation effect of the spin movement of matter stand in relation to:A-0919
xxx
where mp is the proton or the neutron mass. By using our mass inflow formula equation 0145, we put the absorbed mass dma to:A-0920
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-22
Using results from formulae 0919a, 0919b, 0920, combining them and solving out the gravity field density qf from it, gives: A-0921
a) Equation 0920
b) Equation 0919a
c) Equation 0919b
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-23Xxx
d) Equation 0919c
e) Combining 0921a,d
f) Extracting the thermal mass density in the equation 0921e
Combination of 0911d and 0921 and solving out the thermal field velocity vf fom it to:0922
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-24Xxx
a) Formula 0911d
b) Formula 0921) Combination of 0911d and 0921.
C) Solving out the field velocity vf
The last step is to deduce Newtons gravitational law of force. We make use of our hypothesis of the absorption effect of matter in the gravitational process. Our base hypothesis is, that matter is absorbed at a rate R, according with equation 0914 above, approximy equal to Hubbles constant H.
We begin by computing the total inflow of matter to a body with a total amount of matter M1 and having the total interacting area, A1. By our mass flowing formula (0145) we getA-0923
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-25Xxx
which is in agreement with the inflow formulae 0920A-0924
The amount of inflowing mass to M1 during the time dt. The inflow velocity is v1 and the total interacting surface is A1 The thermal field mass density is equal to qf
b) The relation inflowing mass and start mass M1 stands in relation to the product of R and the inflowing time dt
c) Combining the equations 0924a,b
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-26Xxx
From this we can calculate the inflow density very near the limiting area of M1 giving:
A-0925
xxx
However, this mass density will decline as a function of distance. The inflow mass will be spread over an inflow area at distance D equal to, AD = 4.p.D2 , giving the field mass density at this distance equal toA-0926
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-27xxx
a) The thermal mass field strength on distance D out from t the mass M1
b) Equation 0925
c) Extracting the field strength qD from 0926a.b
Another mass body M2, situated in a point D, because of the absorbed mass in M1, will be effected by a negative inflow since M1, steals mass from M2. We compute this negative mass inflow to:A-0927
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-28
a) Using the mass flow equation 0145
b) The total interacting surface for M2 is the number of t protons/neutrons iin M2 multiplied with the protons/neutrons interacting surface area Ap
c) Setting together the equations 0927a,b and extracting the inflow field mass dM2
We multiply both sides of the equation 0927c with the inflow field velocity vf and make use of Newtons simplified law, the equation 0115:A-0928xxx
We make a summary of expressions and results
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-29A-0929
a) Equation 0828b
b) Equation 0926c
c) Inserting equation 0929b in 0929a and extracting the gravity force Fg
Comparing this result with Newtons gravitational law of force, we can identify the expression within the bracket as Newtons gravity constant G.:
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-30A-0930
The variable Ap, is unknown to us, but if regarding the proton as having shape of a vortex ring with the limiting area is (see formula 0437) :A-0931
27
Observe here that for the G-gravitation process, the whole limiting surface of the proton is active, the formula 0226. For the electro magnetic process the formula 0225 is valid, that because electro- magnetical processes are polarised. Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-31
From the equation 0217 we solve out the proton radius as function of its mass and the electron radius and its mass:A-0932
We make a summary of achieved results:A-0933
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-32A-0933
R=1.855.HTrue on short distancesS=5.6703E-8Stefan Boltzmans constantT=2.73KThermal background tempre=2.8179380(70)E-15Classic electron radiusme =9.109534(47)E-31Electron rest massc= 2.99792458(1.2)E8Light velocity in vacuummp=1836.15152(70)x meProton rest massG=6.6720(41)E-11Newtons gravity constantH=2.5E-18Hubbles constant (appr. Valid linear for short of 1/H) Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-33Xxx
The Universe as treated by the modern cosmological theory, is 13.7 billions of yeasrs. That correspond with a value of the Hubble constant of 2.371E-18 -s . Our theory gives a very near value of the gravity constant, in the area of 5 ->7E-11 to be compared with the exact measured value as given above.
Observe that in our theory the Hubble constant is not associated to any age of The Universe, not either a Big Bang evevt in the far past.
Even see the help calculation program GRAVITY.PAS as given below.
HELP PROGRAM FOR CALCUATING THE GRAVITY CONSTANTprogram gravity;
program gravity;
var H:real; (* Hubble constant *)
Rp:real; (* Proton radius, meters *)
vp:real; (* Proton spin velocity *)
G:real; (* Gravity constant *)
Ap:real; (* Proton interacting area *)
Mp:real; (* Proton mass *)
Me:real; (* Electron mass *)
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-34Xxx
c:real; (* Light velocity *)
T:real; (* Thermal background radiation in space, degrees *)
S:real; (* Stefan Boltzman constant *)
Re:real; (* Electron rest radius *)
Pi:real; (* The number of pi *)
R:real; (* Rate of mass inflow *)
a1,a2,a3,a4,a5,a6,a7:real; (* common help variables *)
procedure init;
begin
me:=9.109534E-31; (* electron rest mass *)
c:=2.99792458E8; (* light standard velocity *)
S:=5.6703271E-8; (* Stefan Boltzman constant *)
Re:=2.817938070E-15; (* classic electron radius *)
Pi:=4*arctan(1); (* MATH NUMBER IF PHI *)
T:=2.73 (* background thermal radiation *)
end;
Procedure compute;
begin
h:=1/(60*60*24*365.24*13.9e9);
R:=1.855*h;
Mp:=1836.1515270*me; (* proton mass *)
Rp:=Re*exp((1/3)*ln(Mp/me)); (* proton/neutron radius *)
Ap:=4*Pi*pi*
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-35Xxx
Rp*Rp; (* proton/neutron area *)
vp:=T*T*SQRT(2*S*Ap*(1/R)*(1/Mp));
G:=R*vp*Ap/(4*pi*mp);
end;
Procedure printout; begin writeln('G nominial= 6.672041E-11'); writeln('G calculated value = ',G); end;
(* program gravity main loop start *)
begin
init;
compute;
printout;
readln;
end.
(* end of the program gr
A-0934
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-36xx
Here observe, that the gravity force fundamentally not is any mass-force, but a surface force, as acting on the surface on each individual elementary particle in matter. The proportionality to the mass content then only is a result of the fact that mass of a body stands in proportion to the number of protons on which the G-force interacts with. Of this reason its plausible that the G-force effect on other elementary particles, as for example electrons and photons, is different, as well as for heavy atomic cores, where the nucleons are tight packet. In the last case then the G-force may be some lower than compared with lighter atomic cores because of a slight screening effect between individual particles in the core.Xxx
Hence there are a clear relationship between the gravity constant G and the Hubble constant H. Its here assumed that creation of new matter in Universe is due to a condensation process from vacuum space into matter with an inflow rate of factor H, corresponding to the newly measured and determined value of the Universes age of 13.7 billion years. Then the H = 1/(365 x 24 x 60 x 60 x 13.7E9) = 2.313E-18) s
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-37xxx
THE COSMIC RED SHIFT FROM DISTANT STARSThe idea that the gravity process is founded on an in-flowing process in ordinary matter, is here based on an interacting process with mainly elementary particles of protons and neutrons involved. It is not clear that the process can be applied to all sorts of matter, for instance lighter particles such as electrons and photons, but if we assume that, the gravity process is the same for all kinds of matter, some old classical problems of cosmology can be solved in an attractive way. Such old problems are:
The red shift of light from distant celestial objects;
Olberss paradox;
The creation of new matter in a pseudo steady state Universe.
The cosmological red shift from very distant celestial objects then can be interpreted as a slowing down effect of light travelling long distances (we use the model of light as being a wave of matter, not an ether wave). Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-38xxxXxx
The wave-length of the travelling wave is constant but the frequency varies in time with the slowing down effect on the light velocity; hence:
Frequency shift of a light travelling long distances through space without interaction with matter. The light photon will be heavier and travelling more slowly with time.A-0936
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-39xxx
The frequency shift is caused by the light slowing down effect, when travelling long ways in space, caused by the gravity condensation process.
The origin mass of the photon has the mass mph, and during the flight time t, (without interacting with matter) this mass has been increasedto dm.
The mass impulse is supposed approximately being constant with time, giving:A-0937
The frequency shift is in proportion to the mass shift:A-0938
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-40Xxx
which shows a frequency Doppler shift of long travelling light from distant celestial objects as resulting from a slowing down effect of light.
Stretching this idea we can see the process by which new matter in the Universe is continuously created by condensation from vacuum space.
During each period of about 13-14 billion of years, the mass in a body (the earth for instance) has doubled its mass content; during the following period the origin mass would have increased by four times its initial value (a logarithmic mathematical function).
By the same process, long travelling light outburst from distant stars and galaxies will decline with time, losing its inherent energy. What remains is only the common electromagnetic noise that we now observe as the common known background thermal radiation of 2.73K.
Hence, this noise is the common link of distant interaction between celestial objects, resulting in the process of gravity as here briefly described.
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-41Xxx
THE MODERN GRAVITY RESEARCHThe modern gravitational research has during this and previous century to a great extent been impressed by Einsteins general theory of relativity, where this theory has been united by the hypothesis of perfect balance between heavy and inertial mass.
The gravitation is in Einsteins theory no force in its true meaning an action by distance as Newton would say, but instead properties of the space time continuum, where celestial objects follow geodetic lines. constituting the shortest way between points, a kind of the least resistance law for gravitating bodies.
By this way of describing the phenomenon of gravity, you get the favor of not having the need of explaining source or reason to the gravitation as a physical process, a some comfortable attitude, but not solving the problem.
But Einsteins theory is not alone into modern gravitational research.the
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-42Xxx
Since long time back there has been endeavours of finding a uniting theory for all forces in nature, united in a common theory, named Grand U2nified Theories, where all force actions are mediated by force particles, so even the gravitational force.
There has not been any great success for these theories either and in addition to that they contain a lot of strange things that not has much in common with what is known from established physical laws.
Some entities that frequently are occurring in this context is the Planck entities, The Planck_mass, the Planck time and the Planck_radius.
If we eliminate a lot of complicated tensor calculus and only keep these parts which contains couplings to the physical world, we will find that a lot of physical laws are uses, where each single law may be correct in its limited context, but when combined them not give any guaranty of being correct in true physical meaning and interpretation.
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-43xx
In aim to briefly elucidating that, we do the following calculus. We assume a situation where entities of mass, time and distance reach limit values denoted mg, tg , rg respectively
THE PLANKS COSMICAL CONSTANTSA-0939
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-44Xxx
The so named Plancks constants, as commonly used in modern physical theory (string theories) of gravity.Xxx
The Plancks cosmic constants as present in modern physical theory, Cosmic theory and particle String Theory are as follows:mg = 2.19E-8 kg
tg = 5.42E-44 sec
rg = 1.6E-35 mWhic if serious disqualify Einsteins whole general theory of relativity.
Hence, The Planck mass is well as big as the mass of an one cell organism. If the gravitation would be intermediated by such a heavy particle, no life would be possible to exist here on earth. Everything would be destroyed by this heavy radiation.
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-45xxx
Quotatio from New Scientist 0940 Magazine REGARDING OLBERS PARADOX OLBERS PARADOXIf the Universe is boundless, filled up with shining stars and galaxies un-limited, the sky would blaze up with the intensity of our sun both night and day.
That simple argument has baffled astronomers since more than three hundreds of years, and has been given the name OLBERS PARADOX, from Heinrich Olber as one those astronomers following up this old discussion in a work published 1823.
From an article in New Scientist 14th of August 1986 by John Gribbin we can read that:
THE FIRST PERSON TO RESOLVE THE PUZZLE CORRECTLY IN PRINT WAS A POET, EDGAR ALAN POE, IN THE 19TH CENTURY. BUT ASTRONOMERS IGNORED HIS CONTRIBUTION AND CONTINUED THE DEBATE. EVEN A HUNDREDS YEARS LATER, WHEN THEY THOUGHT THEY HAD THE ANSWER TO THE PUZZLE, THEY WERE JUST BARKING UP THE WRONG TREE. ONLY WITHIN THE PAST DECADE HAS THE CORRECT EXPLANATION FOR THE
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-46
XX
DARKNESS OF THE SKY GOT INTO MANY, BUT BY NO MEANS ALL OF THE PHYSICS TEXTBOOKS. FIRST, WE NOW KNOW, AS KEPLER DID NOT, THAT A STAR LIKE OUR SUN HAS A LIFETIME OF ONLY ABOUT10E9 YEARS.THE PARADOX OF THE DARK SKY ONLY STRIKE WITH FULL FORCE IF EVERY STAR SHINES FOR AS LONG TIME IT TAKES FOR LIGHT FROM THE MOST DISTANT STARS TO REACH US.
BECAUSE STARS HAVE FINITE LIFETIME THERE CAN NEVER BE MORE THAN 10E-13 OF THE RADIATION THAT YOU WOULD REQUIRE IN ORDER TO MAKE THE SKY BLAZE WITH LIGHT. THIS IS THE POINT (WITHOUT THE MATHS) THAT EDGAR ALLAN POE HAD SEIZED ON INTERSTELLAR SPACE TODAY. THE PUZZLE HAS BEEN TURNED ON ITS HEAD- NOT WHY ARE THE GAPS BETWEEN STARS SO DARK, BUT WHY ARE THERE ANY BRIGHT STARS AT ALL.
Ed of citationXXX
Hence, from our own theory we have found a further possible explanation of the Olbers paradox, namely that light from distant stars never reach us. Light is retarded and converted into matter during its way to us.
Because the gravity force primarily not is any mass
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-47Xx
force as suggested by Einstein, but a combined mass and area dependent force, we must imagine the possibility that the gravitation strength to some degree is dependent of sort of element into the mass body.
The reason to that may be motivated by that the effective working area per mass unit will be less in heavier and more compact materials. Strictly that means, that the mass equivalence principle stating exact equivalence between heavy mass and inertial mass, not is valid for all basic material elements.
Even a very small discrepancy would inhibit Einsteins ideaA-0941
THE EARTH EXPANSION BY THE GRAVITATION INFLOW Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-48Xxx
As treated in above chapter, we have found that the gravity is the process where new matter is created in The Universe. The force associated to the gravitation then is just a secondary effect of this creation process.
The converting time for a particle or a mass body, for instance the earth, for doubling the mass content, hence is the Hubble time equal to 13E9 years.
We here perform a rough estimation of the consequences for the earth regarding mass increase and change in radius.A-0942
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-49
a) The earth mass at time 0
b) The earth mass after the Hubble time
c) The earth mass increases to the double value on the Hubble time
d) The earth radius after the Hubble timee) The earth radius increase expressed in percent of origin radius
f) The earth radius increase in mm/year
What we have to learn is that things not always are what it seems to be. Therefore we must be open minded and prepared to test alternative thoughts. Science works in paradigms preventing science to test new ideas. That is the reason why the puzzle of gravity not has been solved, that together with all other things in fundamental physics.
Xxx
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-50
Xxx
START---9
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-01xxx
Chapter 9
ON GRAVITATIONINTRODUCTORY DISCUSSION01THE NEW THEORY09HELP PROGRAM FOR CALCUATING THE GRAVITY CONSTANT33THE COSMIC RED SHIFT FROM DISTANT STARS37THE MODERN GRAVITY RESEARCH41Quotatio from New Scientist 0940 Magazine REGARDING OLBERS PARADOX 45THE EARTH EXPANSION BY THE GRAVITATION INFLOW47
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-02
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-03Xxx
INTRODUCTORY DISCUSSIONIn this chapter we shall treat the process of gravitation in terms of an inflow process of matter into material bodies, with a rate over time equal to the Hubbles constant H. The cause of this flux is assumed to be the free thermal radiation in space of 2.73K (Kelvin) known as the thermal background radiation of space.
Newton was the first man who understood that celestial objects were affected by an invisible force, the same force that attracts earth-bounded objects to the surface of the earth. With the aid of astronomical data for planets and stars, he formulated the gravitation law of force between massed objects, given by the known relation:A-0902
Xxx
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-04xxx
Where M1 and M2 are the two masses involved, G is the gravity constant, D is the distance between the two bodies and Fg is the mutual gravity force acting on each body.Xxx
The formula asserts that the attracting force between two objects is in direct proportion to the product of their masses and in inverse proportion to the square of the relative distance between them, multiplied by a cosmic constant G, the gravity constant, determined by Newton himself on an pure empirical basis (based on experimental experiences or dirwct stadium of natural processes).
Commonly, we experience the force of gravity as a very strong force by comparison with other force effects known in nature. However, in fact, the force of gravity is the weakest force of them all.
If we, for instance compute the force developed on the same piece of matter, firstly in respect to the gravitational force and then in respect to the electrostatic force actuated at the same mutual distance, we will find a large discrepancy.
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-05Xxx
With purpose of elucidating this fact, we may make a small calculation of the force relationship between these two kinds of forces. We take two electrons as our reference masses. By using Coulombs law of force (the formula 0324) we get:A--0903
a) The mutual electric force between two unit charges in accord with the formula 0324
b) The numerical value of a unit ch
arge
c) The numerical value of the de-electricity of vacuum constant
d) The calculated numeric electric mutual forc between two electrons
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-06Xxx
where we make use of the MKS(A) unit system, From Newtons law of gravity 0701 we have:A-0904
a) The mutual gravitation force developed through the gravitation process between the two bodies m, on the mutual distance of D. G is Newtons gravity constant.
b) The electron mass
c) The gravitation constant
d) The calculated force between the bodies developed by the gravity process
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-07XXX
Hence, the relation between these two forces is:A-0905
The relationship between the electromagnetic force and the gravity force as calculated on the same amount of mass and on the same mutual distance D
It is well known that Newton himself never suggested any cause and origin of the force of gravity. He accepted that this force was of cosmic un-known nature, an action at a distance, activated by some unknown physical mechanism inherent in the nature of matter.
n spite of all efforts done since the days of Newton, this deep secret of nature still remain unsolved.
A remarkable property of the G-force is that this force does not seems to be activated by any known properties of matter: as for example:
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-08Xxx
chemical structure
heat (temperature)
mass density
electric or magnetic charge
state of aggregation (solid, liquid or gaseous states)
content of energy
state of motion
and so on; or in any way other than the content of mass of the bodies involved and the mutual distance between them.Xxx
However, perhaps there are exceptions. Recently, there have been found indications on that there are some very small discrepancies between the force activated on lighter and heavier basic elements, discovered by repeating Roland von Etvs experiments of 1889.
If that is true, it will destroy one of the basic hypotheses of Einsteins general theory of gravity, namely the thesis that relates to the perfect equivalence between inertial and gravitating mass.
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-09Xxx
There exists also suggestions that the gravitational force is not a constant but varying with time of any un-known reason..
For instance, Diracs theory of 1938 contains such a proposal. However, experiments have not confirmed it.
In modern physics one tries to connect particle physics with the existence of different kinds of forces existing in the physical world, including the force of gravity. There are ideas that the gravity force is caused by intermediating particles in a similar way to that in which photons create electromagnetic interaction forces. Not even these theories have proven successful.Xxx
THE NEW THEORYOne important reason why the riddle of gravity has not yet been finally solved maybe that this force is of a very complex nature and where so many processes of fundamental physical nature are involved in its final process.
Our basic idea is that the gravity force emanates from a free thermalor electro-magnetic field in space, disturbing Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-10Xxx
elementary particles in ordinary matter by an inflow process.A-0906
xxx
We identify this field as the thermal background radiation of 2.73K and the rate of inflow by Hubbles Cosmic constant H, with an approximate value of 2.32E-18 s-1. Also Xxx
involved as a basic hypothesis is that light is made up by pure neutral particles, having mass, meaning
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-11Xxx
that all of Newtons fundamental laws work on them. That means that light hitting the surface of a particle will create impact forces as well as even thermal energy on them.With the help of Stefan Boltzmans law, we begin by converting this mechanical impact energy inflow of the thermal field to entities of mechanical energy according toA-0907
Xxx
where dP is the developed mechanical power, dA is the area on which the thermal energy acts, T is the temperature of the medium in Kelvin and S is the Stefan Boltzmans constant equal to 5.6703E-8 in the MKS(A) unit system.
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-12
Xxx
If the inflow amount of matter during each time unit is denoted by the symbol dm, and the velocity by which this matter interacts with an elementary particle is denoted by vf, we can compute the mechanical energy gene rated by the inflow matter as:
A-0908
Xxx
The interacting velocity of the inflow matter is lower than the limit velocity of light, c. In this case
v Newtons formula (0122) for kinetic energy is valid. The common hydro-mechanical formula for a material inflow over area dA, as function of flowing density qf, velocity v and time dt, is given by (see 0145) :
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-13
X A-0909
xxx
We combine 0908 with 0909 and obtaining
A-0910, A-0910
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-14Xxx
a) Formula 0908
b) Formula 0909
c) Combing formula 0908 with 0909
Now we have 2 expressions describing the relation dP/dA. We combine the equation 0907with the equation 0910:A-0911
a) E quation 0907
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-15xxx
b) Equation 0910c
c) Combining the equations 0911a and 0911b
d) Solving out the thermal field strength from equation 0911cA- 0912
Xccc
Now we have an expression that provides the relations between the mass density qf, of the thermal field T, as function of its velocity vf, and
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-16Xx
Stefan Boltzmans constant S.
The next step here is to find out a basic process by which the inflow of matter from the thermal field reacts with elementary particles in solid matter.
Mass in normal solid matter mainly consists of protons and neutrons, the mass content of all electrons being negligible in this context. It is therefore here natural to state that the interacting velocity vf, is equal to, or nearly equal to, the spinning velocity of a proton and that this inflow matter will create disturbances in the spinning movement of these fundamental particles, causing a slowing down effect on them.
Hence, each hit of a randomly inflow electro magnetic particle from the field (a photon) in the first step will cause a disturbing effect which is a retardation of the spinning movement and as a secondary effect, an absorbing of matter from the surrounding space (see equation 0322f, space density 1/eo= 1E11 kg/m3).
Furthermore, this absorption of matter will create a corresponding absence of matter around the body
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-17xxx
and this effect is spread in the vicinity void, disturbing another mass body situated at some distance from it by a pushing effect.
Our hypothesis is that a mass quantity of dma, is absorbed by the body of mass m, during time dt. During time T, the absorbed mass constitutes the mass of the body itself /approximately).
We can express it by the following analogy:A- 0913
xxx
Change of mass is in direct proportion with time. During a period time T((the mass content of a body has been doubled (roughly).
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-18Xxx
We designate the relation H (by the symbol R, representing that frequency (or Rate) by which the mass body doubles its mass content in the gravitational process. That gives:A-0914
xxx
We now assume, that the inflow of matter per time unit stands in relation to the Hubble constant R=H x k,where 1/R is the time period were the inflow of matter to a particle corresponds with the particles own rest mass, but because the mass all the time will grow, the inflow function will not be exactly linear with time, more like an exponential function.
So naturally, when a bodys mass increases with time, the mass inflow in absolute figures will icreases.
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-19A-0915
0916At time t= 0 ; m= m0At time t= 1 ; m= 2*m0At time t= 2 ; m= 4*m0At time t= 3 ; m= 8*m0 Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-20Xxx
Hence, the conventional Hubble-formula can be re-written:A0917
A-0918
xxx
At short distances when t<1/H the relation R=H will be true approximately. At t= 0.5, 1/H, R=1.41*H approximately: Hence, the inflow rate is assumed some higher than the start value of
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-21Xxx
1/Ho. At the inflow of matter from space, a retardation effect is achieved of a particle. The retardation effect of the spin movement of matter stand in relation to:A-0919
xxx
where mp is the proton or the neutron mass. By using our mass inflow formula equation 0145, we put the absorbed mass dma to:A-0920
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-22
Using results from formulae 0919a, 0919b, 0920, combining them and solving out the gravity field density qf from it, gives: A-0921
a) Equation 0920
b) Equation 0919a
c) Equation 0919b
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-23Xxx
d) Equation 0919c
e) Combining 0921a,d
f) Extracting the thermal mass density in the equation 0921e
Combination of 0911d and 0921 and solving out the thermal field velocity vf fom it to:0922
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-24Xxx
a) Formula 0911d
b) Formula 0921) Combination of 0911d and 0921.
C) Solving out the field velocity vf
The last step is to deduce Newtons gravitational law of force. We make use of our hypothesis of the absorption effect of matter in the gravitational process. Our base hypothesis is, that matter is absorbed at a rate R, according with equation 0914 above, approximy equal to Hubbles constant H.
