> # !"#$%&'()*+,./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_`abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz{}~r0bjbj51, >1.
Boltzmanns constant k is for gases determined to the value of 1.38E23 J/K, where the definition is done in relation to 1000 molecule units of the gas in question (1kmol).
Hence, temperature is the collective manifestation of small vibrations of the small parts in matter (atoms and molecules). By these vibrations energy is transferred between material bodies, directly by mechanic contact or by radiation.
For a brief description of how the constant k, but not formally exact, can be calculated, we do a calculation with start from a fluid, water, as follows:
We start with our formula 0145 m= q.A.t.v where q is the density of the tempered medium, A is the surface on which the vibrations of matter acts, t is an arbitrary time of action, v is the velocity of the small particles in movements and m is the amount of participating mass in association to the velocity v.
We multiply both sides of the equation with the velocity v and applies the formula 0205 on the result, so that:
A0150
X
A further fact we ought to know is the weight of a Kggram molecule (Kmol) of water.
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Hence we find a value of k= 1.426E23 for water.
For gases the exact value is equal to k = 1.38E23 J/K. Hence we find an approximate value of k calculated on water being rather near the exact experimental value as valid for gases.
Forcre and accelerating at revolving movement
In connection to our interpretation of electromagnetism in the following chapters, , we need a formula for force and rotating (revolving) movement.
We in the electromagnetic theory will show that electromagnetic forces is dependent of spin of elementary particles. This spin give rise to inertial reaction forces, electric field forces and magnetic field forces.
This relation we derive from Newtons formulae in accord with the following:
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A0 XXX
The temperature 100 degree Celsius is determined at the boiling point of water at the air pressure of appreciative 1 atmosphere, which is equivalent with 1kp/cm2, 10N/cm2,
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1000N/dm2 or 100000N/m2 Hence we put F/A= 100000.
Temperature in physics is often given in degrees of Kelvin, which is the absolute temperature scale, starting at the absolute zero point (where no temperature movements occur and where nothing can be colder). 100 degrees Celsius corresponds to 373.2K.
The density of water is 1000 Kg/m3. If we input all these received values in the formula 0150b we for the velocity v get
Free mean
A0152
We now insert known parameters and calculated values in our formula 0149 and find the value of k to:
A0153
Because the molecules attack the surface with varying angles, consideration to this effect must be taken. That will determine the value of the factor X in the equation above :
A0154
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Guldins rule
Guldins rule constitutes a useful mathematical tool for calculating surfaces and volumes of regularly formed bodies. The rule is as follows;
1) For surfaces The surface of a body is equal to the surfaces limiting line multiplied with the way its medium point describes
2) For volumes A bodys volume is equal to the bodys section surface multiplied with the way the mass center of this section describe
X A0160
Surface and volume of a cylinder
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A0155ABXXXX
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Formula 0155b is valid for a mass m that rotates with velocity v at distance R from the rotation center point. This formula also can be expressed by aid of angular frequency in accord with formula 0143, hence:
A01557
Vector calculation of force momentumt
As an example, force momentum is calculated in using 0139 and 0147
A0158
If we want to calculate the work in 0121 (energy) we instead must use the vector dot product, hence:
BOYLEs LAW
Boyles law is specifically valid on gases and is a pure empirical tested law. This law says that the product of pressure and volume is constant if the temperature is held constant.
A0159
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Readers notes:
AEND1
A0161 A0162
Later on in this theory we will find that elementary particles have the form of vortex rings, where matter into the ring is rotating. Of that reason it is of interest to here calculate the geometry, surface and volume of these entities.
A0161
And if not massive:
A0160
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Readers notes:
Readers notes:
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elementary levels of matter, nature follows strongly predictable laws and solid rules, laws that obviously are more general and fundamental than these phenomena studied.
That fact ought to guide us towards the insight, not too easily determine the limits for our exploration of Universe and its laws.
To understand the visible and perceptible parts of matter, it is necessary to even get knowledge about the underlying mechanisms being concealed behind that we see, feel, observe and register. By finding a theory even containing pure hypothetical elements, an aid is achieved by which the nature can be described and perhaps even br predictable.
The idea that vacuum, or the empty space, contains a substantial medium, fluid, ether etcetera, has old traditions in science. Above all, the need for such a medium was motivated by the assumed propagation process of light as a wave through such an ether in a similar way as for which sound propagates through air or water..
Chapter 2
Space and matter
INTRODUCTION
002
CREATION OF NEW MATTER
002
CREATION OF MATTER, A CONDENSATION PROCESS OF FIELD MASS.
012
INTERACTION BETWEEN PARTICLE AND THE VACUUM FIELD
017
THE VACUUM FIELD DENSITY
019
THE VACUUM FIELD VELOCITY
/020
THE MASS DENSITY OF DIFFERENT PARTICLE FORM
028
ASSOCIATING PHYSICAL CONSTANTS TO PROPERTIES OF THE UNIVERSAL VACUUM SPACE
030
THE MASS INCREASE PROCESS
036
MASS AND ENERGY
042
ELECTROMAGNETIC MASS INCREASING
043
ELECTROMAGNETIC MASS INCREASING
043
DERIVING E=MC2
048
BALL AND WALL
055
MASS INCREASE OF A ROCKET IN FREE SPACE
059
TIME, DISTANCE, VELOCITY
062
INTERACTION BETWEEN MATTER AND SPACE AT MOVEMENT
064
ROCKET IN SPACE xxxxx
068
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INTRODUCTION
Within the limits of this theory, we assume that vacuum contains a pseudo material field, constituting source and reason to all actions and phenomena existing in the perceptible and touchable part of matter.
The visible and touchable matter has discontinuous structures, that can be described in terms of solids, molecules, atoms and elementary particles. Even the elementary particles might be divided into smaller structures, described in terms of electric and magnetic fields, fields of photons, thermal fields or fields of even more elementary nature.
We imagine ourselves different forms of material structures with high degree of complexity developed from more simple and basic structures.
And in the real world we also find that as true. From a hundred of now known, basic elements, the nature is able to build up the whole complex world around us.
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We also know, that these elements in turn are built up by still more fundamental entities, such as protons, neutrons and electrons. To be assumed, even these particles are assumed to be complex of more fundamental structures.
In established physical theory, these structures are assumed being quarks, constituting the building blocks for some of these particle forms.
These parts of matter that we in some way can be aware of by our senses or being indirectly registered by aid of instrumental equipments, usually are classified as belonging to the real physical world. That being outside this limits, usually are classified as belonging to pure philosophy or to the more speculative parts of physics.
However, when approaching the outer limits for what is possible to register, for instance in the particle physics, its obvious that even on this very extreme
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discussions. That especially in backlightning of the fact that Einstein made use of the light propagation velocity in vacuum as a common reference for velocity in his theory of relativity.
The debates of these kinds to a great extent reminds about what was discussed in ancient time, whether the earth or sun was the centre point in the Universe or if the earth is round or flat.
Hence, the idea of an ether in space nearly without exceptions has been motivated by the idea of the lights wave nature. Not much has been discussed whether space could contain an active substance by other reasons, not specifically associated to fundamental properties of light propagation in vacuum space..
It was on this background the development of this theory was started and initiated. To begin with some crucial questions were put forward claiming for their answers.
These questions are briefly as follows:
If light was a wave, the existence of a bearing ether, a medium was accentuated, quite in analogy with how waves of more traditional nature were moving through different sorts of mediums.
Moreover, a light medium could in a comfortable way give motivation for why light seemingly propagate always with constant velocity in free space, in direct analogy with how the air was determining the velocity of sound waves.
Newtons dominating idea was that light was particles (corpuscles). Still, he did not had any complete understanding in what way these particles could give rise to all those phenomena which were observed in his light optical experiments.
However, a contemporaneous scientist, C. Hyugens, was of the meaning that light was waves, an idea that got broad acceptance and confirmation by performing some important light interference experiments.
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Maxwell, who in 1873 presented his famous electromagnetic theory, went a step further by stating that electromagnetic phenomena were of the same nature as light. Even the spreading of electromagnetic fields were, according to that concept, movements in a universal ether field.
Some years later Michelson and Morley performed their famous light experiment with the aim of determining the earths velocity through that hypothetical light ether field, that was thought to be in rest in space, based on the already existing ideas of light and its basic nature of waves.
The experiment could not confirm the wave ether hypothesis and after that was following a rather frustrating debate where a lot of more or less imaginative theories and suggestions were offered to a solution.
The debate was partly diminished by the upcoming of Einsteins theory of relativity
In year 1905, which was common accepted, repudiating the ether concept. Moreover it
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came out clear experimental signs on that light was made up by particles, by the exploration of the light photon.
Now one had two completely different theories for light, a wave theory and a particle theory. Nowadays, one of that reason allot light having double nature, having both wave and particle properties. This paradox still has not been given any satisfactory solution by modern established theory.
Hence, in a historical flashback we can see that the question whether vacuum has physical properties or not, nearly without exceptions has been a question of the need of a bearing medium for light propagation through empty space. The ether debate has not concerned so much about its eventual meaning for other kind of physical phenomena in nature.
The debate whether the light ether exists or not, or if the velocity of light is variant or invariant, still is a loved subject of debate in the nature philosophy and in scientific
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Another model that has been proposed, but in a more or less categorical manner has been rejected by leading physicist, is the steady state theory for Universe. In brief this theory implies that matter is created and destroyed in a continuous process, where it is in balance between created and destroyed matter in an eternal process. We will here use parts of this model and basic philosophy in the following treatment and presentation of this theory.
CREATION OF MATTER, A CONDENSATION PROCESS OF FIELD MASS.
Like the rise of how clouds on a free summer sky, seemingly coming up from nowhere, we can think of matter as condensed cores of an underlying material structure, a common cosmic field, constituting a prestage to that what we in common talk name, matter. This idea will be our preliminary starting point of this theory.
If everything in matter move with violent velocities, then what is the reason why the matter not fall into pieces unless there are outer balancing forces, counteracting the internal forces?
All sorts of matter seem to interact on distance. How can this interaction be taking place inasmuch there not is something common that mediate this interaction?
What determines that all perceptible matter in the Universe show up the same properties? An electron, a hydrogen atom and so on, obviously looks the same unregarding place in Universe. That should not be possible if not a common interaction process were existing.
That initiated the idea of that vacuum only is an empty void in true meaning what regards visible and touchable matter, but contains some kind of a field that mediate interaction processes. And in addition to that, this field should be the origin and source to
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the creation of new matter and the source of all forces in nature.
To avoid misunderstanding, it is important to emphasizes that the here postulated vacuum field has nothing in common with the old ether concept for assumed light propagation.
The vacuum field constitutes some kind of an origin state in space, a prestage of matter. Hence, if all kinds of ordinary matter was eliminated, in addition even all electromagnetic radiation, gravitating fields, free photons and elementary particles, a clean vacuum is achieved, free and primitive.
With these preliminary definitions as base, the investigation will begin of what properties such a vacuum may posses, that in relation to well known physical phenomena that we know about by aid of observations and experiments performed during hundreds of years of physical research.
CREATION OF NEW MATTER
What matter fundamentally is assembled of we never can get any complete idea of. And in this theory that question has no great interest either, because we in the first place will accentuate these properties of matter which are known and how properties of matter can be described down to a suitable level where we can perform calculations and get some ideas about fundamental material structures.
In todays physical theories one has since long time been emphasized the idea that Universe, and hence even matter, was created in a single event in the far past, the Big Bang theory.
But this model struggles with significant problems, mainly of reason that the physical laws that are known, not existed before that hypothetical and invented event.
Then we have a theory in lack of physical laws as start, everything will break down at this point. And above that, in later years astronomic observations have given results that highly put this model into questions.
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Balance between in and out flowing matter to and from the particle is manifested by the electromagnetic properties of matter.
We shall spend much attention to all these phenomena in aim to reach a deeper understanding of these basic mechanisms going on into matter.
Like the rise of how clouds on a free summer sky, seemingly coming from nowhere, we can think of matter as condensed cores of an underlying material structure, a common cosmic field, constituting a prestage to that what we in common talk name, matter.
In the same way as a summer cloud dissolves and disappears, even matter disappears and returns to its origin state from which it has been created. A suitable amount of visible and touchable matter of that reason always will be present in the Universe, controlled and balanced by universal and eternal laws.
Hence, we can see a particle as a condensed state of that field from which it has been created. As a consequence of that idea, it is plausible to assume, that the mass density of it is different to that of the environment field.
Furthermore, we can assume, that the created particle can be compared with a plasma, where this plasma is built up by entities of the field. A continuous interaction process between particle and field is proposed taking place, and in aim for limiting the dimensions of the particle it must be assumed, that the movements of the particle plasma will balance against the outer field movements.
The movements of matter into the particle plasma may be unregular (in the same way
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as how entities in a gas move) or in a more regular ordered way, as for instance in form of a rotation or a vibrating movement.
Later on in this theory we shall see, that all those different kinds of movements can be present at the same time in a particle.
The particles geometrical form claims at least two symmetric degrees of freedom, making it possible to explain and motivate the electrical properties of matter in form of positive and negative electric charges.
Of that reason the spherical form must be rejected. A better candidate is the ring or vortex form, which permits two symmetrical states of freedom in the plasma movement. Of that reason that model will be used within the limit of this theory.
Furthermore, it must be possible to explain why elementary particles can have different masses but at the same time having the same electrical charge. One example is the electron and the proton, where the mass differ 1836.12 times but where the charge is the same..
Hence, the rest mass of a particle is dependent of the type of particle. In experiments, there are several hundreds of particles known, but in this theory it will be shown that only some few of them are more elementary than others.
There are also reasons to accentuate that a difference in mass can arise by the particles own movement in electromagnetic fields, capturing mass from the surrounding electromagnetic field, an access taking place for instance in particle accelerators.
Because a particle is controlled by the environment space, it always is in some form of a balance state with that environment space.
As to give an example,
The energy density of particle and field is in balance independently of the particles moving state.
Balance between inner and outer forces limits and define the particles mass and its spatial extension.
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This pressure per unit area that a particle is exposed for by the pressure from the external universal vacuum field, we can calculate by aid of Newtons second law of force, the formula 0114a and from our mass streaming formula 0145:
A0201
Newtons second law of force, formula 0114a
A0202
Newtons second law of force, simplified for this case when the mass is constant, 0114b
A0203
Inserting the mass from 0145 in formula 0202. Replacing the velocity v with velocity C, the vacuum field velocity gives:
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INTERACTION BETWEEN PARTICLE AND THE VACUUM FIELD
For making an investigation of the universal mass field properties possible, we must make use of some experimental facts from the visible and touchable part of matter. By start from properties of an already known and measured elementary particle, we by using reducible methods, a fundamental understanding of the underlying field structure may be possible.
We will start with our assumption that a material particle is to be seen as a product of the underlying field structure. Hence, we assume a very intimate interaction process between particle and field by exchanging of matter, impulse and energy with it
In a stable interchanging process, a stable particle is created conserving its structure.
The field mass by which the particle is built of is in a steady movement and in this way generating internal forces that tries to split the risen particle building.
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However, these forces are balancwd by an impulse pressure from the outer field.
This balance between internal expanding and outer contracting forces, strives to hold the particle system intact and is one factor that will limit the particles mass content.
THE VACUUM FIELD DENSITY
The universal field may be allotted properties of mass density with the same dimension and unity as is used for ordinary matter.
The mass density in space is here denoted by letter q kilogram per cubic metre.
The universal mass field is postulated granular to its structure in analogy with a gas where entities are in fast movement.
The universal mass field density in vacuum space is denoted by letter q kg/m3 in this theory
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THE VACUUM FIELD VELOCITY
We denote the velocity of entities in this gas by letter C m/s. In a fictive point of this field the vector sum of all movements is zero, hence the action of the field is the same from all directions.
Cause and reason of existence of this field is leafed outside discussion within the framework of this theory. If possible that question will be subject for investigation in future work...
We see matter as condensed cores of the universal mass field. Material particles, as they are known in its most primitive from, is created and destroyed continuously within this field in a continuous and eternal process.
When a material kernel, constituting a particle, is created, it has some chance to survive by action and influence from the surrounding universal mass field ( q )pressure.
Entities in the universal mass field of vacuum space, move with a certain velocity, which we here will denoted by capital letter C.
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Which is 2.99792458E8 m/s.
We will find that the pseudo mass density in the vacuum space is 1.13E11 kg/cubic metre, the vacuum pressure against a closed surface is 2.9E29 N/square metre and the energy density in vacuum is 1.5E29 watt seconds per cubic metre of space.
A particle will be in balance with the pressure from the environment space. Because the mass density, as well as even the velocity of the particle plasma are supposed to differ from properties of space, for the expansive force of the particle will be valid to :
A0211
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where F/dA is the internal pressure on surface of a free particle.
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx A0204
Solving out the vacuum field pressure on a closed particle surface from equation 0203
Other rules valid for the interaction process between particle and field are :
a) The energy density of particle and field is equivalent and independent of the moving state within the field.
b) External and internal acting impulse forces towards a particle surface are in balance.
c) A particle is characterised by a continuous flowing process by in and outflowing matter to and from it. In and outflowing amount of matter are in balance.
We calculate the external pressure on surface of a free particle, where q denotes the density of the field and C denotes the velocity of the field entities., from 0204
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The field pressure towards a particle where the field density is q and its velocity is C
A0206
This energy density of the vacuum field we calculate as follows, using formula 0205
A0207
Dividing both sides of the equation 0205 with a small distance element, ds
A0208
The product dA.ds is replaced with the volume element dV. The term ds is moved to the left side That will give the energy density of the vacuum field in the same way as for the equation 0206 above:
0208
In accord with the definition of kinetic energy, formula 0121, the product of force and distance (F.ds) is performed work or energy
A0209
A0210
The kinetic field energy in accord with 0122
Later on we will find that the density q in the vacuum space corresponds to the inverse value of e0, the so named dielectricity of vacuum constant , measured and determined to the value of 8.854187817E12 in the metric MKS(A) unit system.