We begin by computing the total inflow of matter to a body with a total amount of matter M1 and having the total interacting area, A1. By our mass flowing formula (0145) we getA-0923
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-25Xxx
which is in agreement with the inflow formulae 0920A-0924
The amount of inflowing mass to M1 during the time dt. The inflow velocity is v1 and the total interacting surface is A1 The thermal field mass density is equal to qf
b) The relation inflowing mass and start mass M1 stands in relation to the product of R and the inflowing time dt
c) Combining the equations 0924a,b
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-26Xxx
From this we can calculate the inflow density very near the limiting area of M1 giving:
A-0925
xxx
However, this mass density will decline as a function of distance. The inflow mass will be spread over an inflow area at distance D equal to, AD = 4.p.D2 , giving the field mass density at this distance equal toA-0926
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-27xxx
a) The thermal mass field strength on distance D out from t the mass M1
b) Equation 0925
c) Extracting the field strength qD from 0926a.b
Another mass body M2, situated in a point D, because of the absorbed mass in M1, will be effected by a negative inflow since M1, steals mass from M2. We compute this negative mass inflow to:A-0927
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-28
a) Using the mass flow equation 0145
b) The total interacting surface for M2 is the number of t protons/neutrons iin M2 multiplied with the protons/neutrons interacting surface area Ap
c) Setting together the equations 0927a,b and extracting the inflow field mass dM2
We multiply both sides of the equation 0927c with the inflow field velocity vf and make use of Newtons simplified law, the equation 0115:A-0928xxx
We make a summary of expressions and results
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-29A-0929
a) Equation 0828b
b) Equation 0926c
c) Inserting equation 0929b in 0929a and extracting the gravity force Fg
Comparing this result with Newtons gravitational law of force, we can identify the expression within the bracket as Newtons gravity constant G.:
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-30A-0930
The variable Ap, is unknown to us, but if regarding the proton as having shape of a vortex ring with the limiting area is (see formula 0437) :A-0931
27
Observe here that for the G-gravitation process, the whole limiting surface of the proton is active, the formula 0226. For the electro magnetic process the formula 0225 is valid, that because electro- magnetical processes are polarised. Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-31
From the equation 0217 we solve out the proton radius as function of its mass and the electron radius and its mass:A-0932
We make a summary of achieved results:A-0933
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-32A-0933
R=1.855.HTrue on short distancesS=5.6703E-8Stefan Boltzmans constantT=2.73KThermal background tempre=2.8179380(70)E-15Classic electron radiusme =9.109534(47)E-31Electron rest massc= 2.99792458(1.2)E8Light velocity in vacuummp=1836.15152(70)x meProton rest massG=6.6720(41)E-11Newtons gravity constantH=2.5E-18Hubbles constant (appr. Valid linear for short of 1/H) Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-33Xxx
The Universe as treated by the modern cosmological theory, is 13.7 billions of yeasrs. That correspond with a value of the Hubble constant of 2.371E-18 -s . Our theory gives a very near value of the gravity constant, in the area of 5 ->7E-11 to be compared with the exact measured value as given above.
Observe that in our theory the Hubble constant is not associated to any age of The Universe, not either a Big Bang evevt in the far past.
Even see the help calculation program GRAVITY.PAS as given below.
HELP PROGRAM FOR CALCUATING THE GRAVITY CONSTANTprogram gravity;
program gravity;
var H:real; (* Hubble constant *)
Rp:real; (* Proton radius, meters *)
vp:real; (* Proton spin velocity *)
G:real; (* Gravity constant *)
Ap:real; (* Proton interacting area *)
Mp:real; (* Proton mass *)
Me:real; (* Electron mass *)
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-34Xxx
c:real; (* Light velocity *)
T:real; (* Thermal background radiation in space, degrees *)
S:real; (* Stefan Boltzman constant *)
Re:real; (* Electron rest radius *)
Pi:real; (* The number of pi *)
R:real; (* Rate of mass inflow *)
a1,a2,a3,a4,a5,a6,a7:real; (* common help variables *)
procedure init;
begin
me:=9.109534E-31; (* electron rest mass *)
c:=2.99792458E8; (* light standard velocity *)
S:=5.6703271E-8; (* Stefan Boltzman constant *)
Re:=2.817938070E-15; (* classic electron radius *)
Pi:=4*arctan(1); (* MATH NUMBER IF PHI *)
T:=2.73 (* background thermal radiation *)
end;
Procedure compute;
begin
h:=1/(60*60*24*365.24*13.9e9);
R:=1.855*h;
Mp:=1836.1515270*me; (* proton mass *)
Rp:=Re*exp((1/3)*ln(Mp/me)); (* proton/neutron radius *)
Ap:=4*Pi*pi*
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-35Xxx
Rp*Rp; (* proton/neutron area *)
vp:=T*T*SQRT(2*S*Ap*(1/R)*(1/Mp));
G:=R*vp*Ap/(4*pi*mp);
end;
Procedure printout; begin writeln('G nominial= 6.672041E-11'); writeln('G calculated value = ',G); end;
(* program gravity main loop start *)
begin
init;
compute;
printout;
readln;
end.
(* end of the program gr
A-0934
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-36xx
Here observe, that the gravity force fundamentally not is any mass-force, but a surface force, as acting on the surface on each individual elementary particle in matter. The proportionality to the mass content then only is a result of the fact that mass of a body stands in proportion to the number of protons on which the G-force interacts with. Of this reason its plausible that the G-force effect on other elementary particles, as for example electrons and photons, is different, as well as for heavy atomic cores, where the nucleons are tight packet. In the last case then the G-force may be some lower than compared with lighter atomic cores because of a slight screening effect between individual particles in the core.Xxx
Hence there are a clear relationship between the gravity constant G and the Hubble constant H. Its here assumed that creation of new matter in Universe is due to a condensation process from vacuum space into matter with an inflow rate of factor H, corresponding to the newly measured and determined value of the Universes age of 13.7 billion years. Then the H = 1/(365 x 24 x 60 x 60 x 13.7E9) = 2.313E-18) s
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-37xxx
THE COSMIC RED SHIFT FROM DISTANT STARSThe idea that the gravity process is founded on an in-flowing process in ordinary matter, is here based on an interacting process with mainly elementary particles of protons and neutrons involved. It is not clear that the process can be applied to all sorts of matter, for instance lighter particles such as electrons and photons, but if we assume that, the gravity process is the same for all kinds of matter, some old classical problems of cosmology can be solved in an attractive way. Such old problems are:
The red shift of light from distant celestial objects;
Olberss paradox;
The creation of new matter in a pseudo steady state Universe.
The cosmological red shift from very distant celestial objects then can be interpreted as a slowing down effect of light travelling long distances (we use the model of light as being a wave of matter, not an ether wave). Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-38xxxXxx
The wave-length of the travelling wave is constant but the frequency varies in time with the slowing down effect on the light velocity; hence:
Frequency shift of a light travelling long distances through space without interaction with matter. The light photon will be heavier and travelling more slowly with time.A-0936
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-39xxx
The frequency shift is caused by the light slowing down effect, when travelling long ways in space, caused by the gravity condensation process.
The origin mass of the photon has the mass mph, and during the flight time t, (without interacting with matter) this mass has been increasedto dm.
The mass impulse is supposed approximately being constant with time, giving:A-0937
The frequency shift is in proportion to the mass shift:A-0938
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-40Xxx
which shows a frequency Doppler shift of long travelling light from distant celestial objects as resulting from a slowing down effect of light.
Stretching this idea we can see the process by which new matter in the Universe is continuously created by condensation from vacuum space.
During each period of about 13-14 billion of years, the mass in a body (the earth for instance) has doubled its mass content; during the following period the origin mass would have increased by four times its initial value (a logarithmic mathematical function).
By the same process, long travelling light outburst from distant stars and galaxies will decline with time, losing its inherent energy. What remains is only the common electromagnetic noise that we now observe as the common known background thermal radiation of 2.73K.
Hence, this noise is the common link of distant interaction between celestial objects, resulting in the process of gravity as here briefly described.
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-41Xxx
THE MODERN GRAVITY RESEARCHThe modern gravitational research has during this and previous century to a great extent been impressed by Einsteins general theory of relativity, where this theory has been united by the hypothesis of perfect balance between heavy and inertial mass.
The gravitation is in Einsteins theory no force in its true meaning an action by distance as Newton would say, but instead properties of the space time continuum, where celestial objects follow geodetic lines. constituting the shortest way between points, a kind of the least resistance law for gravitating bodies.
By this way of describing the phenomenon of gravity, you get the favor of not having the need of explaining source or reason to the gravitation as a physical process, a some comfortable attitude, but not solving the problem.
But Einsteins theory is not alone into modern gravitational research.the
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-42Xxx
Since long time back there has been endeavours of finding a uniting theory for all forces in nature, united in a common theory, named Grand U2nified Theories, where all force actions are mediated by force particles, so even the gravitational force.
There has not been any great success for these theories either and in addition to that they contain a lot of strange things that not has much in common with what is known from established physical laws.
Some entities that frequently are occurring in this context is the Planck entities, The Planck_mass, the Planck time and the Planck_radius.
If we eliminate a lot of complicated tensor calculus and only keep these parts which contains couplings to the physical world, we will find that a lot of physical laws are uses, where each single law may be correct in its limited context, but when combined them not give any guaranty of being correct in true physical meaning and interpretation.
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-43xx
In aim to briefly elucidating that, we do the following calculus. We assume a situation where entities of mass, time and distance reach limit values denoted mg, tg , rg respectively
THE PLANKS COSMICAL CONSTANTSA-0939
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-44Xxx
The so named Plancks constants, as commonly used in modern physical theory (string theories) of gravity.Xxx
The Plancks cosmic constants as present in modern physical theory, Cosmic theory and particle String Theory are as follows:mg = 2.19E-8 kg
tg = 5.42E-44 sec
rg = 1.6E-35 mWhic if serious disqualify Einsteins whole general theory of relativity.
Hence, The Planck mass is well as big as the mass of an one cell organism. If the gravitation would be intermediated by such a heavy particle, no life would be possible to exist here on earth. Everything would be destroyed by this heavy radiation.
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 09-45xxx
Quotatio from New Scientist 0940 Magazine REGARDING OLBERS PARADOX OLBERS PARADOXIf the Universe is boundless, filled up with shining stars and galaxies un-limited, the sky would blaze up with the intensity of our sun both night and day.
That simple argument has baffled astronomers since more than three hundreds of years, and has been given the name OLBERS PARADOX, from Heinrich Olber as one those astronomers following up this old discussion in a work published 1823.
From an article in New Scientist 14th of August 1986 by John Gribbin we can read that:
THE FIRST PERSON TO RESOLVE THE PUZZLE CORRECTLY IN PRINT WAS A POET, EDGAR ALAN POE, IN THE 19TH CENTURY. BUT ASTRONOMERS IGNORED HIS CONTRIBUTION AND CONTINUED THE DEBATE. EVEN A HUNDREDS YEARS LATER, WHEN THEY THOUGHT THEY HAD THE ANSWER TO THE PUZZLE, THEY WERE JUST BARKING UP THE WRONG TREE. ONLY WITHIN THE PAST DECADE HAS THE CORRECT EXPLANATION FOR THE
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DARKNESS OF THE SKY GOT INTO MANY, BUT BY NO MEANS ALL OF THE PHYSICS TEXTBOOKS. FIRST, WE NOW KNOW, AS KEPLER DID NOT, THAT A STAR LIKE OUR SUN HAS A LIFETIME OF ONLY ABOUT10E9 YEARS.THE PARADOX OF THE DARK SKY ONLY STRIKE WITH FULL FORCE IF EVERY STAR SHINES FOR AS LONG TIME IT TAKES FOR LIGHT FROM THE MOST DISTANT STARS TO REACH US.
BECAUSE STARS HAVE FINITE LIFETIME THERE CAN NEVER BE MORE THAN 10E-13 OF THE RADIATION THAT YOU WOULD REQUIRE IN ORDER TO MAKE THE SKY BLAZE WITH LIGHT. THIS IS THE POINT (WITHOUT THE MATHS) THAT EDGAR ALLAN POE HAD SEIZED ON INTERSTELLAR SPACE TODAY. THE PUZZLE HAS BEEN TURNED ON ITS HEAD- NOT WHY ARE THE GAPS BETWEEN STARS SO DARK, BUT WHY ARE THERE ANY BRIGHT STARS AT ALL.
Ed of citationXXX
Hence, from our own theory we have found a further possible explanation of the Olbers paradox, namely that light from distant stars never reach us. Light is retarded and converted into matter during its way to us.
Because the gravity force primarily not is any mass
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force as suggested by Einstein, but a combined mass and area dependent force, we must imagine the possibility that the gravitation strength to some degree is dependent of sort of element into the mass body.
The reason to that may be motivated by that the effective working area per mass unit will be less in heavier and more compact materials. Strictly that means, that the mass equivalence principle stating exact equivalence between heavy mass and inertial mass, not is valid for all basic material elements.
Even a very small discrepancy would inhibit Einsteins ideaA-0941
THE EARTH EXPANSION BY THE GRAVITATION INFLOW Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
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As treated in above chapter, we have found that the gravity is the process where new matter is created in The Universe. The force associated to the gravitation then is just a secondary effect of this creation process.
The converting time for a particle or a mass body, for instance the earth, for doubling the mass content, hence is the Hubble time equal to 13E9 years.
We here perform a rough estimation of the consequences for the earth regarding mass increase and change in radius.A-0942
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a) The earth mass at time 0
b) The earth mass after the Hubble time
c) The earth mass increases to the double value on the Hubble time
d) The earth radius after the Hubble timee) The earth radius increase expressed in percent of origin radius
f) The earth radius increase in mm/year
What we have to learn is that things not always are what it seems to be. Therefore we must be open minded and prepared to test alternative thoughts. Science works in paradigms preventing science to test new ideas. That is the reason why the puzzle of gravity not has been solved, that together with all other things in fundamental physics.
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Chapter 10
ELEMENTARY PARTICLES
The singular forms
MMON BACKGROUND03INFLATION IN PARTICLE PHYSICS11PARTICLE EXPLOSION: PARTICLES POSTULATED BUT NOT YET CONFIRMED14A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF HOW FORCES ARE CREATED IN ACCORD TO MODERN PHYSICAL THEORY17THE ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FORCES.20THE STRONG FORCE.20THE FORCE OF GRAVITY20THE WEAK FORCE21PER WEAK FORCE22MASS INERTIAL FORCES23HOW ESTABLISHED THEORY DESCRIBE THESE FORCES OF NATURE23THE NEW THEORY34BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF BASIC PRINCIPLES AND CONCEPTS34A list of facts giving a new systemizing may look as follows:35THE MYON SPECTRUM35THE K-MESON MASS- SPECTRUM37 Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
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THE PROTON SPECTRUM37THE TAU PARTICLE SPECTRA (()38HIGHER UP SPECTRA39MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS42THE NEW PARTICLE THEORY44DEFINITION OF PARTICLE 1003
PARAMETERS45The resonance, quantum model46COMMENTS OF RESEIVED RESULTS46
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COMMON BACKGROUNDToday, enormous resources are spent in atomic and particle research, all in aim to come to a more basic understanding of these laws that are valid on the microcosmic level of matter.
A great amount of measuring data are now available for different particle forms found in experiments and this quantity increases continuously as the technical measuring methods and measuring equipments are developing and improving.
The total number of registered particle forms now exceeds more than a hundred of particles of more Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
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or less elementary nature. New ntrinsic constituents of particles seen and registered by experiments. There exist several theories with some small differences, but as a matter of principle the basic ideas are the same in all of them, namely that quarks are the building blocks of matter. The idea is that many well-known particle forms are built up by these constituents named quarks and by combinatory laws most of all known particle forms in this way may be explained or described in these terms.
When the quark idea for the first time was presented, not all took this idea seriously, but in time to that more and more new particles where registered and documented, a need of a system was accentuated. The quark model was relatively satisfactory and was by this reason accepted as a base for a systematizing. From the beginning the quark theories were very simple in its basic assumptions. 3 quark particles were thought to explain the structure of all known particles at this time, but it happened quite surprising that new more heavy particle forms were found, not at all awaited. The situation in the theoretical particle physics then become critical at this event, but the theorists solved this problem in an elegant and clever way, simply by inventing a set of new quarks and other
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pure hypothetical particles. Today, the number of quarks are 6, all in aim of achieving a consistent theory.
Despite of these troubles, the situation was not so alarming, the idea of quarks still was a relatively simple and promising idea.
But the main problem was that no quarks in free states were found, the quarks had a somewhat curious property always to appearing in bounded states together with other quarks.
For many scientists this property of quarks was very hard to understand- and even to accept- and a hint for free quarks was begun. But without positive results.
Still , there are today no proofs on that quarks exist, the only positive experiment done is shattering experiments directed towards protons and neutrons.
Bombarding protons, in the beginning of 1970, (positive charged atomic nuclei particles) with lighter particles, one has studied and interpreted the scattering pattern of these particles. It is said, that these experiments could be interpreted so that Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
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there were a grain-structure in the protons. But sorry to say, its always hard to estimate the value of results achieved on indirect way as in this case. However, this experiment is the only we have to refer to what regards as proofs on the existence of quarks.
A very strange property of the quarks- and even an absolutely necessary property- is that they are fractional electric charged, which means equal to 1/3 or 2/3 of the electrons unit charge.
The search for such fractional charges has been going on intensively for long a time and over optimistically researchers from time to time have reported that they have found signs in this direction.
But trying to repeat these experiments always have been failed. So, still there are no signs on that
fractional charges exist.
The smallest existing charge is still the unit charge of an electron 1.602E-19 As- equal to the base unit of 1, still remain unchanged.
If those fractional electrical charges would exist, and by this way also the quarks, those fractional
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charges 1/3 and 2/3 respectively of the unit charge must be exact, otherwise a difference easily would be detected in the macrocosmic world, that because the electric charge is additive in character.
For example, an atomic nucleus contains a lot of charged parts, and if a very small divergence would exists, that would be manifested in a large difference on the macro cosmically level of matter. A great number of experiments have been performed in aim to come to a final solution, but up to this time there have been no successful reports.
However, there are still many serious problems with the quark model. All the time the model produces new concepts, not motivated by experimental support.
Above that an unspecified number of gluon particles are needed (approximately 12 types) usually more than they solve, all in time to that new and not awaited problems arise. Perhaps, temporarily and apparently that solve a problem, but in the long run to the prize of a more and more complex and inconceivable theory building. The simplicity of the origin ideas has been lost and the
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chance of having a simple description of nature seems of that reason more and more remote,
As an example on such a situation was when one was forced to give up Paulis exclusion principle- one of the fundamental principles in the atomic physics, but necessarily not valid in the particle physics. Shortly this principle says that two particles cannot stay within the same electromagnetic phase room at the same time if they both have the same quantum mechanical properties.
But in the model of quarks it easily happened that 3 quarks get the same basic properties when put together, hence being in conflict with this principle. In aim to walk around this problem, a new property of quarks frankly was invented, were properties were different, resulting in that all these quarks had individual anf unique properties.
This new quality of the quarks was given the name of colour. 3 such colours are assumed to exist, but sorry to say, no one have the least idea about what this new property of nature represents.
Working in this way seems desperate. Temporarily and apparently one are solving a problem and
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avoiding an acute moralistic crisis, but at the same time creating new problems that later on have to be solved.
The total number of unsolved problems will in this way steadily increases instead of converge towards a more simple and easy theory.
Strong forces are supposed to act between quarks that hold them together. For this aim are needed mediating particles between these quarks that generate these strong forces.
In the electromagnetic theory, photons are supposed to be these interacting force particles, the same type of particles bearing the visible light, radio waves etceteras.
However, these forces acting between quarks are considerably larger than those forces acting between electrical charged particles, so photons are not enough in this case.
Therefore are needed another particles for this purpose, particles with a considerably higher energy content than that of photons. These particles -even if pure hypothetical- have been given the name of gluons ln a thought analogy with a glue binding things together. Many such gluons types Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
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are needed, but serious theoretical problems exists even regarding these particles, they have a very strange property that has no correspondence to well known properties of matter- they have a large content of energy but lack measurable mass.
That property contradict all experiences and known properties of matter and is against the well known mass energy equivalence principle, the mc2 relation (0250). But with aid of some mathematical, strongly speculative tricks, even such a mad idea is accepted without problems.
Using Heisenbergs uncertainty principle - assumedly valid on atomic level - this contradiction can be rejected. Otherwise, also the mass of the gluons must be weighted in together with the quarks and then the total weight of the particle system must be much larger than that corresponding to the sum of the quark weight. In aim to conceal this weakness one say that gluons are virtual mass-less which means that these particles exist but cannot be registered!
To this day one has defined six different sorts of quarks, having 3 different colours, giving 18 different possible combinations (there are suggestions of 8 quarks today). Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
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plus a number of other particles situated outside the quark model, the lepton particles for which existence no one has the least idea of (to note is that leptons are very frequent appearing particles, the electrons are for instance such particles).
Hence, as a minimum 40-50 different kinds of elementary particles are needed for a consistent theory building and description with 3-6 different quarks that should explain all other registered particle forms.
And besides that a lot of other particles are suggested which not fit into the quark model at all.xxx
INFLATION IN PARTICLE PHYSICSIn New Scientist 5th of May 1988, we read the following by John Kenny, physicist at Bradley University, Illinois, USA
In the past quarter of a century, physicist has invented a plethora of particles. To explain the innards of hadrons, the missing mass problem of cosmology, and the freedoms that exist in some of the more conventional and successful theories, they have postulated a bevy of particles to validate their assumptions and the theoretical Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
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prejudices. Thus, the standard model of the electro-weak interaction demands the existence of Higgs sector dominated by Higgs fields and a series of at least one, and perhaps up to 20, Higgs bosons. Super symmetric theories demand the existence of the likes of photinos, gravitios, axions and a series of heavy neutrinos. Some unified versions of field theories demand Higgs inos, and when higher dimensions are considered a whole set of particle families make their appearance.
There is a danger in all of this classifying of the inexperienced. The danger is that, because almost none of these postulated particles has serious experimental candidates at present, modern particle physics could degenerate into filing and cataloguing these highly inflated mental constructs.
All too readily they can become mental cul-de-sacs. They can build bastions in theory which could readily repulse actual experimental finds which do not meet their specification,
t can be argued, and with considerable justification, that the real inflation of our times is in mental constructs such as these. There are so many choices and so many versions that the picture Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
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emerging from what should be the most primitive branch of physics (after all, these are supposed to be elementary particles) is confusing. Just making a catalogue of these postulated particles is a chore, to say the least, and far from easy.I have made a list of the postulated particles which, as yet, have not been matched with clear experimental finds (see adjoining list). The list is arranged alphabetically, and is by no means exhaustive, as several of the particles mentioned are generic classifications and could in turn represent a whole family of additional particles.
I have not given references, as even a list of the basic references to many of the particles would be as long as a typical particle physics journal.
What makes things even more complicated is that many of these particles mean different things in different versions of theories.
My list presents more than 100 named particles or particle genera, and many of these could represent several hundred particle states.
If just a small percentage of these alleged particles did exist, then the Universe would seem a strange place indeed, in that so little of its mass and Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
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energy has been accessible to date.
If physicist go on postulating particles at the present rate, they will come up with more particles than exist in nature. It seems to me that nonexistent particles are already surpassing existent particles in number and this could have serious consequences of the
future of particle physics. Science cannot become a methodology for filing or classifying the nonexistent, the inexperienced or the experimentally undetectable. If it does, then it soon will degenerate into a series of mnemonic exercises for a coterie of fellow travellers and the orthodox believers..