Furthermore, we will calculate the value of the medium velocity of vacuum space to the value of 5.35556 times the standard light velocity.
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the electron, as function of the vacuums density q, , the vacuums field velocity C and the electrons inner velocity c,.
A0216
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Later on we shall see that qe multiplied with the outflow velocity, c, is equivalent with the electric field strength around a charged particle.
The outstreaming mass density from a particle multiplied with the inherent spin velocity of the same particle, is equal to the electric field strength density around the particle.
The mass density of different particle form
Another relation of interest is how the particles mass relates to its spatial extension. The radius. The basic idea is that all particles with vortex form have a mass density related to its radius, which means, that all particles with larger amount of mass also have larger spatial dimension, radius. That leads us to:
qp is the particles mass density and c is the internal velocity of the particle plasma.
Putting the formulae 0206, 0211 together, where external/internal pressure or energy are equivalent and in balance:
A0212
The quantity of matter streaming in from the field towards the particle surface is compensated by an equal amount of outflow.
If that not was the case, the particles mass content should not be constant but growing or decreasing until the particle would be dissolved. Not all known particle forms are stable but annihilate after a very short period of time, but so long time that they can be registered and measured. About stable particles the electron, the proton and their anti version counterparts are classified.
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For making it possible to derive a balancing relation, we make use of our equation of material flow 0145. Then for the amount of inflow matter is got:
A0213
And the same for the outflowing amount of matter from the particle:
A0214
AFLOW
The entities of the field have the velocity of C. The mass inflow density of the field is q . Outflowing entities have the velocity of c . The mass density of the outflowing field is qe where we assume, that the velocity of the outflowing matter corresponds with the inherent velocity of the particle plasma, c. A is the particles limiting area and t is any time during which the in/out flow to and from the particle, is taking place.
Because Min=Mout for the same elapsed time, period, the following is valid:
A0215
Equality between inflowing amount of matter and out flowing amount of matter to and from a particle, during the same time, formulae 0213, 0214
Reworking the equation 0215, solving out the inner mass density of a specific particle,
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For a particles active volume, we do a similar definition:
A0220
The Kfactors in these formulae cannot on this stage exactly be defined or determined, only approximations can be given. In a later stage an exact calculation will be performed (see 0132).
A0221
Gravitation is a surface force acting on the whole limiting surface area of the particle.
The electro magnetic force also is a surface force but acts only on a vector integral part of the particle surface, see 0437
A0217
The mass density of point formed particles (not composed) is approximately related to their radii risen to cube.. The mass (Mp ) then stands in direct relation to the particle radius (Rp ) in cube in relation to a reference particle, in this case the electron mss me. re is the electron radius.
The mass M p is the mass of an arbitrary point particle other than an electron, me is the mass of an electron and re is the spatial radius of that electron.
This simple relation will have some importance in the atomic quantum mechanical process, where it will be used for estimating values of some very important atomic constants, but even in the new particle theory for calculation of mass of different point particles registered in experiments,
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Associating physical constants to properties of the universal vacuum space
In aim making it possible to determine some elementary constants associated to the properties of the vacuum field, we begin to do some basic definitions. For simplicity, we make use of parameters of the electron, being a wellknown and well established elementary particle form.
The electron is an electric charged particle that appears in the atomic shell and there forms the atoms negative charged shell.
The electron is here used as the reference particle, that because this particle is well known, very stable and being subject for very exact measurements of its properties
In the interacting process with the environment space, it is provided that mass, energy and impulse are continuously exchanged. The particle provides to have an interacting area, a surface that is exposed for the fields impulse pressure bombardment.
We define that interacting area to:
A0218
by which means, that the interacting area or surface of the particle, Ap, is equal to a constant Ka, multiplied by the particles equivalent spin radius, Rp.
Furthermore, it is provided that the particle mass interacts with the field mass in such a way that the particle mass is exchanged during a defined time, which we here name the particles converting time, defined to:
A0219
which means that the time Tp by which the particles mass is exchanged with the external space, is equal to a constant Kt, multiplied with the particles equivalent radius Rp, divided by its internal spin velocity vp.
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As we shall see later in this theory, we will find that these values of Ka and Kv are exact, but where the value of Kt is some deviating, Kt = 5.3556 instead of 6.2832.
THE MASS INCREASE PROCESS
In the case where the mass m undergoes change as function of some external physical reason, velocity for instance, meaning that m= f(mov) (where m is a function of the velocity v in its own reference system), the particles mass in rest within this system is mo and the corresponding mass when moving equal to m. But, by this definition we have said nothing about the reason to such a mass change, or if such a change can be seen as being of common, physical nature, or not.
In established physical theory its a common meaning that the difference between these states of energies is defined as the particles kinetic energy. But it must strongly be accentuated, its not any obvious fact, that the
It assumedly is not plausible that the total surface area of the particle is active in the same direction. More plausible is that only the plane surface against the environment space is effectively active, hence:
A0222
Is valid for the electro magnetic interaction of an elementary particles See later investigation and motivation of this value.
Later on in our theory, we will show that the result of formula 0222 is the exact valid value for elementary particles, but derived from a some different idea..
It is some harder to make a calculation of the particles volume, that because we not exactly know if the particle is homogenous or having an empty shell. A rough estimation will be a mean value of a vortex ring and a sphere.
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It will later be shown that the 4.p value is valid in comparison to experimental data. The particle converts its mass to the environment space during time for one single envelop. For a spinning movement, the factor Kt then ill be
A0224
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Later calculations will show, in comparison with experimental data, that the most plausible values of these constants are :
A0225
For the surface component of an elementary particle
A0226
The surface component of the gravitational interaction process of an elementary particle
A0227
The volume component for a particle in the electromagnetic interacting process
A0228
The spin time factor of an elementary particle in the electro magnetic interaction process
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an electromagnetic field, accelerating the particles. This discovery was done in 1901, by Kauffman, hence several years before the birth of the special theory of relativity.
The relativity theory from 1905 has been credited for the theoretical explanation of this process, but what is not true. Observed is that Einstein suggested 2 formulae of mass increase for the same particle, both erroneous and not in use today. The correct formula being in use today has been suggested by other researchers, not specificly motivated by ideas and concepts used in the relativity theory.
So, Einstein s suggested 2 different expressions of mass increase for the same particle, one in the moving direction and one transversally to it. That is impossible, the mass of a particle cannot have 2 differing values at the same time. Obviously scientists have not observed Einsteins original idea.
The phenomenon today is interpreted within the concept of relativity, but no physical reason of the effect is accounted for.
phenomenon of mass increase will be present in all physical systems.
As we later shall discuss, its not evident that matter accelerated in the free space, (for instance by a rocket motor), will undergoes mass increase as function of movement or acceleration, unless loss of fuel can be neglected. But particles accelerating in electromagnetic fields obviously are able to pick up matter from this field and in this way increasing its mass content. Seen in this way, mass increase is no common phenomenon.
Mass increasing, meaning that particles being accelerated, picking up mass from its environment, may not have any common application on matter as stated by the theory of relativity, but must be associated to every special situation where matter undergo acceleration or change of any reason. But obviously, matter being accelerated in an electromagnetic field undergoes strong mass increase as function of velocity. The physical reason why mass of a particles may vary in accord with time or in accord with velocity may be
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of several different reasons.
Lets give an example of a rolling transport band, moving with the constant velocity of v, driven by a motor. On this band peoples are jumping up in a smooth way. For each person entering, the motor must produce a new quantity of energy for accelerating this person up to the bands velocity, all in aim to keep the bands velocity constant unchanged.
ABAND
In the case where the load on the driving motor all the time increases with time when peoples jump on, Newtons original and complete formula 0114 must be used.
Another case is a wagon loaded with sand. We assume a mechanism where sand is supplied during run, related to some factor of the wagons velocity. The extra mass supplied then contribute to the force needed for
keeping the wagons velocity constant. And if acceleration at the same time is taking place, energy is needed even for that reason.
ASAND
Even in this case, Newtons complete formula 0114 must be used if the wagons velocity is held constant when loaded with new mass.
Hence, to find motivation for including the time derivative of mass in Newtons formula, a physical mechanism must be accounted for, hence how and why mass of a body will change with velocity or byany other physical reason.
Commonly, the mass is regarded as a constant entity and the time derivative of mass therefore is put to zero. In the particle physics, it has been observed that charged particles undergo mass change when accelerated/or when moving fast in relation to
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The particles inherent impulse mo.c is constant. When new matter is loaded into the particle during the accelerating phase, this new mass will load the particle with this new mass, but the inherent impulse is the same, unchanged.
mo = the start particle mass
m = the accelerated particle mass
c = the inherent limit velocity of matter, in particle = the light velocity in free vacuum.
vi = the inherent velocity of matter, in particle at accelerated state.
As was assumed in the formula 0212 the energy density in a particle is constant unchanged, determined by the energy density of the surrounding vacuum field. That gives the total energy of the particle, equal to the sum of external and internal energy:
Beside that, the phenomenon of mass increase of particles in particle accelerators has been interpreted as a common effect valid and possible to be applied on all bodies. That is an overestimated interpretation, no experimental findings confirm it.
As a further argument is that mass not can be created from nothing, we have Newtons preserving laws as denoted in 0126, 0127.
In the particle accelerator case, the particle is fetching mass from the accelerating electromagnetic field. When the particle is accelerating in the free space, no such mass
increasing effect is taking place, that because there are no mass to get from the free space.
We will study this phenomena of matter later here in our theory by a complete derivation the relation between mass and energy.
XA9
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MASS AND ENERGY
In year 1901 it was discovered by cathode ray experiments (electrons) that particles when declining in an electromagnetic field, not was declining exactly in the way as described by Newtons classical theory.
Principally, this phenomenon can be interpreted in two different ways:
the particle mass increases with velocity (a real effect) or
when a particle begin approaching the velocity of the accelerating electromagnetic field, the accelerating force diminishes.
Which of these alternatives being true or most plausible cannot without further notice be decided. Both effects may have importance.
However, many things point on that the mass increasing in a particle accelerator is real, that because the particles energy, stands in direct relation to its mass content. And the particle energy can be measured in experiments.
ELECTROMAGNETIC MASS INCREASE
Someone means that the mass increasing effect of elementary particles accelerated in electromagnetic fields, just is of fictive nature caused by reason that the driving field velocity is limited to the velocity of light, c .
Maybe its possible to defend such an idea, but some facts talk against it. One reason is that it seems as there is a real mass and energy that is measured in these experiments, hence the increased mass can not be distinguished from real mass.
If the mass increase is real, the effect may be explained by that mass is added to the particle in relation to that the particle moves closer to the accelerating field velocity.
If we assume that the particles inherent impulse is equal to mo.c at start, this impulse will be unchanged during acceleration (with a certain assumed time delay). And when the mass increases by the external supply is got:XXXX
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Combining the formulae 0240 and 0241 give the expression for the mass increase in a closed system when accelerating
On basis of now achieved results of mass increase of a particle accelerated in an electromagnetic field, we also will calculate the total kinetic energy of that particle in question. In accord with 0122, the kinetic energy of a particle where the mass is constant, unchanged, equal to .mo.v2. When the mass in accord with formula 0242 is added to the particle, a quite different result for the kinetic energy will be achieved. We shall derive that below,
Deriving E=mc2
Modern physical theory tell us that this expression solely is derived from Einsteins theory of relativity, but the fact is that it is mainly Newtons second law of force that constitutes the ground by it. By reason that mass is added to the particle when accelerating in an
A0230
In a closed material system the sum of the particles internal and external energy is the total systems energy
In the formula 0217 , we found that the mass density of all true elementary particles is the same, hence for all forms. Then working with formula 0230 gives:
A0231 A0232 A0233 A0234
A0234
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In a closed system of matter, the geometrical sum of internal and external velocities are equal to the internal rest velocity c.
A02
In a closed material system the internal impulse of the particle is constant
A0235
In a closed system the geometrical sum of internal and external velocities are constant c
A0236
We now combine the formula 0235 with formula 0236 and get in this way: Squaring both sides of the equation 0235
A0238
Inserting value on vi from formula 0236 in formula 0237
A0239
Some rewriting of equation 0238
which is a well known relation from the particle physics. And with aid of formula 0229 and formula 0234 we achieve an expression for the particles mass increase, hence:
A0240 A0241
A0242
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a) Formula 0242 b) Deriving of both sides in respect to velocity c) Deriving of both sides in respect to velocity d) End result of deriving e) Inserting dm/dv in formula for dE/dv f) Integrating energy of E/dv in respect to velocity
A0245
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electromagnetic field, this result will be achieved.
But the relationship is not generally valid in other cases that a particle absorb mass from its environment space during the acceleration process. For instance, that is not the case for a rocket vehicle accelerating in free space and the relation therefore not is general in any way.
In Einsteins theory, mass increase is regarded as a common phenomenon applied on all bodies moving with some velocity in relation to an outer observer point
However, there is nothing saying that is true, but maybe a pure overinterpolation of results got from the particle physics, where particles are forced to accelerate in electromagnetic fields, obviously confirmed by experiments, but not having any common use for all bodies moving in free space, for instance a rocket vehicle accelerated in empty space..
It may be hard to negate such a theory by
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02050 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 02051experiment, so we have to be satisfied with a pure theoretical thought experiment, using basic concepts of the suggested theory . A main thesis is that there is symmetry in all physical processes as seen from different systems. Hence the result must be independent of whom is the observer.
But at first we shall do a mathematical study of the mass increase phenomenon and the mass energy equivalence in accord with Newtonians theory.
A0243
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a) Newtons formula 0114
b) Newtons formula 0114b
c) Both sides multiplied with distance ds
d) F.ds = energy dE
e) ds/dt = velocity v
f) both sides divided with velocity dv
A0244
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2) We regard the ball as standing in the rest state and let the wall coming in with such a velocity that give the wall a relativistic mass increase of 10% higher than in rest state
In both cases the observer measurement equipment is situated in a common reference system, being the same for both the ball and the wall (see figure below.
We now will do a calculus of the impact process with purpose to judge whether the mass increase process is of common nature or not, or even works in empty space.
The condition is, that this process must be possible to be described in the same way for both cases, in regard to in which order things are taking place and how factual physical entities like time, distance, force and mass are measured during the process and also by studying effects after the impact has occurred..
In both cases the description must be the same, in short terms, being mirror symmetric.
a) Common integrals
b) Integrating equation 0244
This expression in the formula 0246 can be rewritten as follows:
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But mo/L is equal to m and then is valid for the kinetic energy
A0248
Or for the total energy of the particle
A0249
which is the well known relationship between mass and energy
This shows, that the famous relation E= m.c2 only is valid if a particle is accelerated in an electromagnetic field and where the particle pick up mass from this field. Hence, this relation is not of general application.
That will be illustrated with the below given example Ball and Wall .
BALL AND WALL
In the here suggested though experiment, a steel ball with weight of 1kg collide with a very heavy steel wall. At the collision event the ball will bounce by an elastic impact and a slight impression will occur both in the ball and the wall in the collision event.
We distinguish between 2 different ways of observe or describe the collision process :
1) We regard the steel wall as being in rest in our reference system and let the ball come in with a velocity giving the ball 10% mass increase related to its rest mass (that if an assumed general mass increase exists).
Copyright Cadelco AB Sweden 2007 Copyright Cadelco AB Sweden 200702060 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 02057AROCKET
But these two physical situations are not equivalent. In an accelerator there is an active electromagnetic field that is accelerating a particle, in free space there is a rocket engine that is driving the spacecraft forwards by use of inertial forces of the outstreaming gases from the own motor. The mass increase phenomenon is said to be such, that when the rocket is reaching the velocity of light (in relation to what?), the spacecrafts mass will increases infinitely. The extra mass is said to be coming from the rocket fuel and the energy the motor is producing.
ABWALL
CASE 1
CASE2
mstart =1.1 x mo
mstart =1.0 x mo
vstart = c
vstart = 0
F=k.s
F=k.s
dv=F.dt/mv
dv=F.dt/mv
ds= v.dt
ds= v.dt
s=s+ds
s=s+ds
v=v+dv
v=v+dv
t=t+dt
t=t+dt
m = m0/sqrt(1v2/c2)
m = m0/sqrt(1v2/c2)
dm = m2 m1
dm = m2 m1
m1 = m0/sqrt(1 v12/c2)
m1 = m1/sqrt(1 v12/c2)
m2 = m0/sqrt(1 v22/c2)
m2 = m0/sqrt(1 v22/c2)
The impact situation is here given in parametric form, which can be solved by a computer plotter graph program.
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The parameters are showing to be the same in both cases, but differing in the starting conditions.
In case 1) our observer will see a ball with weight 1.1kg coming in, retarding its velocity to zero, then again accelerating in the opposite direction. The reason for accelerating is that the material in the ball and wall is compressed (the distance s) and giving its energy back to the ball.
In case 2) our observer will see the ball having velocity 0 then accelerated to the walls velocity v. giving the ball the mass 1.1 kg.
Hence our conclusion is that the process in those two cases not are symmetric in time, which is necessary if the relativistic interpretation is correct.
Symmetry is got only in case when no mass change is taking place due to motion. Only a pure Newtonian interpretation is valid.
A plot (below) based on the given parametric
formulae above also shows that the force/time parameter curves not correlate with each other, but diverge during the ongoing process.
A02WPLOT
Hence, the result of our investigation is that bodies moving in free space not undergo mass increase as claimed as true in the theory of relativity.
Another example on that will be given below
MASS INCREASE OF A ROCKET IN FREE SPACE
In established physical theory it is assumed that the process of mass increase as taking place in electromagnetic fields, even is valid for acceleration in free space.