End of citation
XxxPARTICLE EXPLOSION: PARTICLES POSTULATED BUT NOT YET CONFIRMED
A: alphon, anomalons, arion, axiinstanton, axino,axion
B: beiton, Bogolon, bottomium, bradyon
C: calaron, centauros, cosmos strings, cosmion, cosmon
D: dilaton, domain walls, dyons
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E: emon, exotic mesons
F: familons, flavoron, flucton, Froissarion
G: gaugino, geon, glueball, gluino, gluon, goldstino, Goldstone boson, gravitino, graviton,GUM(Grand Unification Mass)
H: haplon,heavy neutrinos, higglets, Higgs boson, higgsino, hylon
I: instantons, intermediate vector mesons or bosons
J: no listed particles
K: no listed particles
L: luxons
M: magnino, majoron, mandela, maximon mirror particles, meron, monopoles (magnetic)
N: neutralino, neutrinos(right handed, simpson, s-heavy),new neutralgauge mesons(W),newtonites, nuclearites
O: octonions, odderons
P: para-photons, parton,Perry poles, photino, Planck mass, plasmon, pomeron, preon, primatom, primordial black holes, psions, pseudo goldstone bosons, pyrgon
Q: qark,quark nuggets,quarkonium XXXX Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
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R: rainon, reggeons, reons,right handed neutrinos, rishons
S: sakaton, Schwarzschild mass, screwon, sfermions, shadow matter, Simpson neutrinos, skyrmions, sneutrino, soliton, spurion, squark,stponium, straton, superon, super-symmetric string mass
T: tachyon,techni particles, toponium, trigluonium, trion
U: uniton V: valon,vorton W: WIMP X: X-ons
Y: no listed particles Z: zerino,zeronXXxx
John Kenny has a similar apprehension and theory as that which here later on will be presented.
So, the main impression got when dealing with these theories is, that they contain a troublesome number of hypothetical assumptions and contradictory problems.
And too many fundamental phenomena in the physical world are not yet understood. Until this understanding has been achieved there is no chance of understanding the elementary particle problems.
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A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF HOW FORCES ARE CREATED IN ACCORD TO MODERN PHYSICAL THEORY
Newton was one of the pioneers what regards the use of a quantified description of the concept of force in the way forces appear in nature. His three basic laws are formulated:
matter keep its moving state until an opposite force acts on it
a force is created when the moving state of an object is changed and
if a force is created, an equal and opposite force is generated.
Those seemingly simple and evident physical laws have been the dominating rules for the evolution and progress in physics since then. No experiments done show that any of these laws are wrong or incomplete, they belong to the natures most fundamental laws valid for every1thing in nature.
These laws say, that if a force shall arise it demands that:
an object has a measurable content of mass and
that this mass changes its moving state.
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Inversely follows that lack of mass not can create a forces and that all creation of forces in its fundamental level is of dynamic nature, hence claim changes.
On macro cosmic level (the things around us) one sometimes talk about static forces, but according to Newtons basic concepts of force, no such kinds of forces exist, all forces are of dynamical nature.
To give an example- the seemingly static and constant pressure in a car deck or the seemingly constant stretching force in a spring of steel, both these forces are caused by dynamical activities in particles on micro-cosmic level of matter, an accumulated and cooperative effects of the measurable forces on macroscopically level of matter.
The important conclusion we must draw from this introducing discussion is that: there is only one principle in nature by which forces are created, this principle is when matter change its moving state as function of time.
The concept of force is very fundamentally equipped with the concept of mass- hence absence of mass cannot produce any force. Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
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That statement is for us- now 300 years after Newton- self-evident but nevertheless it must be accentuated again and again, that because the modern physics has ignored this very fundamental and incorruptible principle, creating their own rules, over-ruling common sense.
An important activity of the modern physical research is to attempt explaining all different forces that appear in nature, also incorporating them all in a common theory.
The modern physics describes or classify forces as follows:
electromagnetic forces
strong forces
gravitation forces
weak forces, hyper-weak forces
The meaning by describing forces in this way is to find a common base for how these different kinds of forces work in nature, arranged in a common uniting theory.
However, in spite of great efforts done in this direction, no consistent theory yet has been presented. In any way. we shall here compare existing ideas of these theories with Newtons origin definition of the concept of force. Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
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THE ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FORCES.Electromagnetic forces are divided into electric and magnetic forces. What is known from Maxwells electromagnetic theory (and even from our own theory) these forces are manifestations of a common source, yet these forces seems very different.
Very generally we can describe the electric force as coupled to electrical charged particles in rest, but where the magnetic forces are coupled to effects created when such particles move.Xxx
THE STRONG FORCE.The strong forces hold the nuclear particles in the atomic nucleus together. These forces estimates being in the size of 150 times larger than that of the electromagnetic forces compared with the same amount of matter and distance.
THE FORCE OF GRAVITYThe gravity force is this force perhaps most familiar for everyone, a force that we can register Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
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continuously and which acts on all matter around us, small as well as on cosmic level, of matter. The force of gravity also have its own hypothetical force particle, not either confirmed by any experimental outcome. In respect to the enormous weakness of the gravity force, the virtual mass and energy of these interacting gravitation particlesmust be enormous (in accord to the theory, mass and energy of an inter-mediating particle is thought to be in inverse proportion to the strength of the force). In association to our treatment of the gravitation in another chapter of this book, chapter 09 , we have shown how to calculate this mass of the hypothetical gravitating particles (see Plancks mass formula 0939)..
THE WEAK FORCEThe weak force is a pure hypothetical force based on the assumption that principally all elementary particles are instable, which means, all particles soon or later will decay and destroying themselves. The proton particle is seemingly an absolute stable particle, however the theory
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predicts a small probability for its decay. However, no experiments yet have confirmed such a decay, the proton seems to be an entirely stable particle. The neutron decay after about 10 minutes.
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PER WEAK FORCE
Weak forces and hyper-weak forces probably must be seen and interpreted not as forces in its common meaning, but instead a way to- in accord with modern ideas of particle physics - describe how particle systems are decaying
For instance, the weak force is connected to the decay of a neutron (a neutral nucleus particle), decaying to a proton, an electron and radiation.
The hyper-weak force is connected to the idea that seemingly stable particles, like for instance the proton, will decay after a very long time. However, such decays never has been registered, that in spite of intensive experimental efforts done over a long period of time.
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MASS INERTIAL FORCES
The mass inertial forces according to Newton, usually not is included in the description of forces in nature, which seems very strange. The inertial force is that force that is most common in daily life. Maybe that is the reason for not including it in the common listing of forces ??!!!,
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HOW ESTABLISHED THEORY DESCRIBE THESE FORCES OF NATUREEstablished theory describe all these forces by an inter-mediating process constituting an exchange of virtual force mediating particles.
For the strong nuclear force the my-(meson particle is involved (a particle having a mass of approximately 273 times the electron mass, but inside the nucleus having zero mass according to the theory !, being the particle acting like a glue between nuclear particles.
It was Hideki Yukawa who firstly postulated this particle in aim to explain the strong nuclear force in the atomic core. He used some well established Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
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physical laws known from the area of atomic physics, among them De Broglies particle wave duality principle, Heisenbergs uncertainty principle and the mass energy equivalence principle. e
For describing and explaining these forces in the proton, one assume existence of particles by the name of gluons are acting. Even these particles are pure hypothetical and never registered in free state.
A great amount of gluons are needed for the theory. Responsible for the weak force is the Z and W particles recently detected in CERN and the discovery even Nobel Prize Awarded. These particles are supposed to be involved in the decay of the neutrons to a proton, an electron and radiation.
If the purpose of a theory intend to explain something in nature, it is a reasonable claim that the suggested idea at least in theory has a chance to work. But that cannot be said about many of these ideas that dominate physics today. At a closer examination it seems as the used ideas to its most part lack all support in the real world.
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The common properties of the force bearing particles according to these ideas are, that all force mediating particles must be virtually mass-less, but having energy.
Such a property already from the beginning is impossible in the light of Newtons origin definition of mass, force and energy, entities which are intimately connected to each other and cannot be separated in this way.
The idea by mediating force particles demands that the well known relation between mass and energy E =m.c2 (see equation 0250) must be stated as invalid. The physicists walk around this problem by postulating gluons as virtual mass-less particles, hence particles having energy but lacking measurable mass content. This idea is consolidated by Heisenbergs uncertainty principle, a rule got from the atomic physics, saying that some complementary entities like for instance energy and time not at the same time can be determined by an unlimited degree of accuracy.
Of course, even if this idea is correct on the atoms electron level, it cannot without discussion be applied on conditions in the atomic core or on an arbitrary chosen system of particles where we can Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
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guess that completely different conditions are present.
However, the idea is that an instable particle having a limited short life-time is carrying a high amount of energy and vice-versa. And if the energy is large, the life-time will be so short that it will be impossible to measure the particles mass. Of that reason the particle has virtual mass.. Hence, one say that the particle mass is virtual.
Yakawa used this idea together with some other ideas from the electron orbital level of the atom, De Broglies particle wave duality principle and the Bohrs quantum mechanical relation of m.v.D= h/(2.((), , a relation limited to the electron orbital level of an atom, not useable within an atomic nucleus or arbitrary particle system).
The conclusion we here must draw from it is that rules and analogies fetched from the atomic physics uncritically seems to have been used in the nuclear physics as well as further on in the particle physics where completely different conditions are present.
We are therefore forced to classify these methods Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
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as non-scientific, built on completely wrong assumptions.
One model that is used to demonstrate how forces act in accord with the modern particle physical ideas is by imagining two boats situated in rest on a plane water surface. In each boat one man is situated and both men are throwing and catching a ball between each other. For each throwing and for each catching- in accord with Newtons laws- an opposite force impact is got on the two men together with their boats, causing the boats to successively recede from each other. For an outer observer it looks like as if the two boats are activated by a repelling force.A-10-01
xxx
But that is of course pure fiction, it is only the resulting effect of all pushes. The problem with this and similarly attempts to explain the mechanism for the upcoming of attracting forces between particles is that just repelling forces are created: Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
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.
The balls which are used must have real mass according to Newtons definition of that concept
the fictive force here generated is an equivalent repelling force, not attracting which one was intended to demonstrate by the model.
Hence, the only existing model for explaininghow forces between particles in a system aregenerated in accord with the modern inter-mediating particle exchange ideas, in fact not works at all - that because only repelling
forces are created, not attracting.
One have tried to go around this dilemma by also suggesting a boomerang effect). Perhaps it is not necessary to point out that such an attempt to revise the model only seems desperate and silly.
The weak inter-mediating force corresponds to an inter-mediating particle with an energy (virtual mass) content in the range of 40 times of a proton, the gravitation is caused by a particle having energy in the range of 1000000000000000000 proton masses, the so named Plancks mass (see formula 0939). The absurdity in these facts talks its own language and we need not to comment it further. Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
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The gravity force seems to act even on the most elementary particles in matter, protons, electrons and perhaps even on the light bearing particles, the photons. The necessary question therefore must be- how can particles with such very large mass and energy be able to interact with these monsters of force particles?!
Why do not spontaneous nuclear reactions all the time occur into matter by the impact of these gravitino particles hitting the earth and all things on it?
Hence, our conclusions must be that these ideas have nothing to deal with reality at all, just being what they basic are, pure fiction without any contact with the real world at all.
Another oddity of the modern particle theories is the apprehension of how forces act between quarks (hypothetical constituents of protons and some other particles). In spite of intensively experimental efforts during the latest years, one has never succeeded to make these quarks free, the quarks always remain in the bounded state.
This irritating fact naturally must be given some form of a theoretical motivation, it is said that the postulated forces between quarks have a tendency
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to increase when trying to draw them apart. The force is increased to the limit of infinity, then excluding all possibilities to make them free, but also giving the theoreticians alibi for their theses about the existence of quarks.
Of course, all of that is pure nonsense. Everything we today know about the behaviour of forces talks against it, force effect between objects usually decline, most often in time to the inverse square law.
Furthermore, we can accentuate the fact, that if the quarks exist, it would exist a theoretical possibility to make them free in spite of the infinite forces between them. That would be possible by the tunnel effect, an effect that is assumed to work between quarks in a similar way as for electrons in atomic systems.
However, in spite of these potential possibilities and in spite of all intensive experimental efforts during the resent years, it has given no result.
One remarkable fact, which here ought to be pointed out, is that quarks can be created by matter that from the beginning not contain quarks. That will happen in collisions experiments between electrons and positrons (for instance in LEP, CERN where Z- and W-particles are created). In decay of these particles, quark, anti-quark pairs are said to be Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
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created. That in line with established standard particle theory-
Some strange conclusions drawn by it are:
it is possible to create quarks, at least intermittently, by matter not from the beginning containing quarks?
hence quarks are not elementary particles as said because they can be created or destroyed in laboratory experiments
it needs less energy of creating quarks than it needs for separating them out of a bounded system (which is impossible).
We make some further conclusions:
No relevant model exists that can give an inviolable description of how the idea by inter-mediating particles works.
The existing models of particle physics can only motivate repelling forces, not attracting forces as it was intended to account for.
Above that, the existing model claims presence of real mas0s content of the interacting particles, gluon particles must be mass-less to satisfy the theory.XXXXX
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Laws, rules and analogies fetched from the atomic physics are used uncritically both in the nuclear physics and in particle physics. There is no guarantee that physical laws from one particle system can be transferred to another system and working well in this system.
Newtons origin laws regarding the relation mass/energy/force is inhibited so even the mass energy equivalence principle of E=m.c2.
Particles having energy but no mass, a property of matter that lack all known experimental support.
Origin and source of all force exchanging particles needed for the theory are lacking. These particles are pure hypothetical, and lack all experimental support.
Forces between quarks increase to the limit of infinity with increasing relative distance. This behaviour of forces is against all known behaviour of forces in nature. Such a behaviour only a rubber band will show up..
To end with, a short list aimed for meditation for them who think that the critics of the modern particle physics is mad and wrong:
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Has any free quark been observed in spite of extremely efforts done by experiments to find such quarks?
Has any free force particle been observed, gluons, so named?
Has any fractional electrical charge as postulated by the theory been observed?
Can any comprehensible mechanism be offered by how gluons create attracting forces between quarks?
Can any reasonable motive be offered why force particles lack measurable mass in spite of being present in close systems (in the atomic nucleus for instance)?
Can any physical mechanism or motivation be given to the existence of colour forces of quarks?
Does it exists any theory for why leptons exist outside the quark particle model ?
Why do it only exist a fixed number of quarks and gluons?
Does it exist any good theoretical motivation to the very well defined masses of elementary particles as observed in experiments?
Does it exist any good and convincing theory for the whole fundamental physics giving motivation to the existence of elementary particles as a physical phenomenon? Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
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Studying the list we may wonder what the physicists work with. If theories can explain nothing, the physics will be just a therapy without content and meaning and it have to be inhibited and ought to be replaced with something more useful.
THE NEW THEORYA BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF BASIC PRINCIPLES AND CONCEPTSHence, we are forced to say that the current ideas in particle physics are erroneous and must be replaced by something new, which in a more comprehensible and less contradictory way can give a description of of what has been registered by experiments. A new theory also may be able to predict new and not yet registered particles.
Our main idea is, that a new model can be achieved within the limits of the classical physics, using Newtons fundamental formulae and laws on the microcosmical parts of matter. That thought is in fully line with our main intentions of our theory and we will proceed using the same fundamental Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
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principles that we have found useful and valid in other parts of physics.
The new particle theory here briefly described is based not upon quarks and gluons and all other associated particles and strange hypothetical properties, but instead on completely new and different ideas.
To begin with we must establish that the present pattern of systematizing of different particles used is erroneous and misleading and must be replaced.
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A list of facts giving a new systemizing may look as follows:Point formed particles (true elementary particles) have no distinct internal structure, are point-formed and have always electrical charge.
Electric neutral particles of this sort lack, that because the electric charge is a primary property of these particles.
Complex elementary particles are compounds of point particles (true elementary particles). In this latter group both electrical charged and mot electrical charged particles occur. Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 10-36xxx
To begin with, we shall in some degree study how we can systematize these particles in accord with done observations. We begin with the electron (negative) and the proton (positive). .
The electron, together with the proton, belong to the most stable and common occurrence particle forms, responsible for the electric current in a conductor wire and as part in the nucleus core respectively. If we disregard the positron system there are no particle spectrum observed immediately above the electron level (with spectrum is meant a particle system having a larger mass content than the base particle).
If we put the electron mass as our reference mass, unit =1, then in the proceeding discussion we more easy can describe the masses of other particles in relation to that reference mass object.
THE MYON SPECTRUM
Above the electron mass, there are an electron like particle that has been given the name my-on (() with a mass equal to 206.77 electron mass units. This particle has electron like properties. The my-on has its antiparticle with the same mass but with opposite charge polarity.
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The mu-on (m) belongs to the group of singular base particles and of that reason no uncharged variant exist of it. The my-on has a spectrum by the p-mesons with the mass of po = 264 electron mass units and ( +- having 273.1 electron mass units respectively.xxx
THE K-MESON MASS- SPECTRUMTo the next particle group there is a big step. The base particle is there the electric charged K-meson -with the mass of 966.1 electron mass units, having both positive and negative electric charge. This particle has a spectrum of several other particles, where Ko with a mass of 972 electron mass units and the ho (eta-zero) with 1075 electron mass units are the most common in this particle spectrum..xxx
THE PROTON SPECTRUMThe next spectrum group begins with the proton (p) ), having the mass of 1836.15 electron masses, Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
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being a stable positive charged particle, constituting the main constituent of the atomic core.
The first proton spectrum particle is the neutron (n), having 1836.68 electron masses, followed by another uncharged 0particle, lambda-zero ((o) with the mass of 2183 electron masses, only observed in neutral state.
Furthermore, there are a lot of other particles registered where the most common ones are Sigma(S), Xsi(X) and Ohmega ( W ).
THE TAU PARTICLE SPECTRA (t)The next step is the Tau-particle (t ) with 3492 electron mass units, a point particle having similar properties as for the electron, positive or negative charged. Immediately above this mass there are Do with 3646 electron masses and D+- having 3656 electron masses, as to mention some of them all. .
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HIGHER UP SPECTRAFurthermore, higher up is registered (c with mass 2.978Gev corresponding to approximately 5830 electron mass units. This particle also has a set of different complex spectra. After that follows the B-meson with mass 5.3Gev corresponding to 10400 electron mass units. Even this particle has a spectrum. After it is a particle with mass 8.3Gev, corresponding to 18900 electron mass units and has been given the name zeta(z). Even this particle has a lot of particles in its spectrum.
Higher up in the energy scale there are similarly structures of regularly pattern. The meaning with this listing has been to point out some properties that are common for all fundamental particles of this sort.
The lowest level in a particle spectrum always is a singular particle having electric charge properties.
The first spectrum particle above the base particle is always electrical un-charged, being always some more heavy than the base particle. Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
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Very often even the second spectrum particle is electrical un-charged but then having a considerably higher mass content.
This pattern is repeated consistently and in a regular way throughout all occurring spectrums. That cannot be any occurrence BY accident, but instead pointing on fundamental principles hidden into matter.
Hence, the purpose here is to try understanding the basic principles on ground of already known laws of physics. To begin with we do a brief list of mass differences between some of the well known and registered particles as listed below. The aim of the listing is to see if there are any regularity percent in the differences.xxx
po - u264.1 -206.77=53electron massesp+- - u273.1 - 206.77=66.3electron massesK+- - Ko973.9 - 966.1=7.8electron massesh( - K+-1074 - 966.1=107.8electron masses Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
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r - K+-1506 - 966.1=539.9electron massesw - K+-1506 - 966.1=566.1electron massesn - p(+-)1838.9 - 1836.2=2.53electron massesSo - p(+-)2183 - 1836.2=347.1electron massesS(-p(+-)2328/2343-1836=491/507electron masses X - p(+-)2573/2586-1836=734/750electron massesDo - t (+-)3649 -3492=157electron massesD(+-)-(t (+-)3658-3492=167electron massesA-1002
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MATHEMATICAL ANALYSISAs pointed out before, our hypothesis is that all spectrum particles are composed by those point formed particles defined, e, E, u, K, p, ( in a shifting pattern. In such a hierarchic system the most simple combination is a system composed by two singularities, giving rise to an electrical un-charged system (as seen by an outer observer).
If studying the table and data given above, this hypothesis seems to be confirmed in a very convincing way. The first spectrum particle in each individual system is an electrical neutral particle without exceptions.
However, to begin with, our hypothesis of point formed base particles being the constituents of these spectrum particles seems to make trouble.
There exists no point formed particles with mass corresponding with the mass difference as calculated above! For instance, take the po -meson, here supposed being composed by a my-on u=206.77 mass units and another unknown particle. The nearest particle available regarding mass content is the electron, with 1 mass unit, but lacks 53-1=52 electron mass units! The same thing Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 10-43xxx
can be observed for the Ko particle in relation to K where 7.8-1=6.8 mass units lacking. For the neutron in relation to the proton 1.53 mass units is lacking,.
And so on for other heavier particles..
The solution of this problem is relatively simple and can be motivated by already well known and verified physical laws. It is well known from particle physics, that a particles mass increases when moving with a high speed in relation to the electromagnetic environment, a physical phenomenon discovered by Kaufmann already 1901, using cathode rays (accelerated electrons) as probe particles, also derived from our own theory based on Newtons kinetic laws (see equation 0250)
Hence, our conclusion is that the mass difference may be motivated by that an orbiting particle in a closed system moving with an extremely high velocity into this system, a velocity nearly the limit velocity of light, will achieve a mass increase, motivating this mass difference.
As a remark Einstein derived (suggested, proposed) 2 expressions of this mass increase for the same particle, in longitudinal and in transversal direction. Both erroneous. Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
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Later we will develop a theory based on that idea.Xxx
THE NEW PARTICLE THEORYCREATION OF SINGULAR PARTICLESHence, we do not believe on quarks. We do not believe on gluons holding particles together. We do not believe on the way of classification of particles as done in current particle physics. We think the conceptual base of todays particle physics is mainly wrong. Hence, we must try to find another conceptual basis of the existence of elementary particles, constituting the least fundamental parts of what we name matter
In this theory we assume there exists a set of particles that are singular, mainly/ approximately, point formed in shape. The my-on, K-on, the proton, the Tau-on are examples on such particles (the electron is outside and some unique). Combination of these base particles (where even the electron may be included), create complex particle forms consisting of at least 2 and more particles of the first class. Examples on such particles are the neutralXp-meson, the neutral k-meson, the neutron, the neutral Lambda L((( particle) and many others.XXXXXX
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Our first task is to find out a basic principle by which point formed particles are created, and how they behave and how they get different mass content in spite of that they have the same content of electric charge (the electron unit charge is 1.6E-19 As). The solution of that problem is a rotating ring, a vortex, that vibrates and interacts with its own electromagnetic field surrounding it.Xxx
DEFINITION OF PARTICLE 1003
PARAMETERSPThe maximum force on the particle surface PeffThe total effective force being the difference P-PoMoThe total mass content of the particlemeThe electron rest massCThe limit velocity of matter in a closed system viThe internal spin velocity of a particleQThe vacuum mass density (see equation 0323)TcThe revolution time of a particle around an axisTrThe revolution time around its own mass centreNThe particles quantum resonance state number Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 10-46
A-1004
The resonance, quantum model
Xxx
At start we make a study of a particle as a closed entity of matter into space.
We begin by trying to formulate a differential equation, determining the oscillating movement of the particle plasma in the radius direction.
We start with Boyles law for gases, saying that the product of pressure and volume in a closed entity, is an invariant, provided the temperature is constant (see equation 0159).
Xxx
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For simplicity, we here assume the particle mass entity having a spherical form, giving the following relation between the neutral state and the oscillating state:A-1006
xxx
The total acting forces on the particles surface in the neutral state and in the oscillating state (compressed or de-compressed states ) then will be:1007
1007
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This force interacts with the particle mass-inertial force when oscillating. Then in accord with Newtons law of force and mass, the inherent, expanding force will be ( 0116 )A-1008
xxx
In each moment of time, these two forces are equal, hence in balance. That give us the following differential equation, describing how the particle plasma will oscillate as result of a mass and force interaction processes involved:A-1009
Xxx
In this differential equation, the parameter Po must be known. Furthermore we must know how the particle mass is related to its spatial extension, the
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MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 10-49
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radius Ro.
We begin with by computing Po. In each oscillating period, a mass, dm, is exchanged between particle and the vacuum space, having density 1/e0 ((see the equation 0322f ). We calculate this mass and the energy associated to this process, using the previous derived
formula 0250
0Aa10-1
A-1010
a) Change in mass of the particle caused by the oscillation Coulomb change
b) This mass converted to energy in accord Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
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with formula 0250
But according to Newtons laws, energy is the product of force and distance, giving (0121):A-10-11
xxx
From our atomic and electromagnetic theory, we know that the mass of all point formed base particles is in the relation to their radii in cobe. Using the electron particle as our reference with radius re, then the mass of an arbitrary point formed particle can be calculated to (see our formula 0217) :A-10-12
Now we calculate the variable Po /(Mo.Ro ) in our differential equation 1009. Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 10-51xxx
We start with Po from formula 1011 and insert value of M from formula 1012, divided with Ro.