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Because the light flash is emitted in this moment when all particles A,B and C are at the same position, in accord with the theory of relativitys thesis of the constant light propagation, all particles must be in the light bubbles centre after a while. Every physicist performing experiments with particles know well thats impossible. The light bulb only may have one centre, assumedly the centre for the emitting particle, C.
Hence, we can conclude, that the propagation of light only is invariant in relation to this source sending out the light, but variant to A and B. By that we in a convincing way have shown the invariant of light velocity dogma in accord with the relativity as being false. We will come back to this subject later.
Interaction between matter and space at movement
A particle, hence matter, constitutes a part of the vacuum space. Hence, the process of moving is an exchange of matter, energy and impulse between particle and space field.
The problem with this reasoning is that the amount of fuel lost is the same as the extra mass increase. Hence, if this hypothesis would be true, the net effect would be zero..
Hence, in this way we can calculate with the fact that a spacecraft accelerating in free space proceed accelerating unlimited. The only limiting factor is the access to fuel and how much mass that will be left in this situation when all fuel is consumed.
Such a calculation based on a unlimiting acceleration until the fuel is consumed, shows that the spacecraft will reach a velocity which is widely exceeding the light velocity in relation to the start position, that proposed that a very high effective atomic reactor machine is used as the driving engine..
X
A9
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TIME, DISTANCE, VELOCITY
The modern physics is full of predestined meanings about how we shall apprehend or interpret concepts of time, distance, mass and velocity.
The main reason to that is of course that the dogmas of the theory of relativity have been accepted as scientific truth. Of that reason its important that we try to return to the order of things, regarding these basic concepts of nature as rigid and unchangeable.
At end of this chapter we will show on an example where Einsteins interpretations will lead us to quite an absurd conclusions, results that every scientist, lowing truth, ought to reflect on. The experiment is as follows:
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At the time 0, 3 particles are situated in the centre of a particle detector. The particle A is moving at right with velocity 1/2c, the particle C is moving at left with velocity 1/2c. Particle B is at rest.
Particle C outburst a light flash at time 0. This flash is registered by light sensors outplaced into the detector. The detector also can register the positions of all particles in every time moment. The light bulb and position of all particles are registered after 3ns (the elapsed time where the light bulb has been spread appr. 1 meter from the centre or start point)
A02CERN
A picture illustrating the measurement situation in the particle detector
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Description in short:
The rocket space ship is driven by a nuclear reactor, heating up water to water steam in a reactor room. At start the main part of the space ship consists of water fuel, but as the trip is going on the total mass of the ship decreases. Then the acceleration increases. Our task is to create a formula by which we can compute the space ship velocity after a time t of the travel. We have to take consideration about the mass decrease of the mass streaming out from the water tank.
The inflowing amount of matter in the particles front and in the back direction, will be: (se the base formula 0145 )
A0251
Mass streaming in to the particles front side from the vacuum field when moving
A0252
Mass streaming in to the particles back side from the vacuum field when moving
Xxxxxx
Both sides of the equations 0251 and 0252 now is multiplied with the inflow velocity of the field of respective side
A0253
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Adding impule from the front side with the back side give the bodies impulse where the field parameters are eliminated:
According to the myth of relativity, a space ship never can reach or exceed the velocity of light in free space in relation to the starting point. That is motivated by that, ss is said, the mass of the space ship increaces to infinity when approaching the critical velocity. But that is just a myth, never expeerimentally proved or tested by experiment. In the following example a space rocket driven forward by an atomic reactor, boiling water to steam, will accelerate faster and faster as the fuel is consumed. If a small part remain after the fuel is consumed, the space sgip will reach or even exceed the light velocity related to the starting point, 
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12d Developing 12c
12e Developing 12d
12e Combining with 10d
13a Combining 12c with 10d
13g Rearranging 13aDefinition of parameters for calculation:
Ms: mass of the rocket at start
Mf: mass of the water fuel at start
dm: intermittent mass change of fuel
Ma: fuel mass of atomic fuel
u: velocity of the gas steam related to the rocket
v: velocity of the rocket related to the starting point
T: time for consumption of furl or water
t: intermittent time of travel
dt: a small time increment in time t
Fr: inertial force of the rocket
Fa: the driving force of the motor
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12a Rearranging formula 7 and solving out
the main function of v
12b,c,d Calculating the function of f(s)
and s.f(s) in accord with Laplace functional rules
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Readers notes
13c,d Performing reverse Laplace of 13d
14 End function of the rocket velocity after time t as function of mass distribution between fuel Mf and the start mass Ms.
Somw conclutions:
At start, t=0 giving no velocity of the rocket
If no fuel Mf=0 giving no velocity of the rocket
If t=T all fuel is consumed the end velocity, the relation v/u will be determined by the
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If v=3E8 m/s, the light velocity, and the gas velocity is 1000 ,m/s, the relation Nf/Ms = 0.95, the time it will take for the rocket to reach the light velocity will be 0.6T.
After that point the rocket will exceed the light velocity with severat integer factors
relation Mt/Ms. If Mt/Mf = 1/0.9 wil
R
Readers notesxxxxxx
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03004 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 03001
The question we may ask is now whether this void between the two platens is empty or if there is something substantial hidden there that mediate the current?
In any case it seems hard to explain this phenomenon without doing the assumption that some active substance really is hidden in the space between the two platens.
When the voltage over the two platens has grown up (the capacitor has been charged), it has stored electric energy that later on can be supplied to an outer user. Then the interesting question is, where is the seat of this energy situated?
A similar problem arises when letting an electric current flow through a metallic wire (a conductor). A magnetic field is created around the conductor, giving rise to magnetic forces on a magnet or another conductor in the vicinity void. Even here energy is stored and the question may be repeated, where is the seat of this energy stored?
In the magnetic case one suggestion may be that the energy is stored in kinetic energy of
Chapter 3
THE ELECTRIC PROPERTIES OF MATTER
IN GENERAL
002
THE NEW THEORY OF ELECTROMAGNETISM
007
IN AND OUTFLOW OF MATTER
008
MASS DENSITY AND VELOCITY OF IN AND OUTFLOW
009
The electric field strength around a particle and COULOMB*S LAW
022
THE COULOMBS LAW EXPRESSED WITHOUT THE CHARGE CONCEPT
028
THE ELECTRIC FIELD STRENGTH AROUND A CHARGED PARTICLE
031
THE STORED ENERGY IN A PLANE CAPACITOR
033
DEFINITION OF ELECTRIC VOLTAGE
039
THE ELECTRIC VOLTAGE OVER A PLAN ELECTRIC CAPACITOR
040
DEFINITION OF ELECTRIC CURRENT
042
DEFINITION OF ELECTRIC RESISTANCE
044
THE CAPACITANCE CONCEPT OF AN ELECTRIC, PLANE CAPACITOR
046
The reason to the values of Ka and Kv in association to elementary particles
048
The mass convert of elementary particles
052
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IN GENERAL
Electromagnetic theory as developed by many great scientists during more than two centuries, has been very successful in describing electromagnetic phenomena in nature. But many problems remain unsolved. Source and origin of electromagnetism and its true basic nature are still not fully investigated and understood.
It will here be presented and discussed a new theoretical and mathematical model, which applied on the electromagnetic phenomena in nature will offering a new and different understanding of electromagnetism. As base for this model, Newtons second law of force is used, combined with new basic assumptions of properties of the elementary particles and properties of the vacuum space.
As result, new basic insights of electromagnetic mechanisms are achieved together with already known results and discoveries got from common electromagnetic theory.
Vacuum or empty space is a common concept used when trying to describe a void in lack of matter. However, ever since Maxwells days, this vacuum space has been allotted physical properties by associating physical constants to it, indicating that this vacuum may have properties that can be expressed in physical meaningful terms like for instance mass and energy.
Two such constants are the permittivity of vacuum space constant e0 and the magnetic of vacuum constant m0, associated with the electric and the magnetic properties of the electromagnetic field respectively.
When an electric voltage is connected to two metal platens, not being in direct galvanic contact with each other, a displacement current seems to flow through the empty void situated between the two platens.
A corresponding electric current of electrons then flow through the wires connecting the two platens via the external supplier source (the feeding battery).
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03008 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 03005
A0301
A0302
A0303
IN AND OUTFLOW OF MATTER
Our idea is that electromagnetism is a result of a continuous interaction process between particle and space. Internal forces of particle and external forces generated by space are in
the moving charges in the conductor
However, a rough estimation shows that not can be true, this kinetic energy is too small. And in the capacitor case there will be no chance of motivating energy storing in kinetic energy by moving charges.
Therefore, the answer of the question seems to be something else. In a careful study below, we will here come to the conclusion that vacuum itself is responsible of this energy storing and that the principles for it has much in common to how energy is stored in a flowing medium, water or air for instance.
That will lead us to a hydromechanical model of electromagnetism, a model that we here will discuss and develop and which we shall investigate more carefully.
Energy is by common definition dependent of two main variables, mass and movement.
Transmitting these definitions to space and electromagnetic fields means, that space itself has capabilities of storing mass and energy. We can imagine that property of
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space as a field of an invisible and untouchable fluid, responsible for this energy storing.
However, it must here carefully be accentuated that these hypothetical properties of space has nothing to do with the old ether concept, used solely as a carrier of light in accord with old light wave theories concept.
The medium here postulated is of common nature and not specifically aimed to support properties of light propagation in the free space.
The field may be seen as a prestage of what we normally define as matter.
Material particles then may be seen as parts of this field being fluctuations like condensed cores or drops in a cloud of rain.
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Particles interact with this field by exchanging energy and matter by it continuously. This interacting process then is a part of the electromagnetic field.
As a consequence of these basic ideas, elementary particles, as for instance electrons, are built up by stuff of this field but having a different and more ordered internal structure compared with the field. This order in chaos then makes it possible for us to understand the electromagnetism.
THE NEW THEORY OF ELECTROMAGNETISM
BASIC RULES OF INTERACTION BETWEEN PARTICLE AND VACUUM SPACE.
Outer impact forces from the field impinging on the limiting surface of the particle is in balance with inherent forces in the particle plasma.
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As a consequence of these basic laws. a set of other well known results are established, here briefly presented as follows:
A0118
A0122
For the kinetic energy and the potential energy is valid: :
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balance. Space matter is streaming in to the particle and the same amount of matter is streaming out from it during the same period of time. In this view a particle may be seen as a swirl of rotating and vibrating matter (in a rough analogy for easy understanding, a rotating smoke ring)..
A0304
MASS DENSITY AND VELOCITY OF IN AND OUTFLOW
Mass from the field of the density q, and velocity C, (observe not light velocity), streams in to the particle and the particle converts this mass into another mass field streaming out from the particle, having density qe, and the velocity c ,(the electric
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field density, the light velocity, see 0215, 0216). The product of these quantities is the same over time, giving balance in the hydrodynamic interacting process. The mass impulse streaming out then is equivalent with the electric field strength as defined by common electromagnetic theory.
A0305
The physical/mathematical base for our model will be the common Newtonian mechanical laws and the common hydro mechanical laws.
Of special interest, It will here be noted that XXX
Newtons fundamental laws are fully applicable for the whole physics, hence even on the most basic levels of matter.
Newtons second law of force is known by the relation (see formula 013, 0114) :
A0114
or in words : force is the time derivative of the product of mass and velocity, or the momentum of the moving body.
In most cases the mass is a constant entity and then the mass term may be ignored. The expression 0114 then can be simplified to (0115)
A0115
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And the corresponding external pressure from the vacuum space from 0205:
A0308
A0309
The external and the internal pressure are in balance, giving equality between 0307 and 0308, giving :
The density of a point formed particle is calculated by:
A0310
Kinetic energy by common definition A0121
Potential energy by common definition A0123
0145 is a some simplified version of a flowing process, got from the hydromechanics of flowing media. A media with density q is flowing through a window dA with velocity v. During the time t then the mass dm is streaming out through that window.
AWINDOW
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Mass streaming out through a window with area dA, time dt, having velocity v and density q A0145
A0306
Some useable relationships from chapter 1 regarding flowing processes:
a) Equation 0150a
b) Equation 0150b
c) Rewriting 0306c
d) Equation 0101
e) Equation 0101
That will be the main base to start with for deriving our electromagnetic theory. We will now apply these laws on electromagnetism and derive most of all important relationships known from this part of the science, also by deriving and adding some new results to it.
To start with, we define an elementary reference particle (an electron for instance) as a closed entity with the interacting area A. The internal pressure on its surface is derived by 0206 as follows
A0307
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Now we have 2 separate expressions on the vacuum mass density q, in formula 0311 and in formula 0315. We join them, giving :
A0316
We now make use of definitions done in 0225, 0227, 0228
A0225 A0226 A0227 A0228
A0310
A0311
The particles density, the relation between its mass and its volume, Mp /Vp :
A0312
By aid of the formula 0145 for flowing media and with the assumption that the amount of inflowing matter and the amount of outflowing matter to and from the particle is the same during the same period of time, we get :
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03018 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 3/019
a) Inflowing amount of matter
b) Outflow amount of matter
c) Matter flowing in and out during same time
We solve the equations 0312,and find the relationships between in and out flowing mass density:
A0313
Hence, because this field density of mass is defined closed to the particles surface, this field will decline in accord with the inverse square law around the particle space, hence :
A0314
XX
Later on we will show, that this entity multiplied with the outflow velocity of the field from the particle, is equal to the electric field strength around the particle as defined by common theory
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From our formula 0145 we achieve the amount of field mass streaming in during the time it take for converting the particles own mass:
A0315
Here we have defined the mass of a reference particle, the electron mass me. The electrons active surface is defined to Ae, the spin time around its own axis equal to te. Furthermore we assume the electrons spin velocity being equal to c,
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03024 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 03021
a) By multiplying the outstreaming mass density with this mass velocity, equivalent with the particles spin velocity related to its surface, the electric field strength around the particle is achieved
b) On distance r from the particles center point the field strength has declined to a value in reverse square relation to the distance.
n is a unit vector in line of the field outflow.
We now make use of the mass flowing formula 0145 and calculate the inflowing mass, that goes out from one particle and reach the other particle on distance r. This mass is captured by the other particle and generate a counter acting mass inertial reaction force, that is equal to the Coulomb force. (see formula 0155b for revolving movements forces).
The field mass from a charged particle on distance r is captured by a particle and its spin throw this mass back, creating a counter force in accord with mass inertial laws.
We apply these relationships on the equation 0316 and get :
A0307
We uses the result from 0317 and inserting it in formula 0311, giving:
A0308
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Now we have defined some properties of the vacuum space, its pseudo density q and its mean active velocity o C. Later on into this theory we will show that the inverse value of the mass density q is the same as the vacuum constant e0 as defined by Maxwell and also used in common electromagnetic theory.
The electric field strength around a particle and COULOMB S LAW
A0309
Coulombs law of electric force is the most well known law in electromagnetism, a law mostly derived on pure empirical, experimental basis. We will here show that this force is an effect of the in and outflow of matter to and from the particle, where also the internal spin of the particle is an active factor.
We are studying particles of point nature, electrons or protons, with a number of N1 and N2 such particles in each point, with radii, R1 and R2 , having spin velocity v1 and v2 respectively.
The electric field strength around these particles is got from the formula 0314 by multiplying the mass outflow by the velocity of that flow:
A0320
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THE COULOMBS LAW EXPRESSED WITHOUT THE CHARGE CONCEPT
As now pointed out, its not absolutely necessary to express electromagnetic properties in electromagnetic units.
Hence the Coulomb force formula may be expressed in pure Newtonian parameters of mass, time and length, even if that in a practical point of view not is motivated. As to observe, charge is the same as flow of volume or transport of volume vacuum mass per time unit.
A0325
where min is that mass that is captured by the second particle from the first particles mass outflow. When the inflow mass is captured, this mass is thrown out again, caused by the particles own rotation movement, which is the electrical Coulomb force generated.
By using Newtons formula for revolving movement 0155b, the absorbed mass give rise to a counter reaction force on the second particle by the spin movement of this particle.
We will here calculate this force generated in accord with Newtonian laws.
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a) Newtons formula of revolving movement around a center point, 0155b
b) Inserting the value of the inflowing mass from 0321
c) Rearranging parameters in 0322b
d) Identifying of charge parameters in relation to Coulombs law for particles 1
e) Identifying of charge parameters in relation to Coulombs law, particles 2
f) The electric force expressed as in the Coulombs law. Identifying of the physical constant e0
We conclude some of now achieved results :
A0323
where Q1 and Q2 are the charge quantities of each point of an electric charged particle collection, and eo is the uniting charge quantity of a singular charge, an electron for instance, as defined by common theory.
The inverse value of q is identified as the dielectric constant of vacuum constant eo(( reciprocal.
By these definitions then we can formulate Coulomb s law in its more common form as got from electromagnetic theory, to :
Copyright Cadelco AB Sweden 2007 Copyright Cadelco AB Sweden 200703032 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 03029
A0329
a) The equation 0328
b) Inserting charge parameters from 0323a,b. Replacing e0 ., with 1/q in accord with 0322f
c) Reducing 0329. Using results from 0317 and 0322 and reducing the equation 0329c
Results in accord with equation 0320of the electric field strength
Observe that the end part of the expression will be =1 if Ka =4.p ((Kv =4. p
A0325
We know that the electric charge is constant both for a proton and an electron or another point formed particle. Of that reason the product of r2 .v in the formula 0322 must be a constant entity, hence :
A0326
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a) The square of the particles radius times its periphery spin velocity is constant
b) The spinning time for an arbitrary particle
c) Spinning time for an electron see 0219
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We can also derive this relationship by start from the following statements:
Converted mass per time unit is constant for all true particles
The particles mass is converted during the period of one spin turn of its rotation
A0327
THE ELECTRIC FIELD STRENGTH AROUND A CHARGED PARTICLE
Electric field strength commonly is defined as the force per unit charge, hence by calculating the relation F/Q. Using results from 0324 then we get the following result :
A0328
We now convert this expression in terms of our own theory and do a comparison with result from our formula in 0322f, 0323
A0311
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03036 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 03033
A0334
a) Mass streaming in to the capacitor from the free electron mass conversions
b) Mass streaming back to the electrons from the activated vacuum field
c) Instreaming and outstreaming amount of mass is equal over time
Hence, this amount of mass that is converted is the same as that mass converted by the free electrons on the same amount of time, hence being equal to the electron mass times the number of such free electrons per spin revolution time of these electrons.