After that the (o is replaced by values from formula 0322d, 0323f from our own electromagnetic theory, and A0 is rewritten by use of formula 04 thesame theory:A-1013
a) Equation 1011b
b) Equation 0437 and 0132
c) Equation 0322f and 0323d
d) Combination of 1013a,b,c and using 0217
e) Solvinhg out the constant K from 1014d Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
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The solution of our differential equation 1009 then will be:A-1014
xxx
These vibrations of the particle plasma in the radii direction, generate disturbances in the particles surrounding electromagnetic field, giving rise to a resonance effect (a quantum effect) between these vibrations and the particles own spin movement.
The particles oscillation in its own electromagnetic field can be calculated from the common pendulum equation in the same way as was demonstrated in our atomic quantum theory.
The electromagnetic field force is here me.c2/re, the particle mass M, and the pendulum radius R:
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xxxxxxXXXX
The particles oscillation in the radius direction (time period tr) will be in resonance with the particle s spin movement(time period (s) in its own electromagnetic field, times a half integer n unit of it.
However, we prefer to express the equation in full integer values, introducing an correction factor k = 1+-x times the number of (, giving the following set of formulae for the particle mass (the spin movement time of the particle is 2.p (in accord with equation 0437):XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
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a) Resonance condition between the particles spin time and the oscillation time in the radius direction
b) Equality between the spin time of the particle and the particles oscillation time in the radius direction, the quantum number n is represented by the relation-ship between these oscillating periods
c) The mass of the searched particle as function of the electron mass as reference and the quantum number n=1,2,3..
d) where n is an integer number n=1,2,3 for the integer number of oscillation in the radius direction as function of the
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particles spin time
e) K is a constant with nominal value equal to 1 but some fluctuating around this value in comparison to experimental finding and measurementsxxxxxx
Some of these point formed base particles can be identified as followsA-10-17
A-10-18
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COMMENTS OF RESEIVED RESULTSNMass from experimentsor predicted massUnitValue of kComment116Mevpredicted(1)2105.65839Mev0.941u, mu (6)3493.646Mev1.05172k, kaon (6)4938.2723Mev0.9744p, proton (6)51784.1Mev0.96578T, Tauon (6)62.976Ge v0.95487n, eta 75.26Ge v0.98714B-(2)88.3Ge v1.00765z, zeta (3)911.5Ge v-JETS (5)1015.8Ge v-JETS (5)1121Gev-JETS (5)1227.4Gev-JETS (5)1334.8Gev-JETS (5) Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
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1443.4Gev0.9979Reg. (4)1553.4Gev-JETS (5)1664.8Gev-JETS (5)1781.0Gev1.013342W, (6)1892.4Gev0.999883Z, (6)192021,Xxx
ee New Scientist 11th february/p14,15 1995
B-meson, see CERN data booklet
zeta, see New Scientist 16th august 1984
43.4 Gev, see 25th of may 1984
See statistics from reports Physics Review Letters below
Se CERN Particle Data Group booklet
From New Scientist 24 may 1984
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xxx
Statistic from Swedish KOSMOS 1981 page 100
XA-10-25
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Report of the zeta 8.3 Gev particle in a German Scientific journal. OBS! cited text limited
Comment 10-1:
Obs THAT THE w PARTICLE IS A NEUTRALLY ELECTRIC CHARGED PARTICLE. HENCE HAVING A TOO LARGE MASS IN COMPARISON TO OUR PARTICLE MODEL. Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 10-60Xxx
OF THAT REASON THE BASE PARTICLE OF w PARTICLE MAY HAVE A LOWER VALUE THAN THE GIVEN VALUE OF W.
Comment 10-2:
IN DERIVING THE QUANTUM FORMULA 1018 IT HAS BEEN ASSUMED THAT THE RELAYION BETWEEN MASS CONTENT AND SPATIAL RADIUS OF A PARTICLE IS IN ACCOTD WITH FORMULA 0217 Because the formula 10-18 very well give correct values of mass of experimentally found particles, we can conclude this relation is valid with good precision.
In the summer 2008 it is planned to start up the great collider in CERN. Lets see then if my table can be complete.
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START---11
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 11-01XXXX
Chapter 11
COMPLEX LEMENTARY PARTICLESThe complex formsINTRODUCTION03MATHEMATICAL ANALYSISO4CALCULUS OF PARTICLE MASSES11SOME CONCLUSIONS13FROM NEW SCIENTIST 26 NOVEMBER 1987 WE CAN READ THE FOLLOWING:14HELP PROGRAM PCOMPLEX, TURBO PASCAL17
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XXX
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INTRODUCTIONAs discussed before, complex particles are defined as these particles composed by two or more basic particles as defined in section 10. As to give an example, the neutron is composed by a proton and an electron. The my-meson is composed by a my-on and another particle in orbit. Individual particles in such a complex particle system, are influenced by the strong force, being the shadow force from the very strong vacuum field.
At first instance, we look at some well known mass particle spectra, that in order to see that there in fact exists a very clear pattern by which spectrum particles are built up.A-11-01
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If we study the mass difference between the base particle and the nearest spectrum particle, we se that this mass difference not correspond with mass of any known singular particle form. But we easily see, that this mass difference can be motivated by a mass increase of the orbiting particle in accord with how mass is added from the surrounding electromagnetic field when moving fast in this field. The mathematical formula for this mass increase we find in the relation 0242
Xxx
MATHEMATICAL ANALYSISThe principle of the calculation is, that the orbital particle moves with high velocity around the central particle. The particle is hold in orbit mainly by the strong force with a small contribution from the electromagnetic force. In a similar way as for the quantum atom, the orbiting particle will come in resonance with some of the system particles own resonances.
For a system containing 2 particles, there are 4 different states, resulting in 4 different mass results of the calculation. If these mass values are very apart, each mass may be seen as a separate Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008MATTER
UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 11-05Xxx
particle. If the mass values are very near, the mean value is the calculated particle mass value .-11-02
a,b) The mass increasing formula
c) The particle velocity derived as function of mass increase
The orbiting particle is kept in orbit by the strong force between the particles included into the system.
This force is a shadow force on near situated particles got by the full pressure of the vacuum field (see 0703). This force is in balance with the inertial orbiting centrifugal force. Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 11-06A-11-03
a) Illustrating the shadow effect between particles and in the vacuum field
b) the force on the particle surface from the vacuum field, equation 0308
c) the force effect on particles in the shadow field as function of the relative distance D, formula 0703
d) the equivalent attraction force between particles M1 and M2 respectively
Wen the orbital particle moves, there
will be an outer expanding force according to Newtons law of force (see formula 155b). This force will be: Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 11-07A-11-04
a) The centrifugal force for the rotating particle (see formula 155b)
b) The distance between particles in the system is some dependent of the mass distribution between the particles
According our particle theory (chapter 10 ), every base particle in the particle system has two independent plasma resonance frequencies. These oscillations disturb the environment electromagnetic space field, that vary with these oscillations (see equations 1014 and 1015). An orbiting particle then will follow these variations, resulting in that the orbiting time will be equal to one of these system oscillation frequencies. In a system containing 2 particles, hence there are mainly 4 possible orbiting time resonance frequencies states possible. Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 11-08A-11-05
a) 4 different resonance states of the central particle respective the orbiting particle
b) The orbiting time for resonance with some of the systems particle resonance states
c) The orbiting particles rotation distance to the central particle, together with its velocity, that as function of the actual system resonance
If there are more than one orbital particle in the system, the total orbital mass shall be introduced in the formula., hence Norbit x Mo .We collect some of results achievedA-11-06abcde
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MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 11-09A-11-06fg
a) Equation 1102c
b) Equation 1104b
c) Equation 1105g
d) Equation 1104a
e) Equation 1103d
f) Putting together 1106d,c,a
g) Putting together 1106e,a,b,c
There is also some strong force interaction between the orbiting particles as well as there are electromagnetic forces between them. But the electromagnetic forces are relatively small in comparison to the strong forces, so they may be neglected in this context.
For the strong force interaction between orbits we simply exchange Mc in the formula 1006e with Mo and multiply with the number of Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 11-10XXX
orbital particles with N-1. For the electromagnetic interaction force we uses the Coulombs law (0322)
The force equations are solved so that the sum of all forces into the system will be zero. The output mass of the complex particle then is the sum of the total particle mass involved.
A-11-07
a) The sum of all forces in the system is routed to zero.
b) The sum of all masses in the system is the systems total mass content.
The program Pcomplex.pas found in the appendix will help you to do calculations from this model. The model have been some adjusted for the strong force, introducing a linear component some increasing this force on very short distances, then decreasing some more rapidly on large distances. This component is name lineforce in the program.
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MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 11-11XXX
CALCULUS OF PARTICLE MASSESUsually the program put out 4 different values, corresponding to each individual particle resonance. The rule is, that if calculated values are strongly diverging, the mass shall be associated to a separate particle. If the mass values are very close, the mean value is the calculated particle mass.
The orbiting particle may be controlled by 4 different resonances in a system containing 2 particles. 2 of these belong to the centre particle, the other 2 to the orbiting particles own oscillating frequencies.
If both particles in a system of 2 have the same or near the same masses, both particles are to be regarded as the same particle. In the formulas considerations have been done to these circumstances.A-11-08
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MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 11-12A--11-09
A-11-10
A-11-11
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A-11-13 A-11-02
SOME CONCLUSIONSOur theory can in a good way calculate masses of both singular and complex particle forms
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Our base particles e, (E), u, K, p, ( , have never been observed as electrical neutral particles. They just appear as electric charged entities.
Our theory motivate in a good way the presence of electrical neutral particle forms.
Our theory can motivate two different low resonance of K+- that are known as KL and K3.
Our theory explains in a good way spectra of different particle forms.
The neutron is an electric uncharged particle for an outer observer. Investigations have been made showing that this particle is negative near its surface but positive in its inner parts.
The neutron decays into one proton,. one electron plus radiation (neutrinos), where the electron radiates with near the velocity of light, hence this velocity it has in its orbit.
Why should a neutron, being built by quarks decay in this way?Xxx
FROM NEW SCIENTIST 26 NOVEMBER 1987 WE CAN READ THE FOLLOWING:An experiment at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in Oxfordshire has closed some of the remaining loopholes in the mass of evidence against the existence of free quarks Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
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Since quarks were first mooted as fundamental constituents of matter, physicists have searched in vain for evidence of single quarks. The quarks seemed to be bound together in groups of three or in quark-anti-quark pairs, in subatomic particles such as protons, neutrons or pions.
Quarks possess electric charges that are fractions of the charge of the electron. This should make single quarks particularly easy to detect, yet most experiments have had no success at all in finding such fractional charges. One famous exception is colleagues at Stanford University in California, reported between 1976 and 1981.
These researchers claim to have measured fractional charges of 1/3 e on several tiny spheres of super-conducting niobium. They measured the charges on the balls as they were levitated magnetically.
Measurements by other groups, however, have failed to observe similar effects in other materials and even in niobium. One reason for this is that perhaps the teams niobium spheres picked up fractional charges from the tungsten plate on which they lay during preparation. Peter Smith and colleagues at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and Imperial College, London, have put this possibility to rest. Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 11-16XXX
They have used their magnetic levitation apparatus in 350 tests on a variety of samples, including niobium balls like those used by Fairbank. None of them showed any sign of fractional charge. Their most recent report describes measurements on tungsten carbide balls and tungsten-coated niobium balls to test the hypothesis that Fairbanks fractional charges were somehow due to the tungsten. However, Smiths team still finds no signs of charges of 1/3e (Physics Letter B, Vol 197, p447).
Other experiments at the collider have found no evidence for single quarks, but this could be because free quarks interact very readily with matter and therefore never reach the usual detector beyond the beam pipe. Smiths team hoped to test this idea by catching single quarks in the steel balls within the beam pipe.
If single quarks where produced, measurements with the levitation apparatus should reveal single fractional charges on the balls.
Again, however, the researchers report that they found no evidence for fractional charge (Zeitshrift fur Physik C, vol 36, p 363). In test on 60 balls exposed to proton-antiproton collisions, they have found no signs of the fractional charge that would indicate single quarks...
--------- end of quotation ------
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 11-17XXX
There are a steady stream of reports in this researching area of physics. But reading between lines it is easy to see, that the scientists are unsure and that existing theories very badly confirm done experiments. There are steady reports of failure of finding free quarks, fractional charges, monopoles and so on, discovering new particles which not fit into the pattern of quarks etc. So the hope for the future seems dark and the possibilities of finding a solution within the framework of current theories do not seem hopeful.
HELP PROGRAM PCOMPLEX, TURBO PASCALThe program is a Turbo Pascal program and can be compiled in such an editor. But the program easily can be rewritten to any other program language.
program pcomplex;
(* revised 20/8/1999 *)
(* Calculus of complex elementary particle forms in accord with *)
(* basic theory of Matter Unified *)
(* programmer Ove Tedenstig, Idungatan 37, 19 551 Maersta Sweden *)
(* programming version 20-8/99 *)
label 1;
VAR Kt:real; (* electromagnetic time constant *)
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 11-18
A,z,z1,Result:real; (* help variables *)
XXX:INTEGER;
n:integer; (* help parameter *)
M0:real; (* start orbit mass *)
Mc:real; (* start center mass *)
Mo:real; (* intermittent orbit mass during computing *)
Fee,Foo,Forb,Fext:real; (* system forces *)
Norb:integer; (* number of orbital particles *)
nc:integer; (* type of center particle 1,2,3.... *)
no:integer; (* type of orbital particle *)
State:integer; (* resonance state *)
Mout:real; (* total system mass *)
arr:array(.1..4.) of real; (* help array *)
Dorb:real; (* distans orbit center particle *)
MX:real; (* help parameter *)
linforce:real; (* linear strong force factor *)
Dc:real; (* center particle radius *)
Drel:real; (* realtion Dorb/Dc *)
Ddiff:real; (* realation Dorb-Dc *)
test1,test2,test3,test4:boolean; (* test parameters
*)
CONST pi=3.1415926;
e=0.5109990615E-3;
ev=0.5109990615;
me=9.1066E-31;
Procedure explain_terms;
begin
writeln; writeln; writeln; writeln;
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 11-19
writeln(' The program computes the mass of a complex particle');
writeln(' according to a new model for elementary particles ');
writeln(' consisting of a center mass and one or several orbital masses');
writeln(' 0 for electron, 0.51099906 Mev or 1 em');
writeln(' 1 for Electron, 15.84 Mew or 31 em ');
writeln(' 2 for myon 0.10565839 Gev or 206.77
em');
writeln(' 3 for K-on 0.493646 Gev or 966 em');
writeln(' 4 for proton, 0.93827232 Gev or 1836.12 em');
writeln(' 5 for Tauon, 1.7841 Gev or 3491.4 em');
writeln(' 6 for nc, 2.980 Gev or 5832 em ');
writeln(' These base particles approximately follows the ');
writeln(' mathematical relation M=electron_mass*(k*Pi*n)**3 ');
writeln;
end;
writeln(' 7 for B, 5.2776 Gev or 10327 em ');
writeln(' 8 for z, 8.3 Gev or 16243 em');
writeln;
PROCEDURE SPOLA;
BEGIN
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 11-20
FOR XXX:=1 TO 20 DO BEGIN
WRITELN;
END;
END;
PROCEDURE calc(State,n:integer;var r,z1,Mo:real);
var Kn:real;
begin
Mo:=Mo*(1-Z1);
A:=MX/Mo;
if A=0 then Mo:=m0;
if ((result<1) and (result>0.1)) then z1:=0.001;
if ((result<0.1) and (result>0.01)) then z1:=0.0001;
z:=1/(1+Mo/(Mc+(Norb-1)*Mo));
case State of
1: Kn:=exp(2/3*ln(Mo*Norb));
2: Kn:=Kt*exp(1/3*ln(Mo*Norb));
3: Kn:=exp(2/3*ln(Mc));
4: Kn:=Kt*exp(1/3*ln(Mc));
end;
Dorb:=sqrt(1-A*A)*Kn/ z;
Dc:=exp(1/3*ln(Mc));
Drel:=Dorb/Dc;
Ddiff:=Dorb-Dc;
(* revised 20/8 1999 *)
linforce:=49/Dorb; (* stronger force on short distances *)
(* weaker force at long distances *)
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 11-21
Fee:=z*z/(1-A*A)/(Kn*Kn)*Norb;
Foo:=z*z/(1-A*A)/(Kn*Kn)*exp(4/3*ln(Mo));
Forb:=sqrt(1-A*A)/Kn*Mo;
(* revised 20/8/199 *)
Fext:=linforce*z*z/(1-A*A)/(Kn*Kn)*exp(2/3*ln(Mo))*exp(2/3*ln(Mc));
Result:=Forb-Foo-Fext-Fee;
(* revised 20/8/199 *)
(* if an electron comes in and get a mass >E, it *)
(* will be converted to an E-electron *)
if ((No=0) and (Mo>31) and (Mo<207) and (Result<=0) and (test1=false))
then begin
MX:=31;Mo:=MX/0.0001;test1:=true;Result:=10;end;
(* revised 20/8 1999 *)
(* if an electron comes in and get a mass >E, it *)
(* will be converted to an E-electron *)
if ((No=0) and (Mo>=207) and (Result<=0) and (test2=false))
then begin
MX:=207;Mo:=MX/0.0001;test2:=true;result:=10;end;
* if an E-electron comes in and get a mass >u-, it *)
(* will be converted to a u *)
if ((No=1) and (Mo>207) and (Result<=0) and (test3=false)) then begin
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 11-22
MX:=207;Mo:=MX/0.0001;test3:=true;result:=10;end;
end;(*calc*)
procedure inputs;
begin
if n=0 then begin
write(' Write centre particle type 1,2,3,4,5... ');readln(Nc);end;
if n=0 then begin
write(' Write orbit particle type 0,1,2,3,4.... ');readln(No);end;
if n=0 then begin
write(' Number of orbits 1,2,3... ');readln(Norb);end;
writeln;writeln;writeln;writeln;writeln;writeln;writeln;writeln;
if (No=0) then M0:=1;(*electron mass*)
if (No=1) then M0:=31; (* E mass *)
if (No=2) then M0:=206.77;(*muon mass*)
if (No=3) then M0:=966.6;(*kaon-mass*)
if (No=4) then M0:=1836.12;(*proton-mass*)
if (No=5) then M0:=1784.2/ev;(*tau-mass*)
if (No=6) then M0:=2978/ev;(*eta-mass*)
if (No=7) then M0:=5277.6/ev; (*B meson mass*)
if (No=8) then M0:=8300/ev;
if (Nc=1) then Mc:=31;
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 11-23
if (Nc=2) then Mc:=206.77;(*muon-mass*)
if (Nc=3) then Mc:=966.6;(*kaon-mass*)
if (Nc=4) then Mc:=1836.12;(*proton-mass*)
if (Nc=5) then Mc:=1784.2/ev;(*tau-mass*)
if (Nc=6) then Mc:=2978/ev;(*eta-mass*)
if (Nc=7) then M0:=5277.6/ev; (*B meson mass*)
if (Nc=8) then Mc:=8300/ev;
end;
procedure calc_mean;
var n:integer;
m:real;
begin
m:=0;
for n:=1 to 4 do begin
m:= m+arr(.n.);
end;
(* write(' MMean = ',m/4:5:4);
writeln(' Mev ',m/4*ev:5:4); *)
end;
procedure parameters;
begin
Kt:=5.3455; (* electromagnetic time constant *)
Z1:=0.001; (* test incrementation of orbit mass *)
end;
(******** START PROGRAM ********)
Forb:=sqrt(1-A*A)/Kn*Mo;
(* revised 20/8/199 *)
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 11-24
Fext:=linforce*z*z/(1-A*A)/(Kn*Kn)*exp(2/3*ln(Mo))*exp(2/3*ln(Mc));
Result:=Forb-Foo-Fext-Fee;
(* revised 20/8/199 *)
(* if an electron comes in and get a mass >E, it *)
(* will be converted to an E-electron *)
if ((No=0) and (Mo>31) and (Mo<207) and (Result<=0) and (test1=false))
then begin
MX:=31;Mo:=MX/0.0001;test1:=true;Result:=10;end;
(* revised 20/8 1999 *)
(* if an electron comes in and get a mass >E, it *)
(* will be converted to an E-electron *)
if ((No=0) and (Mo>=207) and (Result<=0) and (test2=false))
then begin
MX:=207;Mo:=MX/0.0001;test2:=true;result:=10;end;
(* if an E-electron comes in and get a mass >u-, it *)
(* will be converted to a u *)
if ((No=1) and (Mo>207) and (Result<=0) and (test3=false)) then begin
if n=0 then begin
write(' Number of orbits 1,2,3... ');readln(Norb);end;
if state=4 then
writeln(' C2= ',Mout:5:2,' ',Mout*ev:5:2,'
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 11-25
Mev');
writeln;
end; (* State *)
calc_mean;
writeln;writeln;writeln;writeln;writeln;writeln;writeln; writeln;writeln;writeln;writeln;writeln;writeln;writeln;
readln;
goto 1;
end.
(* end of program pcomplex *)
end of program
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 11-26
Readers comments:
A-11-end
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
START---12
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 12-01XXXX
Chapter 12
ELEMENTARY PARTICLES
COMMON PROPERTIESMAGNETIC MOMENTUM03THE BOHR MAGNETON04THE PROTONS MAGNETIC MOMENTUM06THE PROTON MAGNETIC MOMENTUM 07THE MU-ONS MAGNETICAL MOMENTUM 08THE ELECTRONS MAGNETIC MOMENTUM08THE NETRON MAGNETIC MOMENTUM10THE MAGNETIC MOMENTUM OF THE NEUTRON12THE CLASSIC ELECTRON RADIUS13THE ELECTRON RADIUS DERIVED FROM THE13FROM VACUUM MASS14THE ELECTRON RADIUS CALCULATED FROM START OF ELEMENTARY CHARGE14THE PROTON RADIUS FROM MASS15THE PROTON RADIUS AS FUNCTION OF THE GRAVITY CONSTANT16Proton radius based on the atoms quantum mechanics17OUR CALCULATION OF THE PROTON RADIUS BASED ON OUR ATOMIC AND DEUTRON MODEL21THE SHAPE OF THE ELECTRON23ANNIHILATION OF ELECTRONS24CREATION OF AN ELECTRON25
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 12-02X
THE PROTONS FORM AND VOLUME26AN PROTON GET PLACE INTO AN ELECTRON27The nass density of an electron28Relations between particle mass and its spatial radius29Help program for estimating the proton radius with start of decay of mirror nuclei32 Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 12-03xxx
MAGNETIC MOMENTUMMagnetic momentum is in physics defined as that entity being the product of electrical current in a closed loop and that area this loop encloses. The concept even is used in that case the current constitutes of a single, charged particle, moving in a closed loop around a force centre, as for example is the case of an electron moving around the nucleus core. The Bohr magneton is such a case, constituting the magnetic momentum for an electron that is situated in the innermost orbit of a hydrogen atom.
We will use this definition also for singular base particles, constituting a vortex, plasma ring of matter. There we associate the particle spin equivalent with an electric current, then being able to calculate the particles magnetic momentum and, then comparing the result with experimental measurements. In this comparing, we can show that the calculated value well is in agree with experimental findings. In some cases our calculated values are in a better agree with experiments that in comparison with established theory findings. At first we define the concept of magnetic momentum:
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 12-04A-12-01
-a) The magnetic momentum of an orbiting particle around a centre point
b) The magnetic momentum for an electric current in a closed magnetic loop
c) The magnetic momentum for a vortex ring loop in accord with our model of a singular particle form
THE BOHR MAGNETONThe Bohr-magneton is calculated for the innermost orbital electron of a hydrogen atom, where the main quantum number n=1. The electrons orbital velocity in this case is got from our formula 0624, and the orbital radius from Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 12-05xxx
0626. The electrical charged electron is regarded as an equivalent electric current i=e/t, where e is the electrons charge and t is the orbital time.A-1202
a) The base definition for the magnetic momentum , the equation 1201
b) The definition of electric current, equation 0342
c) The area that an orbiting electron is enclosing having the rotation orbiting radius of
d) The time it will take for an electron to rotate one turn around the atomic core ( see 0621b) O ve Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 12-06
e) The orbital radius in accord with 0626
f) The orbital velocity in accord with 0624)
g) Plancks constant in accord with 0631
THE PROTONS MAGNETIC MOMENTUMThe proton is regarded as having vortex form, where matter revolve around 2 axis with radii Rmax and Rmin respectively. The magnetic moment-um is associated with a spin around the main axis. A formula is derived that also is valid for the my-onen and some other singularly particle forms. Approximately is assumed that Rmax and Rmin are the same, hence the factor k=1 in the formula.A-1203
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 12-07Xxx
a) The basic definition of magnetic momentum the equation 0643
b) Definition of electric current, equation 0342
c) Time for an envelope of the particle spin (see 0621b)
d) The particles spin velocity at the periphery, equation 0326a
e) Equation 0217
f) From equation 0217
g) Relation between the particles maximum and minima radius
THE PROTON MAGNETIC MOMENTUM 1204Magnetic momentum of proton as calculated from our formula: mp = 2.21E-26
From measurement
mp = 1.41062E-26 Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 12-08
THE MU-ON S MAGNETICAL MOMENTUM 1105In the same way as for the proton, the my-on is regarded as a singular particle form. We use the same formula as for the proton with inserting of the mass M=206.7 electron mass units:
The magnetic momentum of my-on as calculated from our formula :
mu = 4.5790E-26
The my-on magnetic momentum as got from experiment :
mu = 4.49047E-26Xxx
THE ELECTRON S MAGNETIC MOMENTUMThe electron is also of vortex form
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 12-09Xxx
internal spin velocity is much higher than for other singular particle forms. Hence, the
electron is a some different and special
particle. The spin velocity around the max
axis is the same as for the vacuum velocity C=5.3557 x c, as calculated in the equations 0317, 0437, where the factor Kt has been calculated to Kt = 5.35556 in formula 0317, 0437. And the revolving radius of the main axis
will be much larger than re, associated with the normal velocity c.A-1206
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 12-10Xxx
a) The basic definition of the magnetic momentum of a particle, equation 0643
b) The definition of electric current, equation 0342
c) The electrons orbiting time around the large axis (0621b)
d) The same centrifugal force or surface pressure on both radii
e) The electron radius stand in relation to spin velocity squared
The magnetic momentum of an electron as calculated from out model : me = 968E1-26
The magnetic momentum of electron as measured from experiment: me = -92849E-26 1107Xxx
THE NETRON MAGNETIC MOMENTUMFrom our model of the neutron, chapter (see formula 0724 ), we know that the neutron is
built up of a proton and an electron, where the electron revolve in an orbit with a very high velocity and also very closed to the protons core. Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 12-11XXX
in such a system there are 3 different magnetic momentum, that cooperate so that the sum of them all will be
the resulting momentum. The momentum in question are listed as :
The protons magnetic momentum
The electron magnetic momentum
The electron orbital magnetic momentum
Up to now we know the protons and the electrons magnetic momentum, hence we have to calculate the electron orbital momentum. We find that this momentum is in same scale as for the electrons moment. The electrons momentum is negative so we may assume these two moment entities are inhibiting, or near inhibiting each other.
A-1208
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 12-12XXX
a) The basic definition of the magnetic momentum of a particle, equation 0646
b) The orbital enclosed surface
c) The definition of electric current, equation 0342
d) The estimated distance for the electron to the centre point, see equation 0723
e) The electrons velocity in the neutron, see equation 0723
) Equation 0217
THE MAGNETIC MOMENTUM OF THE NEUTRONThe magnetic momentum of the neutron :mn = 1.41E-26 - (928.49E-26 + 850E-26 =- X.E-26
Experimental value is 0.966E-26, hence not an exact value calculated. But the orbiting radius of the electron in the neutron and its velocity is not exactly known, so that may be the reason for de discrepancy. Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 12-13XXX
THE CLASSIC ELECTRON RADIUSThe classical electron radius usually is defined as that value of the electrons spatial extension as denoted in physical handbooks as calculated on the basis, that an electron is able to store the maximum of energy that is stored in the particles electromagnetic field, integrating from a distant point of infinity to the limit of the particles own limiting radius (even see equation 0323d using q, 1/q and K variables)..A-1209
xxx
THE ELECTRON RADIUS DERIVED FROM THE Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 12-14
FROM VACUUM MASSHence, with start from our theory, we can derive the electron radius with start from the formulae 0322f and 0323d.A-1210
THE ELECTRON RADIUS CALCULATED FROM START OF ELEMENTARY CHARGEIn accord with our theory, the formula 0323c
the elementary charge contain parameters of electron radius. Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 12-15
A-1211
THE PROTON RADIUS FROM MASS
In this theory we have assumed the mass density of all point formed particles being approximately the same. See the formula 0217.
A-1212
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 12-16
Xxx0
a) Equation 09303d
b) Equation 0933a
c) Equation 0933b
d) Equation 0933i
e) Solvimg out the proton radius from equation 1213a,b and c
A1213
THE PROTON RADIUS AS FUNCTION OF THE GRAVITY CONSTANT
The gravity field acts on the surface of elementary particles, mainly protons and neutrons. Of that reason there exists a relationship between the pro-ton radius and the gravity con-stant (see 0934).. (Observe that the gravity force not primarily is any mass force, but at surface force. The relationship with mass is the number of interactive mass point, types protons present in matter).
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 12-17
Xxx
a) Equation 0933d
b) Equation 0933a
c) Equation 0933b
d) Equation 0933i
e) Solving out the proton radius from equation 1213a,b and c
Proton radius based on the atoms quantum mechanics
n chapter 06, we have found that the atoms quantum process emanates from an oscillation of the proton in the kernel. With start from that we can calculate a value of the proton radius. A small discrepancy is found in relation to values found by other methods.
A-1214
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 12-18
A-1215
The positron energy can be measured and by the knowledge of the systems total energy content, the nucleus radius is calculated. (OBS! calculated, not measured! The result of the experiment therefore naturally will be very dependent of the theoretical assumptions that are made in the calculation, my comment).
The total relativistic energy is conserved in the Beta-decay and when we can neglect the kinetic energy of O and N the following equality is assumed valid:
A-1216
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 12-19
xxx
In these cases when the positron get maximum energy, the neutrino get no energy. Then we have assumed that the neutrinos rest mass may be neglected. Then we can write :
A-1217
E(B) is the nucleus binding energy + Coulomb energy =W1 +W2
A-1218
Inserting of numerical values
A-12-19
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 12-20
Xx
dW1 and dW2 here represent the difference in the 15 nucleons core binding energy O(15) and N(15) respectively. If we assume that the charge density in the atomic core is constant, the charged core represents
a potential nergy, given by :
A-1220 1217
Because the relation between A and Z into the atomic core is A =2.Z -1, for an arbitrary pair of mirror-cores is the following valid : A-A-
A-12-21
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 12-21
A-12-22x
And at last : For this reaction E(B+) =1.66 Mev, giving Ro = 1.5 fermi using the drop model formula Ra = Ro.(A)1/3, where Ro is the estimated value of the proton radius.Ref erences: Krnfysik, (Nuclear physics), Ingmar Bergstrm, Lennart Eriksson, Stockholm 1964, pages 87-89.
OUR CALCULATION OF THE PROTON RADIUS BASED ON OUR ATOMIC AND DEUTRON MODELIn a computer program in the end of this chapter, we will estimate this result with start from our own atomic core model and our neutron model- The core is assumed granular and the net force on the positron is the active accelerating force.
In a computer program we will later estimate this result with start from our own atomic core model and our neutron model- Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 12-22xxx
The acceleration of the positron is assumed going on as long as this particle is within the nucleus domain. By integrating on energy, here being 1.66 Mev, the nucleus radius must be in the range of 80 fermi.
The computer program will be found in the appendix section.A-1223
Hence we find that the protons radius even in this calculating model is in the range of 25-35 fermi, in well agree with results calculated from other starting points.
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 12-23Xxx
THE SHAPE OF THE ELECTRONAn electron seems to be a vortex with the volume 4.(p.r3e . This volume correspond not directly with any known geometrical form but this value has another background.
We assume the electron is a vortex, having 2 different radii Re around its main axis, and re around its minimum axis. Beside that, the electron is to be seen as having a hole inside with thickness Dr..A-1224
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 12-24Xxx
ANNIHILATION OF ELECTRONSWhen an electron and a positron collide, they are dissolving each other in a burst of two energy rich photons. The frequency of this photon burst is determined by the electromechanical resonance that is created by these particles in a similar way as for that process accounted for in our atomic theory.
The force effect between the 2 particles coming near each other, isA-1225
a) Equation 0612
b) The minimum distance between 2 electrons
c) The calculated frequency when annihilating
d) The electrons maxi radius, 1224 Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 12-25Xxx
CREATION OF AN ELECTRONAn electron and a positron can be created by a materializing process of colliding photons.
The process is not exactly completely reversible to the annihilation process as described above, claiming not 2 single photons, instead one single photon with the double of energy. Hence, if we make use of a photon generated by a common atomic system, the following energy and photon frequency is needed :A-12-26
a) The photon energy needed for creating an electron
b) The photons energy in the atomic system, the equation 0632
c) Solving out the photon frequency needed for creating an electron
d) The numerical computed frequency value Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 12-26xxx
which means, a frequency of the same order as we got at the annihilations process. The fact that the frequency is in the same range, doesnt mean that the process is reversible.Xxx
THE PROTONS FORM AND VOLUMEEarlier into in our theory, we have found the protons volume being equal to 4.pR3 (see the equation 0437). It appear that the proton partly is empty void ??8
-1227
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 12-27A-1228
Summarizing results of the protons spatial radiusFormulaAccessRadius in fermi1203Magn. Mom311212aMass density34.51213eGravitation35.10622Quantum atom29.41223Atomic decay32
xxx
AN PROTON GET PLACE INTO AN ELECTRONOur calculations show that an electron has the maximum radius of 86.6 fermi and the proton the radius 34.6 fermi. That can imply that a proton in principle get room into an electron. Is that a neutron?
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 12-28
The nass density of an electronA-112-29
a) The max radius of an electron 1206e
b) The electron volume
c) The electron mass density compared with the vacuum mass density 0323d
xxx
Hence it seems as the electron is a vacuum particle with approximate the same or some lower mass density than the vacuum itself.
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 12-29Xxx
Relations between particle mass and its spatial radiusIn the formula 0217 it has on arbitrary basis been assumed a close relation between a particles mass and its radius in relation to the same parameters of an electron.
In the first instance the idea was that mass density of all particles are the same. But that not seems true becase electrons and protons /for instance) have different forms and extensions.
The base of this relationships seems to be founded on a quantum effect of the particles inherent properties.A-12230
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 12-300xx
Spin time of a particle
Spin velocity of a particle 0336
Oschillating time of the particle in its own electric field 1015
Active force of the oscillation process
The spin time and the oscillating time is in resonance and equal
We combine these formulae an by this solving ot the relations between mass and radiusA-12231
f) Combining formulae 1230a,c.e
g) Inserting vs from formula 1230b.
h) Quadruple both sides
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 12-31A-1232
A nd solving out parameters from12-31h: (Even see 0217)
Assumed the energy density is the same in electron or another particle, we get the same result. A-1233
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Help program for estimating the proton radius with start of decay of mirror nuclei(*HELP PROGRAM FOR CALCULATING THE ATOMIC CORE RADIUS*)
(* = and energy got of an positron repelled out of this core ==== *)
(* = because of inherent charges into the core ================== *)
(* = COMPILED and RUN by Turbo Pascal ============================ *)
program protrad;
var fermi:real; (* One fermi is 1E-15 meters *)
Rcore:real; (* Charge radius of nucleus core *)
Vtot:real; (* Total volume of nucleus core *)
Qtot:real; (* Total charge content of nucleus core *)
Qtat:real; (* Charge density of nucleus core *)
Ftat:real; (* force density of charge in nucleus core *)
Force:real; (* actual force on charge element *)
Eo:real; (* Permittivity constant of vacuum space *)
e:real; (* Elementary charge of electron *)
rmax:real; (* max integral part in Y-direction *)
Z:integer; (* Number of proton and neutrons in core
r:real; (* Intermittent integral radius value *)
dE:real; (* Incremental energy value *)
EE:real; (* Total energy value *)
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na:integer; (* Help variable, step size in alpha *)
ny:integer; (* Help variable, number of steps in y *)
nr:integer; (* Help variable, number of steps in r *)
dr:real; (* Help variable, step size in r *)
dy:real; (* Help variable, step size in y *)
part:integer; (* Help variable *)
protons:integer; (* number of protons in core *)
alfa:real; (* Angel between vector and x-axis
AA:real; (* Help variable *)
y:real; (* Y location of particle *)
X1,Y1:real; (* x,y coordinate of vector *)
cosb:real; (* Trigonometric function *)
Pi:real; (* The number of Pi = 3.141592... *)
da:real; (* Part of alpha angle *)
Ro:real; (* Radius of individual nuclues particle *)
MasseV:real; (* converting factor mass tol eV *)
Mev:real; (* converting factor eV to Mev *)
scaleQ:real; (* scale factor for charge *)
scaleEo:real; (* scale factor for Eo *)
scaleD:real; (* scale factor for distance *)
scaleMasseV:real;(* scale factor for mass Ev *)
scaleMev:real; (* scale factor for eV, MEV *)
Scale:real; (* scale coefficient *)
begin
pi:=3.141592;
scaleQ:=1E-19;*)
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MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 12-34
scaleEo:=1E-12;
scaleD:=1E-15;
scaleMasseV:=1E-19;
scaleMev:=1E-6;
scale:=scaleQ/ScaleEo/ScaleD*scaleQ/scaleMassev*scaleMev;
writeln(' Nuclear reaction : ');
writeln;
writeln(' 7 15 8 15 + ');
writeln(' O N ---> B + v ');
writeln(' 8 7 ');
writeln;
write('Input assumed nuclear radius in fermi ');readln(Rcore);
write('Input number of protons in core (15) = ');readln(protons);
e:=1.6021773349; (* x 1E-19 unity elementary charge *)
Eo:=8.854187817; (* x 1E-12 permeablity vacuum constant *)
Mev:=1; (* convertion factor of eV 1E-6 *)
MasseV:=1.6; (* convertion factor mass to eV 1E-19 *)
z:=2*protons; (* number of protons+ neutrons in core *)
Qtot:=protons*e; (* total core charge *)
Rmax:=5*Rcore; (* x1E-15 integral distance in y-
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direction *)
Vtot:=(4*pi*Rcore*Rcore*Rcore/3); (* total core volume *)
Qtat:=Qtot/Vtot; (* charge density in core *)
part:=5;
da:=2*pi/part; (* integrale part for angle a *)
dy:=Rmax/part; (* integrale part of y *)
dr:=Rcore/part; (* integrale part of core radius *)
dE:=0;
EE:=0;
Ftat:=-Qtat*e/4/pi/Eo; (* force density in core *)
for ny:=0 to part do begin (* integrating from 0 --> Rmax *)
writeln('% done = ',trunc(100*ny/part));
writeln('electron energy = ',EE*scale:3,' Mev compare with 1.66 Mev' );
for nr:=0 to part do begin
for na:=0 to part do begin
alfa:=da*na; (* actual angle a *)
r:=dr*nr+dr/2; (* actual radius r *)
y:=ny*dy; (* actual distance y *)
x1:=r*cos(alfa); (* vector element of charge element in core *)
y1:=r*sin(alfa); (* vector element of charge element in core *)
AA:=x1*x1+(y1-y)*(y1-y);
cosb:=(y1-y)/sqrt(AA);
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MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 12-36
Force:=Ftat*2*pi*abs(x1)*dr*r*da/AA*cosb;
(* effective force on charge in Y-direction *)
dE:=Force*dy; (* element of energy for step dy *)
EE:=EE+dE;
end; (* end loop a *)
end; (* end loop r *)
end; (* end loop y *)
writeln;
writeln('Coulomb energy Mev= ',EE*scale:3,' Mev');
writeln('To be compared with input value 1.66 Mev ');
Ro:=Rcore*exp(1/3*ln(1/z));
writeln('Proton radius'Ro:1:0 );
readln;
end.
(* end program PROTRAD *)
********** END OF PROGRAM ***********
XA-4
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
START---13
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 13-01XXXX
Chapter 13
EINSTEINs THEORY OF RELATIVITY
AN VRITICAL ANALYSISEINSTEINS THEORY OF RELATIVITY
A BRIEF ANALYSIS
02
AND WHAT CONTAIN THE THEORY?
10HISTORY IN BRIEF
12A BRIEF EXAMINATION OF THESIS AND RESULTS
17IN THE HEAD OF A CONVINCED RELATIVIST
30SPECIALREMARKS
58
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The bicycling Einstein. Un-fortunately Einstein also was bicycling in the physics, his theories of relativity does not hold for a critical analysis. Many scientists have pointed out the weaknesses in his theories but without any apparent effect on it. This sad mentality disqualify the modern physics ability of finding truth in physics.
EINSTEINS THEORY OF RELATIVITY
A BRIEF ANALYSIS
Einsteins theory of relativity, both the special and the general, belongs to the most well known mental buildings in philosophy and science. The number of published works today can be counted in tens of thousands (no one knows exactly) and the originator himself, Albert Einstein has been subject for a countless number of person biographical works.
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The interest for his person in many respects can be compared with the interest dedicated the great religious leaders (Jesus, Mohammed) or the great prophets or founders of the great political mass movements (Marx, Lenin). And dealing witthetheory also reminds what is characterizing such mass movements and doctrinaire systems.
Characteristics common for all types of those mass movements are the presence of a doctrinaire system of theses not permitted to be questioned, a prophet or dominant leader with an unlimited authority, a church or institution administrating the doctrines and a lot of high priests, predecessors of the scientific power establishment.
The fact that a mental building has been widely spread and got broad acceptance necessarily not constitutes any guarantee for that a theory is correct and true. In a flashback of the history looking at theory buildings of similar dogmatic nature, inspire
to reflection.
Most of these theories that were supported by the power elite, both in science and in church during a long period of time, were later on revealed as totally mad and wrong. In most cases change was
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propelled, not by the scientific community itself, but by individual well informed peoples, thinkers and true scientists, most often working in direct confrontation with the current opinion, sometimes with risk for their own lives, incorruptible and brave peoples who placed the truth on the first place in their scientific work. We know that there still exist such peoples active in our time but their messages are like a silent voice in the dessert, few are prepared to listen.
To officially cast suspicion upon the theory of relativity, hence exposing it for criticism, is to confess your silliness and that you not has grasped anything. H.C.Andersens anecdote of the emperors new closes gives a good illustration. Persons who not were competent for their jobs, could not see the nice clothes the emperor was wearing, woven by the lying and cunning weavers. An innocent child said that which the prudent peoples not dared to confess, namely that the emperor was naked and that his clothes just was bluff and humbug.
Einsteins theory is naked but very few dare to confess it. What the theory has to offer of solution of real physical problems are only of pure fictive and imaginary nature, in the same way as in the story of
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the emperors new clothes, lacking substance and content. Its apparent that most problems, which plead for a solution within the conceptual framework of this theory, only is of artificial, fictive and imaginary nature.
A theory that has got so a large spreading and common acceptance in the world of science, impossibly can be wrong! How can serious working scientists be so mad that they support an erroneous theory for so long time, spending so much time, sweat and troubles on a hopeless erroneous idea? Is the fact that a theory get large acceptances a guaranty of that a theory is correct and true? No. In a flashback of the history of science, many theories have got large support during long periods of time, but was later on shown to be totally wrong. And the historians cannot either really explain why some theories or thoughts get a higher degree of acceptance and penetration than other comparable and competing alternative theories.
One reason of the popularity may be that the theory of relativity contains parts of mystic and elements of near religious supernatural nature. Many are attracted by such things, even scientist obviously. The theory also has a pronounced mathematical
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structure that attracts personalities specifically appreciating theoretical abstractions, not being disturbed by the fact that these abstractions not correspond to anything real in the outside world. The theory has been criticized by many since its birth, by individual researchers, prominent scientists as well as by more unknown individual researchers, both from outside and inside the scientific and academic community. But commonly all this critics has been leafed not-answered. The relativists feel so secure and so safe in their position, that they not bother to reply to a given criticism. Silence is one of the weapon used, exposing an enormous self-reliance, superciliousness and disregards against them who venture to hint doubts about Einsteins theories.
The question of right or wrong, contrary to what commonly is declared, not only is a question of the presence of substantial facts. Many other factors involved are of significant importance, factors being of quite another nature than pure scientific. That is a fruitful field of research engaging historians trying to understand the mechanisms behind development of scientific theories and how the scientific community works.
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One important factor in this trend is the control of power of knowledge. When a theory has been established, it seems not so important whether the theory is correct or wrong. What is important is to maintain the position of power that has been reached.
That gives access to money, prestige and power over the research resources, both regarding money and human brain resources.
The theory of relativity has been very successful in that special task. The relativists have reached a position which they not are prepared to give up, even if alternative theories should be offered, which in a better way would describe the world around us. And the relativists have of that reason got access to very great resources as well as succeeded to usurp common sympathy from peoples in common, from mass media, from publishing houses, from contributors of different kinds, giving money or pure moral support to the research activity associated to the theory. In this way the relativists have reached full control of the free scientific press and the mass media, which without any murmur of protest proceed to spread the Einsteinium dogmas. Given critics or offering competitive alternative theories can in this way effectively be suppressed, controlled
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and stopped. Many who start to have a very positive attitude to Einstein and his theories, in addition having real ambitions of understand and learning the theory, very soon is frustrated and give up. They give up, not because of intellectual inability to understand, but because there is nothing substantial to be understood. Those who still support the theory, saying they have grasped something or at least giving impression of it, obviously not is disturbed by the fact that the theory just is producing empty, fictive and imaginary results.
And to dig ones way out of the labyrinth of relativity mostly seems to be a hopeless and frustrating task, claiming a waste of time and effort resulting in nothing. And a critical analysis of the theory, based on common scientific methods, of common sense and logical analysis, produces pure confusions which intelligent persons claiming logical consequences of their thinking, impossibly can accept.
The confusions arises by that all the time logical contradictions are pointed out, amplified by that the basic concepts used are elastic and continuously accommodated in time to that the ongoing analysis produces their own problems. By this way everything seems to float around in a chaotic
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mixture of hypothetical concepts and assumptions impossible to get in any structure and order.
In spite of that the theory now is more than 100 years old, the relativists themselves are not in agree how the basic concepts of the theory shall be interpreted or how the critics of the theory shall be treated. In the light of all given criticism, if the theory was to be regarded as normal science, not much would remain by it. But obviously the theory is not normal science but something quite else, it seems to balance in the grey zone of science, science fiction, religion and pure philosophy not reachable for any common analytical method.
Science is said to be a self-controlled process where erroneous theories automatically are eliminated. But that seems not to be true for this theory that consequently seems to disregard basic, ethical rules of science. In spite of that the critics since long time ago has rejected the theory from the scene of science, the theory seems today more popular than even before.
The relativists will make show of being sound and rational in their thinking, but at the same time one are prepared to accept conclusions which are completely against ever scientific rule and all common sense. And without any sign of self-
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criticism one are manipulating nature on pure arbitrary basis, refusing the ability of the human mind of deciding right or wrong, true or false.
Common sense, Einstein said, only is these predestined meanings a man works out when 18-teen, then keeping these ideas the life out. And when the theory produces obvious contradicting results, one even are prepared to dispute the ability of the human intellect, that instead of rejecting the theory as physically invalid. By this criminal and dishonest attitude, the theory of relativity has
been a hint for a true and sound searching for truth in science and the way of solving the deep mysteries of nature.
AND WHAT CONTAIN THE THEORY?
Einsteins theory from 1905 is founded on two basic hypotheses or concepts, even named postulates, which are as follows :
I: THE SAME LAWS OF ELECTRO-DYNAMICS WILL BE VALID FOR ALL FRAMES OF REFERENSES FOR WHICH THE EQUATIONS OF MECHANICS HOLD GOOD
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II: LIGHT IS ALWAYS PROPAGATED IN EMPTY SPACE
WITH A DEFINITE SPEED, c, WHICH IS INDEPENDENT OF THE STATE OF MOTION OF THE EMITTING BODY.
Einstein published his theory in year 1905 of the title ON THE ELECTRODYNAMICS OF MOVING BODIES. Another principle being a part of the theory and also giving the theory its popular name is THE PRINCIPLE OF RELATIVITY from the beginning originated by Poincare about five years before that Einstein published his theory.
The including of the relativity principle shows that the Einsteins second postulate was Incomplete, which conceals that Einstein himself not understood the meaning of his own postulate. The principle namely imply that the velocity of light in free space is invariant even to an observer moving in relation to the source, that is to say, the propagation of light is a real universal invariant cosmic constant, useable as a reference for all movements in the physical world. Of that reason the second postulate has to be redefined to:
II. THE PROPAGATING VELOCITY OF LIGHT IN THIS
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WAY IT CAN BE MEASURED BY ANY OBSERVER IS ALWAYS CONSTANT AND INDEPENDENT OF BO9TH SOURCE AND OBSERVER MOVEMENTS.