From that equality, we solve out the field velocity between the two platens. Observe here that the stored energy must be calculated on the total vacuum mass enclosed between the two platens, not primary on the electric field density field.
A0330
In the end of this chapter we will derive these values based on the model of a vortex particle form.
A0331
THE STORED ENERGY IN A PLANE CAPACITOR
For demonstration, we will here apply our ideas of electromagnetism on an electric plane capacitor. This arrangement has the ability to store electric energy and of that reason frequently used in electric circuits.
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03034 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 03035
For simplicity, we choose a capacitor with two plane parallel metal platens, having area A placed out on a mutual distance of D from each other. (See enclosed figure). We know that this arrangement is capable of storing electric energy in the space between the two platens, and that this energy is stored in the field of density q .
For making it possible of explaining the energy storing of that capacitor, we assume that the common field with density q between the two platens and partly even outside it, is actuated by the outflow from the free electrons situated on the two platens. We start by computing the volume enclosed between the two platens:
A0332
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And by reason of that, the amount of enclosed vacuum mass is equal to :
A03330333
We assume that the vacuum mass is transported with a velocity vf, activated by the free electrons acting as small generators holding the flow in an active state.
The amount of mass transported over the capacitor surface area A, during the converting time te, of the free electrons then will be (see 0312):
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03040 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 03037
a) 0339a, the common definition of the concept of electric voltage
b) 0339b, derivative operation
c) 0339c, vector derivation expression
d) 0339d, vector derivation expression, see vector notation mathematical function 0147
THE ELECTRIC VOLTAGE OVER A PLAN ELECTRIC CAPACITOR
In accordance with done definitions and results, we will now calculate the voltage over a plane, parallel electric capacitor, by using the same arrangement as given above.
We make use of the definitions of the electric field strength from the formula 0314,20 :
A0340
A0335
Because Newtons simplified energy formula is valid as long as the mass involved is held constant, the energy can be calculated by the formula for kinetic energy 0122
A0336
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We convert this expression to a more conventional form, that in aim to make comparison with established experimental theory possible. Using earlier results gives
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03038 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 03039
A0334
Formula 0336
Inserting the factor e0( (1/q) , see formula 0322f and 0323
Restructuring a)
Restructuring using the charge concept in accord with 0323a,b
Hence, even here we see that exact correspondence with experimental outcome is got if Kv = 4.p, hence ;, :
XXXXXXA0338
DEFINITION OF ELECTRIC VOLTAGE
Electric voltage is by common theory defined as the length integral of the electric field strength, hence :
A0339
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Another method to determine 1 Ampere is to measure the force effect between two straight parallel conductors.
Then, 1 Ampere is that current that produces a force of 2E7N (Newton) per meter on these conductors. That method mostly is founded on pure theoretical basis, on the relations between the magnetic and electric fields, based on theory of Maxwell and others.
We will later on show, in the magnetic part, how this calculation will be performed.
DEFINITION OF ELECTRIC RESISTANCE
In common theory, resistance of a current flow in a conductor is defined as the quotient between the driving voltage and the resulting
current flow in the conductor (Ohms law), For alternating voltage or current in a conductor the concept of resistance is replaced by the concept of impedance, (Ohm). Hence if the alternating frequency is zero, the impedance also will be zero.
A03340
a) The electrical field strength, formula 0320
b) Definition of voltage in accord with 0339. Inserting electric field strength from 0320
c) Inserting expression for electric charge from formula 0323a,b
d,e) End expressions for the electric voltage over an plane capacitor
A0341
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03042 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 03043
Hence, If Kv= 4.p the expression in formula 0340 will correspond with result from common theory
DEFINITION OF ELECTRIC CURRENT
Electric current usually is defined as the amount of electric charge passing a cross area of a conductor per unit of time.
Another way to define electric current would simply be by denoting the number of unit charges passing the same area per time unit, hence not using the charge concept at all. Then, there may be two ways of defining current in accord with these two principles, namely
A0342
Xxxxxx
XXXXXXXX
I is the electric current in the conductor expressed in the unity of Ampere
Q is the total charge passing a unit area of the conductor expressed in the unity of Ampere Seconds
In is the electric current expressed in the number of unit charges passing an area of the conductor per time unite, as defined by our theory.
A0343
The relationship between these two ways of defining electric current then will be :
1 Ampere is defined as this current that deposit 0.0011180 grams of pure silver from a silver nitrate solution during each second, equivalent to N=6E18 electrons per second, passing through the same cross area.
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Even in this case with comparison with common theory, we fins that:
A0348
The reason to the values of Ka and Kv in association to elementary particles
A0349
The constants Ka and Kv respective, are not directly associated to the particles area/ volumes geometry but are associated to a flow in surface /volume with a given velocity.
xxxxxxA0344
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We make use of this definition to calculate the vacuum zero impedance. The idea of calculating this physical entity is to study this case where the limit value of a plane capacitor are two naked electrons and where the distance between these electrons is two times the electron radius, giving the relation:
A0345
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03046 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 03047
Hence we see that even in this case for the zero impedance in space, we get agreement with common experimental theory if Ka= 4.p and Kt = 2. p
A0346
THE CAPACITANCE CONCEPT OF AN ELECTRIC, PLANE CAPACITOR
There is a need of describing a capacitor s ability of storing electric energy in terms of the capacitor s geometrical and spatial extension and performance. We wish to express this ability as a function f(x), where the stored energy W and the stored voltage U are the two other parameters.
A0347
a) The energy in the capacitor defined as kinetic energy in accord with Newtons formula 0122
b) The capacitors voltage in accord with formula 0340
c) Stored energy in the capacitor in accord with the formula 0337
Inserting results from 0340 and 0323 in our formula defining the capacitors capacitance together with simplifying the formula:
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03052 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 03049A0355
For the proton, having a different radii than the electron, we from 0343 get:
A0356
MASS CONVERTI OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES
An elementary particle converts its inherent mass entirely during its
The outflow of matter is depending of that this part that moves towards the particles center get less volume compared with the particles outer parts. When this compression occur an outflow of matter from the particle is taking place. We shall calculate these factors with start from this idea See figure above, where the particles maximum radius is Rx and the minimum radii Ry. The particle is assumed consisting of a shell with thickness dr.
When the mass of the particle rotates towards its center point, the more narrow volume causes matter to flow out from the particle. This outflow is compensated by the inflow from space.
Firstly the area of the maximum radii with thickness dr is calculated. Then is calculated the corresponding area for the minimum radii with thickness dr. The difference is related to a mass outflow.
At first we do a calculus of the area associated to Rx:
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03050 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 03051
A0350
The same calculation is performed for the min radius:
A0351
We calculate the difference between these entities, hence being equivalent to an area:
A0352
But the radius Ry is a function of th radius Rx, hence:
A0353
But r is here the electron radius and if the electron radius is massive, also dr is equal to the electron radius, hence:
A0354
Where we can calculate the volume as the radius multiplied with the outflow area. hence:
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03056 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 03053A0355
For the proton, having a different radii than the electron, we from 0343 get:
A0356
The mass convert of elementary particles
An elementary particle converts its inherent mass entirely during the
Particles spin revolution time.
The outflow of matter is depending of that this part that moves towards the particles center get less volume compared with the particles outer parts. When this compression occur an outflow of matter from the particle is taking place. We shall calculate these factors with start from this idea See figure above, where the particles maximum radius is Rx and the minimum radii Ry. The particle is assumed consisting of a shell with thickness dr.
When the mass of the particle rotates towards its center point, the more narrow volume causes matter to flow out from the particle. This outflow is compensated by the inflow from space.
Firstly the area of the maximum radii with thickness dr is calculated. Then is calculated the corresponding area for the minimum radii with thickness dr. The difference is related to a mass outflow.
At first we do a calculus of the area associated to Rx:
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The same calculation is performed for the min radius:
A0351
We calculate the difference between these entities, hence being equivalent to an area:
A0352
But the radius Ry is a function of th radius Rx, hence:
A0353
But r is here the electron radius and if the electron radius is massive, also dr is equal to the electron radius, hence:
A0354
where we can calculate the volume as the radius multiplied with the outflow area. hence:
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030560 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 03057
The electric field velocity around an electron and a protob
The electric field strength is the same for all particles on equal distances.