In a personal letter from Einstein to a friend of him, Erwin Finley Freundlich 1913 he says
IF THE SPEED OF LIGHT IN THE LEAST BIT IS AFFECTED BY THE SPEED OF THE LIGHT SOURCE, THEN MY WHOLE THEORY OF RELATI-VITY AND THE THEORY OF GRAVITY IS FALSE.
HISTORY IN BRIEF
All revolutionary theories have had its own prehistory. A new theory will not pop up from nothing, it will be a product of many individual contributors both successful and less successful collected over a long period of time.
In this time when Einstein suggested his theory, it had been preceded by a tedious scientific debate about properties of space and the basic nature of light. In the first place it was the ether theories for the propagation of light which was dominating the debate and which was amplified by Maxwells electromagnetic theory from 1873.
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MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 13-13
Einstein was one of these persons who in this chaotic situation presented a quite different and radical idea. Instead of solving the problems that were discussed, he declared them as non-existent. He did that by introducing two postulates, where one of them proclaimed that the propagating velocity of light in vacuum was an absolute physical constant, not effected either by movements of the source nor by movements of the observer. The ether concept was eliminated, replacing it by nothing. Einstein has been praised for his originality and boldness while he suggested principles of nature that was challenging common sense.
However, his originality can be put into question because research has shown that many of his ideas were common known long before him. But Einstein was lucky because his ideas were accepted by a group of well known and prominent academics of that time : von Laue, Minkowski, Lorenz, Mach, Planck, Poincare and others. Einstein became an enormous authority in science and became a symbol for geniality and originality, a guarantee for that the theory of relativity was correct and true.
Einsteins theory of relativity was published 1905
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by the name ON THE ELECTRODYNAMICS OF MOVING BODIES
The special theory was later followed by the general theory 1916. Besides these works, for which he got his most fame, he did achievements in the area of quantum physics, the photo electrical effect, a theory that later gave him the Nobel Prize Award. Hence not, contrary to what commonly is believed, he did not get the prize for his relativity theory that was judged to be too controversial of the members of the Swedish Nobel Committee.
Einstein published his theory at a time c of a climax of debate concerning the fundamental nature of light and space going on since Newtons days. So, much was discussed and investigated when Einstein entered the scene. At an official lectures about five years earlier Poincare had suggested THE PRINCIPLE OF RELATIVITY in Paris and in St. Louis in USA. THE LENGTH CONTRACTION OF PHYSICAL OBJECTS had been suggested 1892 by Lorenz and Fitzgerald undependable of each other as a suggestion of solving Michelson and Morleys
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experiments some years earlier with beginning from 1887 (note however that length contraction never has been proved experimentally, hence not any physical reality). THE TIME DILATION HYPOTHESIS saying that physical clocks will slow down as a result of moving in relation to a light source was suggested by J.Larmor already 1900 and the formula for it is that formula used in the modern particle physics (hence not Einsteins original formulae).
THE MASS INCREASE of moving particles was experimentally discovered by Kaufman in 1901, hence was no theoretical prediction by the relativity theory. This phenomenon some years later was investigated by A. Pais and Lorenz who also were suggesting mathematical expressions for this mass increase, expressions which appear in Einsteins theory later
And even THE FORMULA E=m.c2 suggesting a close relationship between energy and mass was suggested several years before Einstein by Lorenz, Poincare, Langevin and others. THE MATHEMATICS OF SPACE AND
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TIME was developed by Lorentz and appear in the theory of relativity later.
THE CONSTANT PROPAGATING VELOCITY OF LIGHT IN VACUUM had with increasing precision been confirmed by experiments with beginning by Ole Remer in the seventeenth century but not covered by any ultimate experiments including moving sources and observers, which Einsteins theory claims. It was not any great achievement to suggest it and the risk of disclosing it was minimal. And in addition, from the beginning it was Maxwells idea to define that the velocity of light from moving sources was invariant and he had good reasons for it because his theory was an ether theory. Einstein had no such concrete reason to offer.
Hence, Einsteins theory was mainly constructed by two fundamental postulates, combined with the principle of relativity. The theory generates results that violate common sense, but the theory has in spite of that succeeded to get common acceptance.
That is very strange in light of the fact that science
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in common is very careful in judging results from new theories.
A BRIEF EXAMINATION OF THESIS AND RESULTS
A brief list over some physical facts which are treated in the theory of relativity may looks like as follows :
The velocity of light in that way it can be measured by an observer (by using measuring rods and clocks), always is constant undependable by whether the source or the observer move
Only relative movements between objects is physically relevant, absolute movements cannot be either measured, nor defined
Physical clocks go slower as result of relative movements in relation to another objects moving in the vicinity
Absolute time doesnt exists and cannot even be defined.
Relative velocity between two objects cannot exceed the standard velocity of light even if each single object move with velocity c relative a common point.
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MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 13-18
Physical objects contract as function of relative motion in relation to another objects in the vicinity void.
The mass content of physical objects increases as function of relative movement related to an object in the vicinity
An event that for one observer is apprehended as simultaneous is not simultaneous for another observer who move in relation to the first observer
Einsteins theories can in many respects be compared with a labyrinth without way out. This person who want to understand will very soon feel frustrated and desperate. The reason to it depends on using not precise and elastic definitions that are changed all the time critics points out logical contradictions produced by the theory itself. And the supporters all the time are prepared to defend the theory against every such attack..
TIME DILATION
Einsteins theory says that physical clocks go slower in a system that moves compared with clocks
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MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 13-19
in another system, being in rest. However, its not clear if this effect is real (physical clocks really go slower which can be registered by inspection afterwards) or only imaginary (hence being only a pseudo effect caused by that light rays delay the information between the clock and the observer of the clock). This distinction is essential but the supporters of the theory never have succeeded to make this distinction clear.
Hence, a clock situated on the earths equator will be slowed down in relation to a clock situated on the north pole (all that in accord with Einsteins own example), but not valid for pendulum clocks or mechanical clocks of some very strange reason (if Einsteins idea has to be taken seriously, the time concept cannot be dependent of what kind of watch is used for its measurement). Even life processes and chemical processes go slower in accord with velocity, an idea that has given rise to the twin paradox. For demonstrating the time dilation effect, Einstein suggested two twin brothers where one of them was starting a long journey in space, approaching near the velocity of light and where the other brother reminded on earth.
When returning, the travelling brother was said to
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be younger than his twin brother staying in rest on earth.
But critics has pointed out that, using the relativistic principle, that both brothers have the same moving status, which means, they both have the same rights to say they are in rest or they are travelling.
This critic has irritated supporters ever since beginning, by reason that it leads to a paradox. The reason for that is simple and easy to understand. The predicted physical effect is namely based solely on the special theory where no consideration has been taken to the presence of mass, force and acceleration in the systems. Hence, when only relative movement as active factor is present, it is impossible to determine whether the travelling space ship is moving or the earth is moving. In a physical point of view, the two systems are symmetrical and equal.
Even convinced relativists have realized that dilemma but not drawn the correct consequence by it, namely that the idea is mad and wrong.
They deny presence of a paradox by introducing factors that not were present in the original example. By saying that the travelling twin brother is more accelerated than the other brother, then they insist on they have eliminated the paradox. But by that one
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have rejected Einsteins own proposal and replaced it by another theory, that we assume, not was the intention.
But even if this idea works, this way of eliminating the paradox easily can be rejected. If both twin brothers start a journey at the same time, but in the opposite directions, two completely symmetricalsystems are achieved. In this case its not possible to argue for a time dilation effect even if every physical parameters are included.
ATOMIC WATCHES
During several years atomic clocks have been installed all around the world for many different purposes.
These watches are very precise and stable, and if Einsteins prediction was true, the accumulated effect from clocks placed out on different places easily would be observed.
But no such effects have been registered (Einstein predicted differences between a clock placed on the equator and the pole by a factor .t(v/c)2 ). But the relativists blame that fact on that the theory of relativity not is valid for rotating movements and
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that factors of acceleration and gravitation eliminates the predicted effect. So where in Universe can we find a place where this experiment can be performed?
LENGTH CONTRACTION
Length contraction of physical objects as function of relative motion is another meaningless pseudo effect proposed by the theory. The appearance of this idea emanates from Lorenz and Fitzgeralds suggestion of solving a problem in Michelson and Morleys light ether experiment, which contrary prediction gave zero result. The physical motivation to the length contraction effect was that the assumed light ether actuated a pressure in the direction of motion, pressing parts of the apparatus together.
Obviously, it was this idea that inspired Einstein, but inhibited at the same time the suggested physical reason to it (the ether drag), replacing it by a meaningless nothing.
Experiments have been performed in purpose to
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verify length contraction, but for obvious reasons that is troublesome because the measuring rods used will contract in the same degree as that object which is subject for measurement.
Even convinced relativists have realized that fact, but used it as an argument for that the theory is true. The effect exists but cannot be detected in your own reference system..
But the length contraction is real if you try to measure a rod belonging another reference system. The reasoning is approximately as follows:
A person in system A is observing a well known object in system B and find that the object observed is shorter compared with the own reference object.
A person in system B is observing a well known object in system A and find that the object observed is shorter compared with the own reference object.
There are 2 possible alternatives of solution
The picture of the observed object is distorted by the limited speed of the light rays.
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2) The effect is of real nature as suggested from the beginning by Lorenz and Fitzgeralds hypothesis. In the second case the contraction effect would be the same in both the systems, hence being irrelevant in a pure physical point of view, and a complete meaningless physical concept.
In the first case the effect is pure imagined and not real. This effect can be motivated by the fact that information consume time, hence giving rise to distortion of the observed object. But such effects can be considered and predicted by ordinary classic theory, the theory of relativity is not necessary to be used..
SIMULTANEITY
One of the most strange and perverse results of the theory is how the concept of an event the is how the concept of an event is treated. The theory says that a single event not is simultaneous for two observers who move with different velocities in relation to the observed event. That may be interpreted in two different ways.
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In the same way as we interpreted time dilation and length contraction one of the alternative is to interpret the effect just as a distortion effect caused by that light consume time for transmitting the information of the event
the other interpretation is that the event really is equivalent with two separate events, or several events, one separate event for every separate observer.
The first interpretation may be acceptable in a physical point of view, but being only an illusive effect.
But there is still only one event for both observers, they only apprehend the event on two different times. In the other interpretation we override the border of what we regard as normal science.
The idea that the same event would be different events dependent of who is the observer, is absurd and lack reality.
To give an some absurd example : The US president J.F. Kennedy was murdered by a shoot in Dallas the 22nd of November 1963. If someone would
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imply this murder was many murders, one murder for each single person who heard of this event, he should be regarded as a complete idiot. Obviously not Einstein and his supporters do that.
FIXATION OF THE LIMITS OF VELOCITY
Another remarkable effect of relativity is that velocities not can be added arithmetically. If for instance two cars drive on a road with 100 km/hour each, but in different directions, the relative velocity between them will be 200 km/hour, that in accord with normal calculations.
In the relativity theory, that is correct with good accuracy for low velocities, but not for very high velocities. Because the maximum velocity possible to define is limited to c, the velocity of light, Einstein was forced to construct an artificial formula that gave this limit as awaited by the theorys basic postulate.
Of course all that is pure fiction, constructed results having the only motivation that Einsteins theory claims it. The idea serves no purpose and deserves not to be taken seriously.
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MASS INCREASE
As here discussed before in examining this theory, the mass increasing phenomenon, if interpreted as such an effect, was discovered by experiment with cathode rays(electrons) so early as in 1901. Hence, the phenomenon was not predicted by the theory of relativity but was enclosed in the theory some years later. Before that several other scientists had developed the experimental results as well as even presented mathematical expressions for it, being similar as in Einsteins theory later.
The physical reason to the mass increase phenomenon may be discussed, but there is no reason to interpret it as an effect of relativistic concepts. The effect only has been registered when accelerating elementary particles in particle accelerators, so the most probable reason is that the effect is of pure electromagnetic nature.
There is no reason that a rocket in free space, for instance, driven forwards by its own force, should increase in mass.
No matter the reason to this phenomenon, we can be sure of that this effect has nothing with relativity to
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do. Those theoretical formulae derived to the greatest extent is built on classic Newtonian laws of mass, energy and force, parameters not contained in the origin theory of relativity.
As a remark, Einstein suggested 2 different expressions for the same particle, one for each moving direction, one for the linear direction, one for the transversal direction. No one of these expressions correspond with this formula that is used in the modern particle physics
THE DOPPLER EFFECT
The Doppler effect is named after the discover Christian Doppler. The effect is created by that sound propagates through a medium, air. But even for light there are similar effects, indicated by that the wavelength is displaced in direction of blue when the source approach and displaced against red in the opposite case. Einsteins supporters mean that it is an easy task to explain the effect within the conceptual framework of the theory. But sorry to say, the arguments here is weak as usual. They think that the Doppler shift has the same
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cause as for sound in air, but it cannot be. The
reason for it is that light has no ether to propagate in. so there is no physical mechanism available to motivate the relativistic Doppler effect. So the Doppler/sound/air model doesnt work, but the theory of relativity doesnt confess it. The only remaining reason to the equivalent Doppler shift is that the light velocity effected by the relative velocity between source and observer, but then the theory once time for all must be rejected as invalid. Its easy to understand that but few are prepared to take this step.
EINSTEINa GRAVITY THEORY
In Einsteins world gravitation is no force, just a curvature in free space. So if we load a spring with a heavy stone, then letting the spring do a work on that spring, we have done a free energy machine. The conclusion is that no energy (force times distance) is needed when pressing the spring together but that energy is developed when releasing the spring. In this way Einsteins theory has overtrumped the energy preserving law, which means that energy can be created from nothing.
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IN THE HEAD OF A CONVINCED RELATIVIST
Einsteins theory of relativity is said to be science in its true meaning, but is defended by their supporters by un-scientific methods. And for legitimisation, he has developed a kind of a system or method, making it possible for him to in every thinkable situation of external criticism, defend or reject it as ignorance or just ill will.
Besides learning the relativistic dogmas, a convinced supporter of the theory of relativity must learn the most effective way of neutralizing the criticism. Methods used are, as to mention some of them, to put the opponents scientific competence into question, and from time to time even put his honourable intentions and moralistic honesty into question. And therefore, to discussing the theory with a convinced supporter of the theory, is a depressing and hopeless task that seldom leads to any clarifying conclusions. A debate with a convinced relativist may look as follows, usually following a predestined pattern:
At start, the debate uses to be rather calm and silence. The relativist want to make sense of being an objective and serious scientist. But in a
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later stage, when he discover that his opponent not is so easy to convince, he start changing his attitude and argumentation, being more aggressive. Then his arguments begin to be more and more apart from science and he begin to use subjective and unjust argumentation.
Einsteins theory is founded on two basic postulates, that of the constant propagating of light velocity, used as a universal, common reference, together with the postulate that all physical laws are the same in all inertial systems, moving with constant, linear velocity.
The opponent: (O): Is it true that these two postulates are enough as base for the whole theory building?
The relativist (R): Yes, its so. They are fully enough. It was Einsteins genius to in this way succeeded to simplify physics. However, in the general theory it was added another postulate, that of the equivalence between heavy and inertial mass, the theory was in this way done complete.
(O): Hence, does that imply that if somebody can
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show that the constant velocity of light hypothesis not always is true, that can be used as an argument against the theory? (In fact, Einstein himself said that was possible).
(R): Yes, its true. But no experiments up to now have shown that the light velocity is variant, all experiments show that Einstein was correct on this point.
(O): How can you be so sure about that? Several experiments with light that have been performed during periods of many centuries, like as well can be interpreted in the way that light velocity according to the emission theories, show that light only is invariant in relation to its source but not in free space
Hence, isnt possible that only is a question of how you like to interpret an experiment, just in this way? And which theory that belongs to your personal favourite theory?
(R): That is wrong! No experiment has violated the relativistic postulate!
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(O) : In my opinion, I mean that it was a very strange and farfetched idea to use the light velocity in vacuum as a common reference parameter for all processes and all movements taking place in Universe. What have the free velocity of light to do with other kinds of physical processes taking place in matte? If one had made use of the standard velocity of light as measured for sources in rest and observers in rest, there had been no problem,
OK, so it had been not much to discuss about. But by the done definition, a lot of very strange pseudo effects have arisen, where scientists are prepared to explain things in physics which has nothing to do with light propagation or how it behave in free space.
(R): The light postulate must be accepted and it is not permitted to put it into question. And there are no doubts that light not can be used as a measurement reference, no information can propagate faster than light and nothing can go faster than it.
(O): When you are talking about light velocity, then what do you mean by it? The concept of velocity is a relative concept and for using it, it
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must be defined a reference point to which it is determined. In my view, I have always though that the relativists have taken it easy on this point. You are talking about the velocity of light that without defining what you mean by it or what you refer to!
(R): Its very easy to do that, no velocity between two relative moving systems can be larger than c, and the velocity of light is always equal to c, in all systems and between all systems. And beside that, un-regarding how much you accelerate, you never can exceed c, the light velocity in space. And because of these facts about how nature really behave, we have the fully right to talk about velocity as we do.
(O): But, now assume, a space rocket, constructed in 20 sections and where each such section has the ability of accelerating the rocket 0.1 times the velocity of c, related to the previous section. Then of what reason cannot the rockets last section reach a velocity larger than c, in relation to the starting point?
(R): In that case the rocket mass will increases, and when reaching equal or near the light velocity
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this mass will be so large that the rocket motor not is able to accelerate it further. Einstein constructed an adding formula that in fact showed that it will be in this way. In fact!
(O): Oh! so he did!!, what a genius! But Im not so sure on this point. With aid of mathematics you are able to prove most everything, if you want to do so. Im more interested to known about the physical reason to it, why it is impossible to accelerate our rocket to 2 times c, related to the starting point? And the limit velocity, what is it related to, the starting point or the nearest rocket platform? Something here seems to disagree with the basic assumptions, the theory says that no inertial system is more preferred than another system, hence every system can be used as a reference system, being a new platform for calculating or measuring relative motion. That means for our rocket, that between releasing two successive sections, no occasion occurs where the velocity of c, is exceeded and the rocket is not in any stage aware of its real velocity in relation to any external point. The only velocity the rocket know or feel is its velocity as related to its previous stage or the starting point.
(R): In fact, its shown that the mass increases with
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increasing velocity, no question about that. When accelerating particles in particle accelerators, its necessary to take consideration of this effect. If you not do so, everything would be wrong.
(O): Of course, its so. But that is quite another experimental situation compared with our space rocket.
The space rocket moves in the free space, interacting with nothing, the particle is situated and driven forwards with an electromagnetic field that interact and influence the particle.
The rocket is accelerating itself by mass inertial forces from the inside motor, the particle is accelerated by a field from outside, presumably adding mass to the accelerated particle (the field lose mass). Furthermore, the mass increasing phenomenon was not predicted by any relativity theory, but was discovered by experiment so early as 1901 and theoretical suggestions of the reason to this effect also was given at this time. Hence, there are very good reasons to assume that the mass increasing phenomenon has nothing with relativity theory to do at all.
(R): Mass increase when accelerating particles in particle accelerators is one of the strongest
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evidence on that the relativity theory works and is true. No matter what you say about it.
(O): The theory predicts a lot of physical
effects where some of them are that physical clocks are going slow, twins growing old by differing rates in differing systems, rods being shorter and other strange things, all but effect of that things move in relation to undefined external points. The same event is a different event for another observer in another system and many, many other, very strange things. Are all these effects real physical effects or are they just something that are imagined by observers (subjective experiences), presupposed that they are proven to exists of course?
(R): Oh yes, the effects are real and is a part of the normal physical world that we live in. Einstein, as the genius he was, showed that nothing around us is of an absolute nature, but woven together by time, space and movement as integrated parts that we not are able to separate from each other.
(O): Einstein suggested in his original theory from 1905, the special theory, that a watch
placed out on the earth equator, would go slower
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compared with a similar, synchronized clock placed out on the pole. The reason for it should be that the polar clock was more in rest than the equator clock. Einstein also gave a quantitative value of that time dilation and a calculation showed a value of several micro- seconds each year. But no such effect has been observed or registered, that in spite of access to extremely sensible watches and detectors now available. How can you explain that?
(R): Ok, its true that no such effect has been observed, but the time dilation effect is only observable in systems which are moving with constant, linear velocity and being not influenced by any gravitational field. The earth rotates, hence the equator clock moves in circles and the earth has gravitation. Hence, not being any true relativistic system. But in his general theory from 1916, Einstein solved this problem where he also took consideration to the acceleration of mass, as well as also the gravitational effect on the system-
(O): Oh, indeed! Then Im curious of why Einstein already in his special theory from 1905, not took consideration to these parameters of mass, acceleration and gravitation effects when he
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suggested this time dilation effect when? And another question, of what reason was the pole clock regarded as more in rest (more stationary) than the pole clock? Strictly relativistic, no one of these clocks have the right to be more or less in rest, no one of the clocks where more static than the other.
(R): Surely, even Einstein had his fully rights to be wrong but also having chance of developing and improving his theory later, that in the same way as how other scientists work, theories are developed and improved as time goes by.
Regarding the question which clock that would be regarded as being in more rest, is decided by whom are the observer. It is always the observer in the other system who believe that the clock in the other system goes slow. Thats even true for the observer at the position of the polar clock.
O): OK, if we see it in this way, the effect obviously is symmetrical for both watches and both observers, both watches goes slow in the same rate , the effect must be symmetric. But that most become a pure imaginary effect and not real as measured by objective registering equipments (atomic watches
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and computers). The effect cannot be real, which means, no time difference can be measured between the two clocks by comparing time of the clocks after some elapsed time.
And if the effect is pure imaginary, hence not real, then whats the meaning by it? The physical effect never can be observed? Then what is the meaning by the theorys time dilation prediction?
(R): The effect is real, one have transported atomic clocks in airplanes around the earth and it was shown that the theory was correct. A time dilation effect was registered in the air born clocks. It has also been observed that short-lived particles live
longer if they move very fast.
(O): Surely, but what has these physical observations of particles with relativity to do? Atomic particles are no clocks and not any watches. And what regards the airplanes, they were moving in circles around the earth and were effected by the earths gravitational field, hence two factors which inhibit application of the relativity theory, hence the same problem as why not Einsteins original suggestion of the polar clocks not worked. And further more, if clocks go fast or slow is easy to
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control afterwards by registering time of atomic clocks and computers, hence by no aid of human, subjective observers. Today are used electronic digital counters that with very high precision can register the number of ticks as well as also the time difference between successive ticks (the time intervals). What subjective registering human observers have to say is of no scientific interest, that is pure philosophy.
(R): No. its not so, its not the number of ticks but their length of them !!!!!!???????????????
(O): Whats that.. ? The number of ticks registered has nothing with the ticks length to do. Or do you mean that the time interval change in accord with velocity?. If the light velocity is invariant, no change can be transferred to the receiver side.
And by aid of a radio link, it would be possible to control the watches, in respect to each system. Einstein is founding his theory on that human observers are watching clocks on distance and by movement of human observers, but modern electronic measurement equipments can do that job i much better!
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(R): Space experiments have been performed that shows that time dilation is a real effect. Space trips to the planet of Venus showed on several milliseconds in dilation effect
(O): Ok, if so, which clock was going slow, that clock attached to the space shuttle or that clock on earth? And, in case some of these clocks were more slowed down than the other, what was the physical reason for It ?
No one of these two systems (the space shuttle system or the earth system have the privilege of being more stationary than the other system, that in accord with the theorys own, basic postulates?
(R): Its fully clear, that you not want or not are able to understand relativity theory. As I all the time clearly have pointed out, everything depends on from which system you are observing the clocks.
(O): Yes, but then all that is a pure imaginary effect, an observer believe that the time goes more slow in the other system, but its no real effect. Of what reason do you not want to confess that? That everything is imaginary effects, no real physical
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effects that can be registered by objective instruments?
LENGTHS CONTRACTION
O): Einstein suggested that a measuring rod hen moving was being shortened in the moving direction, is that phenomenon confirmed experimentally or has it been observed in any way?
(R): No, the effect never has been observed, but that is not the same as to say that the effect not is real. The only problem is that an observer in its own system, never can discover such an effect, that because his own references changes in the same degree. His measuring rod also is shortened in the same way as the object being measured.
(O): But that seems to be some kind of a reciprocal way of proof things. According to established and accepted methods in physics (the scientific method), zero results in experiments never are proofs, only experiments that produces real results differing from zero are regarded as physical relevant results.
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(R): Length contraction is only real for an observer who is situated in another system, in the same way as for the time dilation effect. Hence, an observer in another system imagine the measuring rod being shortened, compared with its own rod.
(O): Yes, but again, then its a pure imaginary effect in the same way as for the time dilation as discussed before? An observer experiences or believe that an object is shortened in the other system and then the effect is symmetric in this way the theory claims. So, whats the meaning by that?
(R): No, thats wrong, the effect is real, but it depends on who is the observer. Its only an outer observer who apprehend or believe that the object is shortened, but real for him, of course!
(O): Hmm, now I grasp nothing! Hence, you mean that reality not is the same for all who observe things? If the limited velocity of light is the reason for this effect, distorting the image between objects and observers, it would be an easy task for anyone to compensate for such effects by a simple calculation using ordinary common physical laws.
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If you know the relative velocity between thetwo systems, the only thing is to calculate the consumed time for a light beam travelling between the two systems and compensate for this delay?
So, by what reason have relativity theory been introduced for predicting such simple imaginary effects?
So, by what reason have relativity theory been introduced for predicting such simple imaginary effects?
(R): No, the effect is not based on that light takes time for transmitting information between two points. To understand this fact you must use Lorenz transform, a kind of mathematics, its easy to understand. Then it will be in this way.
(O): Hmm.... now introducing mathematics into the discussion we shall be careful with. A theory that has so simple basic assumptions and having so clear basic postulates, at the first hand shall be analysed on pure verbally basis.
(O): OK, now the question again, if length contraction is real, in which system is the contraction occurring? If not any special system can
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be pointed out, then what is the meaning by the length contraction concept at all? And of what physical reason will objects be shortened? And how shall an object know when to change its length and in relation to what? The world around the object is full of different other objects moving with all velocities and in all directions.
And which references shall be used? And were in Universe intermediate this super message to all moving bodies?
(R): Its fully clear that you have grasped nothing and perhaps not either is willing to understand and learn anything at all. So, I think there is no big meaning to try explaining things for you.
The basic presumption to understand is as always, the willingness to understand and it seems you are lacking it completely!
THE TWIN PARADOX
O): Anyhow, lets proceed a while further. As a consequence of the special theory, Einstein suggested that the time dilation, not only affected physical clocks, but also biological processes in matter. That proposal lead to the so named, twin
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paradox. As an effect of relative movement, one of two one egg twins would be younger after a space trip, that compared with the other brother, staying at rest on earth. The paradox arose as a consequence of the critics comments, that it is impossible to, in accordance with the theorys basic concept, deciding which system being in rest or which system being moving.
(R): The suggested experiment is not any paradox, its simply evil talk by them who not understand the theory or just being ill will from persons who want to put Einsteins authority into question, both as human being and as scientist!.
Its namely so, that you have to select between
accelerated and non-accelerated systems, its there the imaginary paradox is. So, the twin travelling case came up within the framework of the special theory, all in accord with Einsteins initial suggestions
(O): So you mean, the reason to the effect would be caused by that one of the system have been effected by a larger degree of acceleration, and of that reason physical processes would go slower into this system. OK, thats a thought, but how does that agree with Einsteins original idea? In these
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formulae which treat the time dilation phenomenon, there are nothing appearing that reminds about acceleration of physical objects having mass, just the relative velocity between systems are the deciding factor. If acceleration was effecting the time, this parameter would be included into the time dilation formula! Its not so! For me it seems clear that this explanation is an after reconstruction, aimed to save the theory from a serious criticism or pure disaster.
And, perhaps its even so, that not
It either holds for an examination. You can never be sure of that an assumed acceleration not is a retardation. It depends on which system you relate to. Let me give an example: Assume both systems move in a common direction related to an outer point. Then, if you give energy to one of these systems, this system will be retarded or accelerated in relation to another external system. You never know or never can define if a system will be more or less accelerated.
And in another situation you can imagine that both twins start at the same time and with equal acceleration, but in opposite directions. In this case the travel situation will be the same for both the twin
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brothers (completely symmetrical) and no time dilation effects can be motivated for. So, it seemsthat the theory has serious problems that not are covered here?
(R): Its possibly also so, that everything depends on you, that you not want to understand relativity..
(O): Oh no, Im very interested, but then Im awaiting clear and logical answers on my questions. But it seems you not are able to offer me such answers, all the time you change the base for the explanation and with different arguments. Nature cannot be so strange that there are different reasons or alternative solutions to same phenomena? The nature has only one answer to a specific physical phenomenon, or does it not play any rule which kind of explanation you are offering?
(R): Obviously its so, that special persons not are capable to understand relativity. For silliness there is no help to get. Obviously you are not mentally able to understand relativity theory, so obviously there are no great idea to proceed this discussion, and you not seems to want to understand, either.
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THE LIGHT DOPPLER EFFECT
(O): The Doppler effect is a well known phenomenon, mainly in the way how sound propagates in air, characterized by that the sounds wavelength and frequency is changed at movement. That phenomenon is associated with the fact that sound always move with constant velocity in a medium, the air, and relative to it.
Even light show up colour shifting effects at movement, but there is no medium to make reference to. It shall here be noted, that many relativists not really have understood that the ether model not can be used to motivate the lights wave nature, or as here, the light Doppler effect explained in a traditional way. Of that reason its rather common that the light Doppler effect is described in approximately the same way as for Doppler phenomena in medium. Now, if the light Doppler shift is explained in the same way as for propagation of waves in media, what is the medium one are referring to?
Modern science, as well as the theory of relativity
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itself will make show of that the ether has been refused once time for all, that was one of the great progress after the tiresome discussions going on ever since Newtons, Huygens and Maxwells time. And even if an ether model would be used, immediately a new problem would pop up, namely a-symmetry problems in relation to source and observer movements. That fact is not so common known, but it is in that way.
And the theory of relativity in fact claims exact symmetry in respect to source and observer movements, hence do not work for ether models. So, in relativity, where is this space that limit the light velocity?
(R): No, according to the theory, no light ether exists. The ether concept is inhibited from the theory once time for all, rejected by Einsteins relativity theory. Nowadays, the concept only is relevant in common talk as an old remains ever since Newtons, Huygens and Maxwells days. Nowadays, the concept only is relevant in common talk.
(O): Then it seems impossible because the light velocity not is affected by anything. OK, but then, how will the relativist explain the Doppler effect if
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there is no ether that forces the light to move with constant velocity in relation to everything?
(R): Its rather easy to understand that. Because the light velocity is constant for all observers, it is the light wavelength that is changed in respect to the observers view. The light frequency is unchanged. That can mathematically be shown, it have been done and its easy to show that. It will be in this way.
O): Hmm... then we are there again! Im always suspicious against mathematical abstractions before we verbally have analysed the concepts properly. My question was, which physical effects or reason exist to that the wavelength is changed? It seems not plausible that the light wavelength is changed only by reason that an observer look at it. Light is a free physical phenomenon or process in space and cannot be affected only by reason that someone looks at it. And beside that, the world is full of observers. Perhaps, it would be possible to construct some smart formula, describing it, but not explaining it.
(R): Light is an electromagnetic wave, creating its
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The modern science has solved this problem, there is not much to discuss about further!!
MEASUREMENT OF LIGHT VELOCITY
O): It is obvious that the light velocity in free space is regarded as an absolute physical entity and being constant, not dependent of either source or observer movements. As I have understood, it is not permitted to put it into question`?
(R):Yes, this postulate is not permitted to be questioned, that if you want to discuss relativity theory. In spite of that, its not easy to 0
(O): Light propagation in vacuum is a physical process, and everyone know that light takes time to transport energy from one point to another. For instance, laser light is used for measurement and the effect would be certainly strange if it bot would be in this way.
We can imagine a measurement situation where we
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MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 13-54define two points on a certain distance from each other, and where each point contains an atomic clock. A similar arrangement is situated on another moving wagon. We measure the time it takes for a laser light ray to pass between the two measurement points.
Because the distance is known, the light velocity is got by dividing this distance with the time interval, a very simple operation. Will the results be the same, constant, in all measurement situations, or not (Observe that the light front must go freely to each receiver).
A clear answer would prevent a further discussion because the theory is based on it.
(R): The light velocity is always measured as constant, its not much to discuss about. Its tiresome to all the time be confronted with all your thought experiments. And it makes no sense and is only a waste of time to all the time trying to find errors in Einsteins theories All experiments show that the light velocity in vacuum is the same in all systems. I just note that you are completely unwilling, or perhaps also unable, to understand relativity, and beside that, you are unwilling to learn this special kind of mathematics that is needed to understand it. With your attitude, its not so meaningful to proceed the discussion further.
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O): Ok, now we have penetrated some of the theorys content and its physical consequences. You have answered me on my questions, but the answers have been in that way that they have produced new questions without that the original question has been answered.
After that the debate has run out in the sand without much conclusion drawn, at all.
(In this situation the relativist begin being some impatient and desperate, because he not has succeeded to convince his refractory debater and opponent. Now, the situation begin to be some critical, and now its the proper time to put the opponents, personal, intellectual and mental abilities into question. In this situation, the relativist is making clear, that not all human beings are so clear and bright minded that they can understand this wonderful theory. And beside that, peoples using the theory must have the correct education, especially in mathematics and logical training. Hence, you must understand the complicated and wonderful mathematics used, No entrance for no mathematicians!
And now, if any other further personal weaknesses
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can be found on the opponent, it is suitable time to point out them now. Hit these things into his head as often you can and finding it suitable. And if the opponent have own ideas about how tings are or might be, explain for him how meaningless these ideas are, the great master of physics, Albert Einstein and his followers already have solved , explained and discovered everything for you. Stop thinking yourself! Start believing! And if the alternative ideas seems good, tell him that common sense not always is to trust on, which means, you shall not trust on your intellectual ability or intentions. A blind faith is to be recommended!
At this point of the debate, the discussion rapidly degenerate to a pure philosophical debate about most everything, which comfortably remove the convinced relativist from the subject that was originally discussed, the logical and scientific legacy of Einsteins relativity theory.
The questions remain unanswered, running out in the sand, and after a time and at another time or circumstances, it will blow up again in a steadily, circulating- eternal and tiresome debate with no end and with no meaning.
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All the questions will stay unanswered as.
In this situation, the relativist feel strong and convinced in his faith, and according his own views, he has won the fight. By in a clever way making use of the whole arsenal of unclear and diffuse arguments, he has been able to ward off the most threatening attacks. The opponent has not succeeded to knock him on any critical point, as he see it, and he has been able to give answers on all questions, all in accord with the relativistic rule book.
All the time he has delivered answers on the questions and he has not been forced to confess any weaknesses.
Thats the most important thing for him, to retire with his honour intact and not in any occasion losing his face.
If the theory he has defended so intensively, is true or not, does not worry him so much, its a minor problem.
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SPECIALREMARKS
In Einsteins original theory from 1905, On the electrodynamics of moving bodies, 2 different values of the mass of a moving body is given, one for the mass in the moving direction and one for the mass in the transversal direction,
By principle it is impossible to define 2 different mass values for the same body at the same instant. Beside that, the 2 given formulae do not agree with this mass increase formula officially used in particle experimental physics and there well verified. verified.
Officially, Einstein has been credited the correct formula for mass increase, seemingly not true and due to a false historical description.
See the given formulae as got from Einsteins original theory from 1905, the so named tthe special theory of relativity.
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Mass increase in accord with Einstein
A-13-0
a) Mass in the moving direction in accord with Einstein
b) Mass in the transversal direction c) The common correct formula
A-13-05
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MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 13-60
Relativistic mathematics
In the theory of relativity, there appear mathematical definitions where the quote between 2 entities are defined to 0. One example on such a definition is given below.
Mathematical definitions of such types are meaningless and erroneous. Such definitions give rise to arbitrary solutions of a problem and all solutions may be judges as valid and true. As an example of such kinds of calculations is given in the formula below: By defining a quotient between 2 entities equal to zero, its possible to proof all things.
A-13-03
If not careful with mathematics and its definitions, even mad things can be proven.
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The clock on the north pole and the clock on the equator
According the theory, the equator clock should go slower compared with the pole clock, because of movement- The time difference was given by a formula. During a period of 1 year the time difference would be 37.6 us, a seemingly short time but a large time in respect to the exactness of modern atomic clocks.
In his original work from 1905, Einstein suggested an experiment using 2 clocks, where one of them was out-placed on the earth north pole (in rest), the other on the equator (the moving one).
A-13-02
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Equovalence mass energy
a) Einsteins definition of energy, the same definition as Newtons definition
b) Definition of factor eX in formula a)
c) Substituting eX by another expression, not derived on logical basis , hence a pure ad hoc assumption
Xxx
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AND THE MOST BAD THINGSTime measurement equipments, like clocks and watches. do not change their measuring rate when moving. Science strives for exact measurement with no change, un-regarding external conditions.
Measuring rods or solid material bodies do not change its length in accord with movement. And the relativity theory not either can account for any physical reason fior such an effects.
A-13-07
A-13-08
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MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 13-64
So the famous theory of relativity is just a meaningless nothing, having no place in a physical theory trying to describe and explain our complex world of nature.
Lets end with that and try forget this theory now an forever.,
Readers comments:
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Chapter14
DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS
INITIAL DISCUSSION02DIMENTION ANALYSIS12EXAMPLE OF USING THE DIMENSIONAL TABLE16OFFICIAL PHYSICAL CONSTANTS16
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INITIAL DISCUSSIONPerforming dimensional analysis on physical relations is an effective method of having a deeper understanding of physical relationships.
Performing dimensional analysis also is an effective method of checking that a given mathematical relationship is dimensionally consistent, meaning that two relations not are different in respect to the dimensional content.
Performing dimensional analysis also clarify deep relations between physical entities.
For instance, in established physical theory one have tried to find the dimension of the electromagnetic units expressed in entities of Newtons origin units of M(mass), L(length) and T(time). For the electric charge, being a fundamental concept in the physics, current theory gives the dimension M1/2.L3/2.T-1- It is relatively easy to come to the insight that this dimension of charge is erroneous, simply because basic physical concepts of mass, length and time not can appear in fractions of integers. The square root of mass and
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length has no physical meaning and the conclusion therefore must be that current ideas in electro-physics in this context must be erroneous.
Further, the given relation says that electric charge is dependent of the mass content in the particle, which not is true. For instance, a
proton is about 2000 times heavier than the electron, but having the same electric charge.
If the charge would be mass dependent, the charge of a proton would be approximately 43 times larger in comparison with the electron, which not is the case.
Our conclusion is, that established physical theory do not manage to perform a description of what a charge is, a dimensional analysis on this point is very unmasking
In the American scientific literature it is common that Coulombs law is written as F= e2/R2, where the fundamental constant of (0, is put to the value = 1, which means a dimensionless constant entity. That shows, that not so much has been understood of fundamental principles of nature. Contrary to that, as seen from results from our own theory (equation 0322f ), we have found that (0, belongs Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
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to one of the most fundamental natural constants ever, besides the velocity of light c, in free space. The inverse value of e0, namely represents a very important property of the vacuum space and is nothing that can be eliminated by some simple mathematical tricks. The mass density 1/e0 constitutes a property of the vacuum space, being the base of the whole physical reality.
It is known, that Heaviside, the great scientist, in a handwritten letter mentioned that e0 is associated with a mass density in vacuum space, and also Erik Hallen, (a great Swedish scientist), has done comments in this direction in his works.
Established theories make use of varying dimensional systems, where the MKS(A) unit system is the most common in used in Europe, but where the cgs unit system is most common in England and in The USA among other countries.
To observe is that in the MKS(A) unit system M, stands for meter K, for kilograms and S, for
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seconds. A represents the unit of ampere of the electromagnetic units, where also Volt, Resistance, Impedance, Capacitance, Inductance, Electric field strength, Magnetic field strength among all are allied concepts used.
The use of the electromagnetic units in its first place are motivated by practical considerations, but even by the fact that current theory in no way has succeeded to present a believable connection between these units and the base units of mass, time and length dimension.
The base unit for electric charge has been determined by the insight that the electric charge is bounded to a smallest unit in matter, to the electric charge property of elementary particles.
By knowledge of the atomic weight and valence of a silver salt, one have determined 1A to this electric current that transport an amount of 1.1180 mg pure silver out of a silver nitrate solution each second. It is known that the atomic weight of silver is 1.7913E-25 kilogram and each such atom transports one unit of charge. Then we can
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calculate that 1A will give 6.2413E18 number of atoms per seconds and by defining the current flow to 1A and time of the flow = 1 second we can calculate the value of the unit charge to 1.6022E-19 As.
Because there are very rigid connections between the electric phenomena (current flow) with the magnetic phenomena, there is possible to establish a simple method of determining the unit flow of 1A through a conductor. That is done by measuring the force developed between two parallel conductors placed out on a relative distance of 1m. By using Biot-Savarts law is got, (see 0413):
Force/length unit between 2 parallel wires on distance 1m
F/L = I2/(2.(p.(eo.c2) When we know that( eo= 8.85E-12 As/Vm, then 1A is got when the force between the two conductors =2E-7 M/m. My theory has been some criticized on ground
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that treating( eo as a real physical constant give rise to circular reasoning, meaning that (( can be chosen arbitrary (without dimension) motivated by that this constant not correspond to any real property of nature. And on the same ground is suggested that the electric charge can be chosen arbitrary. One then easily forget that every single electric charged unit particle give rise to some very specific physical effects in its environment, as for instance force effects, and these effects are not influenced by how the unit charge is defined or by which basic unit system that is used (MKS or cgs). If it not was in that way, the physical laws in Europe (MKS(A)) and in the USA (cgs(A)) would differ, giving different results, something that we not can believe on or accepts as true.
In purpose of avoiding this miss-understanding, it perhaps had been best to define current flow as this number of unit charges which pass that treating( eo as a real physical constant give rise to circular reasoning, meaning that eo can be chosen arbitrary (without dimension) motivated by that this constant not correspond to any real property of nature. And Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 14-08Xxx
on the same ground is suggested that the electric charge can be chosen arbitrary. One then easily forget that every single electric charged unit particle give rise to some very specific physical effects in its environment, as for instance force effects, and these effects are not influenced by how the unit charge is defined or by which basic unit system that is used (MKS or cgs). If it not was in that way, the physical laws in Europe (MKS(A)) and in the USA (cgs(A)) would differ, giving different results, something that we not can believe on or accepts as true.
In purpose of avoiding this miss-understanding, it perhaps had been best to define current flow as this number of unit charges which pass through a cross area of a conductor per time unit. That can be achieved if we define Coulombs law in the following way (even see equation 0325, 0342, 9343): F = me.c2 re /D2 . N1.N2 1302
Electric current in number of unit charges per time unit :
In1 = N1/t ; In2 = N2/t
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 14-09Xxx
where N1 and N2 are the number of unit charges that are situated in respective charged point placed out on distance, D. 1 Ampere then corresponds to 6.2422E18 unit charges each second through a cross area of the conductor.
Another interesting example is Maxwells well known equation for the velocity of light c= c=1/sqrt((e0.uo).
Many have been impressed and made very far reaching conclusions by this expression, imposing that Maxwell was able to calculate the velocity of light c from it. The truth is, that when deriving the magnetic laws of the magnetic field, Biot Savart s law) equation 0413) the constant 1/sqrt(e0.uo) is achieved) even see our chapter 05 ). Someone substituted this symbol with a new symbol u0, hence introduced nothing new. Then to calculate the velocity of light c, from it only is a circular reasoning.
Another interesting example we find in Dr. Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 14-10Xxx
Aspdens book Physics Unified (see reference list), where he discusses the content in Rydbergs constant in the atomic physics, whether this constant is to be regarded as absolute fundamental or not.
Established theory gives the relation R=(1/8).me.e/(h.c.(eo), a relationship that contains 5 other seemingly independent physical constants. Then, the
discussion later performed is aimed to come to an understanding whether the value of R, is affected by a change in the electron mass, if this mass of some un-known reason is being changed (see 0634d ).. 4.(p.re.a-13However, if we reduce this expression to 1/R=, we find that this discussion is completely un-necessary. The relation contains not the electron mass as an un-dependent entity but only related to the proton mass in the relation a--1 =(Mp/me)2/3 (see formula 0623)
From 0644e we see that Planck s constant (h ) not at all is any fundamental physical constant in its
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MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 14-11Xxx
true meaning, but being composed by other entities, me, ( the electron rest mass) c, (the
velocity of light) re, (the electron radius) and Mp, (the proton rest mass).
In this and similar ways we by aid of dimensional analysis can investigate hidden properties of a given physical relations and also achieving a deeper understanding of underlying fundamental principles in matter.
Below is given a table showing the dimension of some common physical entities as given in units of M (mass), L (length) and T(time) starting from results from out theory.
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MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 14-12
TAVEL14-A
DIMENTION ANALYSIS
TAVEL14-B
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TAVEL14-C
TAVEL14-D
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TAVEL14-E
TAVEL14-F
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0TAVEL14-G
TAVEL14-H
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EXAMPLE OF USING THE DIMENSIONAL TABLEFORMULA :
F = B X I X LFORMULA OF MAGNETIC FORCEUNITMLTB (MAGNETIC FIELD STREANGTH)1-30I (ELECTRIC CURRENT)03-2L (CONDUCTOR LENGTH)010SUM11-2RESULT UNIT = FORCE11-2
OFFICIAL PHYSICAL CONSTANTSCommon physical constants got from
Particle Properties Data Booklet, April
1988, CERN particle data group and
Fundamental Constants of Physics,
Physics handbook, Student litterature,
Lund, Sweden 1980, ISBN91-44-16571-4.
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 14-17
OFFICIAL PHYSICAL CONSTANTSCommon physical constants got from
Particle Properties Data Booklet, April
1988, CERN particle data group and
Fundamental Constants of Physics,
Physics handbook, Student litterature,
Lund, Sweden 1980, ISBN91-44-16571-4.
TAVEL14-i
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TAVEL14-k
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TAVEL14-L
TAVEL14-M
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TAVEL14-O
ED OF CHAPTER 14
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Chapter 15
LiTTERATURE REFERENCESSome references of new thinkers02SOME ARTICLES AND NEWS FROM NEW SCIENTIST JOURNAL06SOME ARTICLES IN SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN JOURNAL078S ome of my own production since 198108Registerad works on the data base REGINA on Kungliga Biblioteket in Stockholm/Sweden during years 1981- 200009Some published articles in scientific journals:13
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 15-02
Some references of new thinkersBroberg, Henrik: Energy, Matter and Gravitation in an Unlimited, Renewable universe, Esa journal, V.6,pp.207-32, 1982.
Rendle, A.B: Gravitation and the flowing medium, Modal Research, Dorking Road, Gt. Bookham, Surrey, England.
Miller, Gary c: gravitation, Apgrs journal, 501 Copeland, P.O.Box 223, Pocahontas, Ar 72445, USA.
N.Rudakov, Fiction stranger than truth. P.O.Box 723, Geelong, Vic.,3220 Australia
A.H.Winterflood, Einsteins error -83, Newtons error -81, Ghost theory -82, J.K.Levis & co ltd, 136 Gower street, London Wcie 6 bs England
H.Aspden, Physics unified, Sabberton publications, P.O. Box 35, Southampton England. ISBN 085056 0098, Isbn 085056 01
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 15-03A.B.Rendle modal research, A new dimensional calculus 1974, Gravitation and the flowing medium Modal research, Dorking Road, Gt. Bookham, Surrey England Ulf Elinder, The dimensions of the Universe, ISBN 91-7810-520-X, Fabriksgatan 1, S-652 20 Karlstad, Sweden
Lorentz Sanne, En teorien om opprinnelsen til naturkraftene Og av elementaerpartiklene p ville veger, Juli 1989 Elverum, Norge.
Grote Reber, Endless, Boundless stable universe, University of Tasmania, Occasional paper 9, 1977 Isbn: 0859010511, Box 252c Gpo Hobart Tasmania 7001
Henrik Broberg, Energy, Matter and gravitation in an unlimited, Renewable universe, Esa journal 1982, vol 6
Folke Westin, Einstien har misstagit sig, ISBN 91-85964077
W.R.Jones, The ether, Gravitation and the growth of mass 1975 Winter Park Florida 32789, 333 W.Kings way, USA
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MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 15-04Gary C Miller, Gravitation 1983, 501 Copeland P.O. Box 223 Pocahontas, Arkansas 72455, Apgrs journal 1983.
Prigogine & Isabelle Stengers, Ordning ur kaos (order out of Chaos) isbn 91-7776-012-3, Bohus-lnningens boktryckeri ab,Uddevalla 1984
Arnold G Gulko, Cosmology 1985, The vortex theory 1980, 1835 Arcola avenue, Wheaton, Maryland 20902 USA
Wallace Kantor, Relativistic propagation of light 1976, America by Coronado press, Box 3232, Lawrence, Kansas, 66044, USA
Broad William, Wade Nicholas, Sanningens ddgrvare, Mannerheim & Mannerheim, Stock-holm 1983 (original:Betrayers of the Truth)
Ruggero Maria Santilli, Ethical probe on Einsteins followers In the U.S.A 1985 ISBN 0-931753-01-7, Associazione Erida, Rome Italy
Henry W Huges, Gravity, Electro-magnetism and the conscious Dimension 1984, 11 Fern close, Langney, Eastbourne, Bn23 8aq England
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MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 15-05Victor G Hobson, The unified quantum field theory 1973, ISBN 0 858720086, C/o, 29 Hillfield road, Bilton, Rugby, Warwichshire, England
Vintens Spaksis, Lexycs, The stuff, Sagas 27 Shanklin Road, Southampton SO1 2rd England
As WIMPs come in from the could New Scientist 11 febr 1995,p14
What is an electron ? R.C. Jennison, Wireless World June 1979
Physics Handbook, Student Litterature, Carl Nordling, Jonny sterman Lund/Sweden 1980
Vector Particle Physics, T.N.Lockyer 1991, TNL PRESS 1611 Fallen Leaf Lane. Los Altos, CA 94024
Particle Properties, data booklet, CERN 1990 60)
Telfyma, Sjgrens frlag Stockholm/Sweden 1984
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SOME ARTICLES AND NEWS FROM NEW SCIENTIST JOURNALNeutrinos do they rule the Universe, 19 June/80
The glue in the atom, 11 Sept/80 (**)
New particles in physicists crystal ball, 23 Oct/80
Neutrinos- a case of mistaken identity, 11 June/81
At last physicist trap the quarks- or have they, 29 October/81
The elusive free quark evades its pursuers again, 14 Jan/82
Have physicists found the elusive magnetic monopole, 6 May/82
A neutron is a particle is a wave, 2 September/82
Is unification in physics necessary, 17 February/83
Magnetic monopoles fail to oblige the physicists, 17 March/83
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008
MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 15-07New evidences for B meson decay, 14 April/83
CERN physicist find the Z particle, 12 May/83
After the W particle, the Higgs, 26 May(83
Hybrids and glueballs: new forms of matter, 7 July/83
Fractional charge still tantalizes physicists, 4 August/83 Quarks, computers and the strong force, 1 December/83
Hello diquark, goodbye gluon, 16 February/
The search for super symmetry, 15 March/84
Particles with mysterious tracks, 24 May/84 (***)
Why we have electrons, 2 August/84
The Ohmega particle comes of age, 6 September/84
Zeta- a new and unexpected particle, 16 August/84 (*)
Quarks and their forces, 8 November/84
Soviet neutrinos have mass, 7 March/85
Do particles really exist, 2 May/85
Super-strings: a theory of everything, 29 August/85
British physicist find magnetic monopole, 3
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MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 15-08
SOME ARTICLES IN SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN JOURNALThe Lattice Theory of Quarks Confinement, by Claudio Rebbi
The structure of Quarks and Leptons, by Haim Harari
Elementary Particles and Forces, by Chris Quigg
Glueballs, by Kenzo Ishikawa
Particles with Naked Beauty, by Nariman B. Mistry
Some of my own production since 1981Absolute space and particle theory 1981 no number
Absolute space theory 1982-1984 ISBN 91 9707750x
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MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 15-09Absolute rymd teori 1985 no number
En ny vg till fysiken 1985 ISBN 91 97077526
Absolute space theory 1984-1986 ISBN 91 97077542
A new way to the physics 1987 ISBN 91 97077569
A new way to the physics 1988 ISBN 91 97077585
Komplement, A new way to the
physics 1988 ISBN 91 97077518
En ny vg till fysiken/a new way to physics ISBN 91 97077534
Registerad works on the data base REGINA on Kungliga Biblioteket in Stockholm/Sweden during years 1981- 2000Post AuthorTi titleYear1Tedenstig, Ove,1940-Matter unified : a new physical theory of matter /2000
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2Tedenstig, OveMatter unified : a new physical theory of matter /1998 ;3Tedenstig, OveArticles in physics published on Internet 1994-1995 /[1995]4Tedenstig, OveEn ny vg till fysiken : anfrande fr Freningen SET, ABF-huset, Stockholm den 4 februari 1993[1993]5Tedenstig, OveCollected publications in physics 1986-1992.1992
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6Tedenstig, OveA new way to the physics. Komplement1988 ;7Tedenstig, OveA new way to the physics /1988 ;8Tedenstig, OveEn ny vg till fysiken : A new way to physics /19889Tedenstig, OveA new way to the physics /1987 ;10Tedenstig, OveAbsolute space theory 1984-1986 /198611Tedenstig, OveEn ny vg till fysiken /1985 ;12Tedenstig, OveAbsolut rymdteori : en ny vg till fysiken /1985 ;13Tedenstig, OveAbsolute space theory : 1982-1983 /[1984]
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14Tedenstig, OveAbsolute space theory -83 /198315Tedenstig, OveAbsolute space theory : an idea-theoretic speculation in physics /198216Tedenstig, OveAbsolute space, field and particle theory /1981XXTedenstig, Ove,1940-Matter unified : a new physical theory of matter /2004XXTedenstig, OveMatter unified : a new physical theory of matter /2008 ;
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Some published articles in scientific journals:The fundamental nature and behavior of light, TMR, Volume 5, 2, July 1986, pp. 2517-37
Fundamental constants and the laws of the atom derived from new hypothetical properties of elementary particles, TMR, Vol. 8,2, July 1989, pp.4067-73.
On gravitation, TMR vol. 7,4,January 1989, pp. 3895-900.
Vetenskap eller kvalificerad bluff Fakta/Forum p4, 2/88
Modern fysik i kris, Fakta/
Forum p4, 9/88
Ljuset- en vg av partiklar, Fakta, p73 8/87
Amatrfysiker, Enmansuniversitet med eget universum, FOF 744-8
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COMMENTS OF THE READER:
END OF REFERENCES
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START---ERRATE
Dimensionsanalys av begreppen elektrisk kapacitans och elektrisk induktans (L)
Normalt r dessa begrepp inom elektrofysiken uttryckta i enheter inom deelektromagnetiska enheterna av MKS(A) enhetssystem. Knnetecknande fr detta system r att de elektromagnetiska enheterna i etablerad fysikteori inte kan uttryckas i de mekaniska storheterna av M(massa), L(lngd) och T(tid). I MKS(A)-systemet betyder M=meter, K=kilo,S=sekund och A=ampere. Detta gller d heltalsvrden av dessa storheter.
I Matter Unified kan de elektromagnetiska storheterna omvandlas till heltalsvrden av massa (M), lngd (L) och T(tid). Hemligheten bakom detta r att storheterna elektrisk (Q) laddning och rymdens dielektricitetskonstant (epsilon0) har analyserats till sitt fysikaliska innehll och betydelse uttryckt i dessa grundenheter av Massa, Lngd och Tid. Drefter ger sig automatiskt dimensionerna p andra frekommande storheter inom elektrofysiken.
I korthet kan sgas, att den elektriska laddningen r ett volymflde av vakuummateria av densiteten q, dr denna densitet motsvaras av det inversa vrdet av epsilon0 dvs 1/epsilon0 kgilogram per kubikmeter.
Den elektriska laddningen kan slunda uttryckas :
Q= Kt.Ka.re**2.c
Dr Kt=5.3553, Ka=4.pi, re=den klassiska elektronradien och c=ljushastigheten i vakuum
I enheter kan detta uttryckas : (M,L,T) = 0,+3,-1)
Elektrisk strm r definierad som laddning per tidsenhet dvs :
I= Q/t som ger (0,+3,-2)
Fr epsilon0 gller :
Epsilon0 =Ka.Kt**2.re**3/me
Dr me = elektronens massa
Slunda epsilon0 (M,L,T) = (-1,+3,0)
Formeln fr elektrisk kapacitans r :
C = epsilon0.A/D vilket ger : (-1,+4,0)
Fr energin i en spole genomfluten av strmmen i definierasupplagrad energi:
E= /2.i**2.L
Vi lser ut induktansen L :
L = 2.E/i**2 som ger (M,L,T) = (+1,-4,+2)
Vi finner d att produkten LC vlir :
LC= (+1,-4,+2) +(-1,+4,,0) = (0,0,,+2)
Vid berkning av resonansfrekvenser i elektromagnetiska kretsar gller :
F = 1/sqrt(LC) som sledes r 1/T = frekvens
Fljande notis r infrd 2012 april:
By Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2011 december 09
Korrektion fr berkning av Boltzmans konstant baserat p vatten.
Correction of calculation of Boltzmans constant based on water.
I Matter Unified har felaktigt angivits att syre har 16 protoner och 16 neutroner.
In Matter Unified it has been erroneously been noted that oxygen has 16 protons and 16 neutrons in its core.
Detta r felaktigt.
That is erroneous.
Det skall vara 8 protoner och 8 neutroner.
It shall be 8 protons and 8 neutrons.
Vidare skall man berkna trycket som ett resultat av impulstrycket i 3 olika koordinatriktningar vilket sprider sig genom vtskan.
Furthermore one has to take consideration to the pressure created from 3 differens coordinate directions, which is spread through the vapour.
S, istllet fr att multiplicera den totala molekylmassan (kmol) med faktorn skall man multiplicera med faktorn 3/2.
So, instead of multiplying the molecule mass (kmol) with the factor you have to multiply with the factor 3/2.
Vi berknar kmol-massan i termer av elektronmassor och multiplicerar sedan med elelektronens massa som r 9.109E-31 kilogram.
We callculate the kmol-mass expressed in terms of electron masses and then multiply with the electron mass 9.109E-31 kilogram.
Antalet elektroner i en kmol av vatten berknas till:
The number of electrons in a kmol of water is calculated to:
N=2*(1836.12+1) + 8*(1836.12+1838.65+1)
D kan Boltzmans konstant fr vatten berknas till:
Then Boltzmans constant for water be calculated to :
K = N*100*1000*(3/2)*(1/373)*9.109E-31 = 1.21E-23
Det officiellavrdet p Boltzmans konstant fr gaser r 1.38E-23 J/K
The official value of Boltzmans constant for gases is 1.38E-23 J/K
2010 september 30 Ove Tedenstig
Start---addendum
XXX
The electric field strength from an electron and a protonXXX
On the same distance from the center point of a charged particle, an electron or a proton, the electric field strength is the same.
Xx
XXX
In experimental efforts aimed to estimate the spatial extension of elementary particles, probing
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MATTER UNIFIED ISBN 91-973818-7-X 03-58
technology is used. In these experiments particles are registered as charged points and not as particles with geometric extensions. Of that reason probing an electron or a proton will give similar results. Of that reason the protons spatial extension has been erroneous estimated, having the size of 35 fermi, not 2 fermi as officially state.
Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2008Ove Tedenstig
Hovslagaregatan 13 C
330 17 Rydaholm/Sweden
Docname: LETTER COX 1. doc
Date: xx/09/2008
Prof. Brian Cox
The University of Manchester, U.K.
Dear Sir,
Thanks so much for asplended TV program about gravitation ,sent here in the swedish television for some days ago. I want to give some comments about this TV- program.
According to my opinion:
Gravitation is a process of creating new matter in Universe.
The gravity force is just a secondary effect of this gravitational rocess.
By this idea I have succeeded to calculate the gravity constant (G) with good accuracy.
The motor of this process is the cosmic thermal field in space of 2.7K. converted to matter.
Then the content of matter in a body will increase with time.
The content of matter will be doubled during a fractional period of the Hubble time, meaning that the Hubble time is involved in creation of matter inspace.
A rough estimation of the discrepancy in distance of the moons position will be about 10 meter during a time period of 40 years.
Because the mass of the body increases with time the inflow rate (R) also will increase with time.
Big Bang never has occurred, beginning or end of age cannot be defined.
The earth volume grows, causing earth shakes to occur.
Some data:
1..Mo = 5.97E24 kg (mass of earth)
2..Do = 380 000 km=3.8E8 m (distance earth, moon)
3..T = 30 x 24 x 60 x 60 sec. (moon orbit time)
= 2.59E6 secVo = 2.pi.Do/T = 921
4..G = 6.7E-11 (gravity constant in MKSA)
5..Mo.G/Vo 2 = 4.7E8
6..Mass is condensed with a rate of R, beeing a fraction part of the Hubble time 7..R R =(1/1.85).HT
8..X = t/R.
9..M = Mo. (1+x)
10..m = mo (1+x)
11..mo.Vo = m.V
12..V2 = Vo2 /(1+ x) 2
13..deaD = Mo.G/Vo2 (1-(1+x) 3 )
14..H = 3E-18 s-1
15..Hubble time
16..HT = 1/H = 10E9 years
Inflow rate R = 1/1.85x HT
17..40 years of observation
18..deltaD = Do D =
19..4.7E8x3x40x1.85/10E9 = 9.98 meter
If this idea is correct means that Einstens principle of equivalence between heavy nass and gravitatiny mass is wrjng.
A suggested continupus formula valid for t = 0 to infinity
================
20..F(G) = Mo.G/D2 . 2 2t/R
================
================
20..F(G) = Mo.G/D2 . 22t/R
================
21..F(G) = Mo.G/D2 . (1+ x-y) 2 .2 2y
21a) x = t/R
21b) y = trunc(t/R)
Equality between gravitating and inerteal mass not is valid.
Even meaning that the red shift of light in space depends on gravitational effects on this light, slowing down the propagation velocity of this light.
All this detailes are carefully discribed in my complete theory. Matter Unified, available on enclosed web site sdress.
B ecadress added to this letter.
Please also note my particle theory predicting new sub atomic particles.
Sincerely
Ove Tedenstig
LHC 1
Angende det stora partikelexperimentet i Cern, det s kallade LHC-projektet.
Att skjuta mygg med kanon, r det en bra id? Denna frga med tanke p alla de olsta problem som nnu finns kvar inom den grundlggande fysiken. Den ursprungliga motivationen till detta projekt har varit ett halvt lfte om att kunna frklara universums ursprung, en av de verkligt stora olsta frgorna inom fysiken och givetvis en lovvrd mlsttning. Men en mngd olsta problem finns inom kvantfysiken, inom electromagnetismen, ljusets natur, gravitationen och atomkrnans uppbyggnad fr att ge ngra exempel. En grundlggande frstelse inom dessa omrden saknas och ingen etablerad teori finns idag som p ett gemensamt stt frklarar dessa fenomen. LHC-projektet kommer frmodligen inte att hr kunna bidraga med ngot, s mnga olsta problem finns inom den grundlggande fysiken och man har gripits av ngon slags desperation i syfte att hitta ett halmstr, som man kan greppa. Men troligen kommer man inte att finna ngot av det man hoppas p, d.v.s kvarkar, gluoner, Higgs-partiklar och gravitoner . Ej heller kommer man att kunna styrka att ngon Big Bang har frekommit i universum. Det man kommer att finna r partiklar man redan knner till, plus en del andra partiklar, som frmodligen redan r registrerade, men inte godknda inom ramen fr standardteorin. Men givetvis ska de planerade experimenten genomfras fr att se vad dessa kan ge. Efter detta br en total omvrdering av den elementra fysiken genomfras.
LHC 2
Angende det stora partikelexperimentet i Cern
Att skjuta mygg med kanoner r nog ingen srskilt bra id. Det finns andra stt som r bttre. Den ursprungliga motivationen till detta projekt har varit ett halvt lfte om att kunna frklara universums ursprung, en av de yttersta frgorna inom vetenskapen. Detta verkar ju givetvis lovvrt, men frst borde man nog reda ut och frklara vissa mera grundlggande fenomen inom fysiken, ssom kvantfysiken, atomkrnans uppbyggnad, electromagnetismen, ljusets natur och gravitationen. En grundlggande kunskap inom dessa omrden saknas fortfarande. Ingen etablerad teori finns nnu idag, som p ett gemensamt stt frklarar dessa fenomen. Som man ibland sger, man borde frst lra sig krypa innan man kan g och g innan man kan springa. En kunskapstrappa entrar man bst genom att ta det frsta nedersta steget och inte genom att ta trappan i ett enda sprng. Men eftersom s mnga obesvarade frgor finns inom naturvetenskap och fysik , har man gripits av desperation. Genom att utfra storskaliga och dyrbara experiment, hoppas man att finna ett litet halmstr att greppa. Troligen kommer man inte att finna ngot av det man hoppas p, d.v.s. kvarkar och gluoner, Higgs-partiklar och gravitoner. Ej heller kommer man att kunna styrka att ngon Big Bang har frekommit i universum. Standardteorin fr de elementra partiklarna r ett hopkok av teoretiska fysiker, som tappat greppet om verkligheten. Det man kommer att finna r det man redan vet, plus eventuellt ngra nya partikelformer, som frmodligen redan r registrerade, men som inte har godknts inom ramen fr standardteorin, d.v.s. ett antal partiklar som sopats under mattan, drfr att dom inte passat in i den givna standardmodellen. Givetvis ska de planerade experimenten genomfras, fr att se vad detta kan ge. Efter detta r det troligt att en total omvrdering av fysiken inom detta omrde mste genomfras.
BIG BANG
Tanken att universum en gng i tiden skapades genom en stor smll, en s kallade Big Bang , var frn brjan att man hade svrt att frklara rdfrskjutningen av ljus frn avlgsna galaxer. Eftersom man anser att ljuset inte har ngon eter att frdas i, s hade man svrt att frklara detta i relation till den s kallade Doppler-effekten. Doppler-effekten krver nmligen ett medium fr att fungera. Ej heller kunde man hnvisa till planeters och galaxers rrelser ifrn oss, eftersom ljusets hastighet i enlighet med Einsteins relativitetsteori r en invariabel storhet. Den terstende frklaringsmodellen var drfr att tnka sig att universum expanderar och att vglngden hos ljuset p detta stt drogs ut. Men ven denna id har ett problem. Problemet r att det ser ut som att inte alla galaxer rr sig ifrn oss. Mellan 10 och 15 procent av alla stellra objekt r blfrskjutna, d.v.s. ljusets frg gr mot bltt istllet fr rtt. Enligt denna tolkning skulle allts dessa objekt rra sig mot oss och inte ifrn oss. Detta gr inte att frklara med den expanderande modellen. Den troliga frklaringen r att ljuset s defaktor minskar i hastighet med tiden och p s stt dess vglngd frlngs. Ngon oknd process pverkar allts ljusets hastighet under frd i den stellra rymden, vilket gr att frekvens och vglngd hos ljuset dras ut med tiden. Men s lnge man vidhller den s kallade Big Bang-iden r det svrt att hvda en sdan modell. En annan orsak till varfr man vidhller Big Bang-iden r att man har svrt att frklara varfr atomer och molekyler i hela universum ser likadana ut. Den enda frklaringsmodellen man kommit fram till r att all materia en gng i tiden har varit samlad i en enda punk t, och dr sedan denna materia genom en stor smll ,den s kallade Big Bang, har spridits ut i hela universum. Detta skulle allts vara orsaken till att all materia i hela universum har likartad struktur. Teorin kallas ocks inflationsteorin och det r vl i princip Stewen Hawkins och hans kollega, som en gng i tiden skapade denna id. Enligt detta koncept skulle allts all materia i hela universum en gng i tiden ha varit koncentrerad i en enda punkt, mindre n en atoms storlek. Det visar sig emellertid att det inte r ndvndligt med en sdan modell fr att frklara homogeniteten hos materien i hela universum. I laboratorier kan man idag skapa partiklar, som r identiskt lika, det man knner till frn den vanliga materien. Ett exempel p en sdan process r genom att kollidera tv energirika fotoner med varandra, kan elektroner skapas och dessa elektroner har identiska egenskaper som hos vanliga elektroner. Detta gller ven fr andra partiklar som uppstr p konstgjord vg i partikelexperiment. Sledes sammanfattningsvis, tanken p Big Bang r inte ndvndig fr att frklara homogeniteten i universum. Ett annat argument mot Big Bang-teorin r att frdelningen av materia i universum skulle se annorlunda ut om en sdan explosion frekommit. Materien i universum skulle vara frdelad i en ringformig struktur, men s r inte fallet. I samband med en publicerad artikel i Forskning och Framsteg hade jag personligen en debatt p webbsidan med professor Ulf Danielsson. Jag framfrde dr dessa mina sikter. Professor Danielsson hade emellertid inga objektiva argument att erbjuda, fr att ge svar p dessa djupa frgor.
EINSTEIN-SRT
Einsteins relativitetsteori frn 1905 r kanske den mest knda vetenskapliga teorin, bde bland allmnheten och bland etablerade vetenskapsmn. Einstein fick inte omedelbart s stor uppmrksamhet fr sin teori. Det drjde ungefr 4 r innan etablerade vetenskapsmn brjade titta p vad han hade stadkommit. Alltsedan Newtons dagar hade en livlig debatt frekommit angende ljusets natur. En debatt som accelererade i slutet av 1800-talet och i brjan av 1900-talet. Till att brja med ansgs Einsteins teori som varande en rddare i det tankekaos som rdde p den tiden. Ett gng av den tidens d mest knda fysiker accepterade Einsteins ider utan ngon strre kritik. Som Rudakov sger i sin bok Fiction is stranger than trouth Saga och fantasi r starkare n sanningen, var detta en mrk dag i fysikens historia. Den egentliga kritiken av teorin kom frst senare, d oppositionella kretsar i detalj brjade granska Einsteins ider. Kulmen av Einsteins bermmelse kom vid genomfrandet av ett experiment vid en solfrmrkelse. Man ville vid detta experiment mta upp hur mycket en ljusstrle frn en avlgsen stjrna avbjdes vid passage nra solens yta. Resultatet tycktes samstmma vl med Einsteins berkningar. Experimentet har dock inte undgtt kritik, emedan det finns mnga felkllor, som gr experimentet oskert. P grund av sitt kndisskap och sin stora produktivitet ansg nu mnga att Einstein var vrd ett nobelpris i fysik. Men nobelkommittn tvekade. Deras omdme var ungefr som fljer; Denna teori motsger allt sunt frnuft och framstllan avbjdes drmed. Men starka rster inom naturvetenskapen propsade nd p att Einstein var vrd ett nobelpris. Man brjade drfr ska efter ngot annat i hans vetenskapliga arbete, som kunde motivera ett sdant pris. Det fll p upptckten av den s kallade fotoelektriska effekten. En upptckt som egentligen p experimentell vg hade gjorts av den sterrikiske fysikern och experimentatorn Starck, som nu blev snuvad p konfekten. ver 100 r har nu gtt sedan teorins tillkomst ocUVWXYhlƾugN@hPohPo5CJ4OJQJ0hPohPo5B*CJ4OJQJ_H mH phsH hPohPo5CJ4OJQJhe/5B*CJ`OJQJphhPohPoCJaJnHtH'hPohPo5CJ$OJQJ_H mH sH hPohPo5CJ OJQJhDMh96Bh]mH sH h]CJaJnHtHh]CJaJmH sH jh]U"h]CJOJPJQJaJmH sH he/h] !"#$%&'()*+,-./01234567$Ifgd]789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRST$IfTUVWXYijkl|d$IfgdPogd]gkd4X$$Ifl#,
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layt~((((vvd$Ifgd~{kd$$Ifl0$#n
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layt~((((vvd$Ifgd~{kdd$$Ifl0$#n
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layt~((((vvd$Ifgd~{kd$$Ifl0$#n
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layt~((((vvd$Ifgd~{kd$$Ifl0$#n
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layt~((((vvd$Ifgd~{kdl $$Ifl0$#n
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layt~((((vvd$Ifgd~{kd"$$Ifl0$#n
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layt~((()vvd$Ifgd~{kd#$$Ifl0$#n
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lBayt~cccddfexxd$Ifgd~ $Ifgd~gd~kkd=$$Ifl#FJ%
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layt~4w5w9wwd$Ifgd~gd~kkdf$$Ifl#FJ%
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