X
In mathematic form that is expressed by:
A0557
We multiply with the quantity A0/A0
A0558
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03058 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 03059
Performing some manipulations on the formula 0358a gives:
A0359
The formula 0359b is got from the formula 0217, even fully derived later in chapter 14,
Using 0323, 0327, 0437
X
Hence we conclude the following:
The converting of mass per unity of time is the same for all point particles
The entire amount of inherent mass in a particle is converted during one period of a spin revolution cycle of the particle.
The out stream mass density is factor Kt larger compared with the vacuum mass density.
The outstream mass velocity is lower for a heavier particle than an electron but is compensated by an larger outflow area.
Because the product active area times the outflow velocity is constant, the field strength around all particles is the same on same distance.
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04004 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 04001
substantial properties of space and matter. We will do that by applying the same basic ideas as we have used before when treating the electric field with its associated phenomena.
We start from a very simple arrangement, a straight metallic wire in which an electric current flows. This electric current consists of a lot of free charges carrying the electric current, put forwarded by an external voltage source connected to the end points of the wire loop.
In aim of demonstrating this arrangement, we make use of the adjoining figure (see above) The wire is placed out in a x,y,z coordinate system. The current carrying particles here assumed being electrons  are supposed being smoothly distributed over the whole wire length. In a small section with extension ds, we suppose there are N number of such free charging carrying particles with one unit charge each (see equation 0323c).
Then the relation N/s, is constant, giving :
Chapter 4
MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF MATTER
THE MAGNETIC FIELD AND ITS PHYSICAL EFFECTS
002
BIOTSAVARTS LAW OF THE MAGNETIC FIELD
009
MAGNETIC INDUCTION
013
MAGNETIC FLOW AND THE INDUCTANCE CONCEPT
018
THE INDUCTANCE CONCPET
019
THE FORCE EFFECT ON A CONDUCTOR IN A CONSTANT, MAGNETIC FIELD
021
THE MAGNETIC FORCE BETWEEN TWO STRIGHT, PARALLEL CONDUCTORS
029
THE FORCE DEVELOPED ON AN ARMATURE PLACED BETWEEN THE POLES OF A MAGNETIC AIR GAP
032
DEFINING THE ELECTRO MAGNETIC PARAMETERS OF Ka, Kv AND Kt
034
Some other relations:
037
X
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04002 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 04003
THE MAGNETIC FIELD AND ITS PHYSICAL EFFECTS
A0401
When a charged particle moves, the environment void will be effected in a very special manner. The physical phenomena and properties of the space associated to it has been given the name of magnetism.
The electric field, as well as the magnetic field with associated physical phenomena are well described by existing electromagnetic theory,
founded on works by the great investigators of Ampere, Faraday, Maxwell and many others, all pioneers and great contributors of the fundamental physical research.
In particular Maxwells work have been of significant importance since he succeeded to demonstrate close relationships between the electric and the magnetic phenomena by arranging them in a common theory. Maxwell made clear that electric and magnetic phenomena had a common source, hence being different side of the same thing.
A simple way to distinguish between electric and magnetic phenomena is to say that electric phenomena are result of charges in rest and magnetic phenomena are associated with charged particles when moving.
Maxwells theory was founded on the existence of a mechanic ether, where all ordinary matter was taken away. Today, only a barren mathematical formalism remains as result of his thinking. We shall here make an attempt to in some degree repair this damage of his work and allot electromagnetism
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Using the definition for sin(b) in accord with 0405 gives:
A0407
Now we make use of a common mathematical function for vectors :
A0406
Hence, the relation between the electric field, the magnetic field and the current strength in the conductor is defined by
A0402
a) The number of charge bearing particles is assumed being constant over the whole conductor length s
b) The total number of charge bearing particles N, over the conductor length s
A simple way to distinguish between electric and magnetic phenomena is to say that electric phenomena are associated to charges in rest and magnetic phenomena are associated with charged particles when moving.
The free charge bearing particles (the electrons) in the segment, generates a static electric mass field, which density in a point outside the conductor is determined by , see the formula 0314:
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04006 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 04007A0403
and then the corresponding electric field strength in this point is equal to: :
A0404
a) The formula 0320 for the electric field strength around an electron. Observe that the spin velocity c is different for another type ofharged particles, protons for instance
b) The electric mass field strength solved out from the formula 0404a
Now, in aim to get a basic understanding of the nature of magnetism, we will once again study the figure above. In the chosen point outside the conductor, field mass is streaming
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in and out from the electrons in the chosen segment of the conductor.
The mass streaming in to the particle is faster (see 0317bb) than the corresponding mass streaming out from it, having only the velocity of light, c. The effect of that when the electrons move, will be a torsion effect in this space point, creating two separate field vectors with an angle difference of a between these field vectors, that In accord with the sinusoidal theorem. Then the following relation is valid:
A0405
We define the magnetic field strength B as the product of the electric field mass strength in this point and the sin(b) factor, giving the following relations :
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0411 for the magnetic field strength, together with earlier achieved results, we get Biot Savarts law of the magnetic field in integral form:
A0413
The factor 1/(eo.c2) usually is replaced by the symbol mo, equivalent with the permeability of vacuum constant , hence giving:
A0414
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YA0409
Where B is the magnetic field strength, E is the electric field strength, v is the equivalent current velocity in the conductor, c is the standard velocity of light
BIOTSAVARTS LAW OF THE MAGNETIC FIELD
BiotSavarts law of the magnetic field strength outside a conductor is a law of the similar importance as Coulombs law of the electric field.
Our aim is here to show how to derive this law with start from our own theory.
We start by repeating the definition of electric current, as done in the formulae 0342 and 0343 above and convert this definition to vector form :
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04010 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 04011A0410
Inserting these parameters in the equation 0409 for the magnetic field strength, together with earlier achieved results, gives:
A0411
a) The formula 0409, Inserting the streaming velocity v from 0410
b) Inserting the electric field strength from equation 0320
c) Inserting the electric mass density from 0314 and the electric charge quantity from the equation 0322
d) Simplifying and restructuring the equation. Inserting the vacuums mass density from the equation 0322f
e) The final expression for the BiotSavarts law
For the parameters Ka and Kv we find:
A0412
Inserting these parameters in the equation
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04016 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 04013
Now we take a look on the other term in Newtons second law of force, when the mass is constant and were we have change in velocity of the conductor
A0417
Newtons second law of force, where the mass is constant
Dividing both sides with the volume element dV
Multiply both sides with the distance ds, the side of the volume element dV
MAGNETIC INDUCTION
When a metallic conductor moves in a magnetic field, an EMF (current or voltage) is generated, represented by a flowing current in the conductor or an electric voltage over it.
The effect will arise mainly by the following reasons
if the magnetic field density is changed in accord with time or
if the conductor accelerate or retard in the Bfield or
if the enclosed area around a loop is changing.
There are several reasons to change of the B field, for instance the current in the source conductor is changed or a wire loop is moved in a homogeneous B field and where the enclosed flowing area is changed.
The source of the EM generated, mainly emanates from the
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04014 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 04015
two terms in Newtons second law , 0114. Based on earlier achieved results, we now perform a calculation of the voltage generated when changing the B field.
A0415
In the case where the term dv/dt in Newtons equation =0 and only the mass is changed in accord with time
Look at a very small volume dV outside the conductor. Divide both sides with dV
ds is the side of the small volume element dV. Multiply both sides with ds
The impulse of the electric field acts on the volume element on time dr/c, where dr is the side of the volume element dV. Multiply both sides of the equation with dr/c
The left part of the equation is equal to voltage, the right side contains the time derivative of the magnetic field strength B, multiplied with the area ds.dr which is an area in right angle towards the current flow direction.
Hence, our equation of magnetic induction will be:
A0416
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For completeness, we perform a calculation of the inductance factor for a simple single wire loop, see the above figure:
A0421b
A0421c
The electric field vector has the velocity of c in direction of element dr through the volume element dV. Multiply both sides with the impulse time ds/c
Both sides of the equation has the dimension of voltage, Hence :
A0418
A0419
Combining results from the equations 0416 and 0418 gives:
In common theory only the first term is present. The reason for it may be that the second term COmmonly will be relative small and may be ignored.
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04018 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 04019
Hence, a voltage is generated if the B field is changing in accord with time, and/or the Bfield is constant, the velocity of a conductor in this field is changed. If the conductor move with constant velocity in a constant field, an EMF is generated only in case where the enclosed area, A, is changed.
MAGNETIC FLUX
In common electromagnetic theory, magnetic flow (or flux) usually is defined as the product of the magnetic field strength B and the enclosed area A The induced voltage is given by the time derivative of this flow, however its not fully clear if the change in area shall be included into this derivative.
A0420
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So, if the area change is enclosed, the generated voltage in 0416 may be expressed by the time derivative of flow in accord with definition in 0420:
THE INDUCTANCE CONCPET
In the same way as for the electric capacitor, there is a need of describing the ability of a conductor or wire loop of storing magnetic energy in it, expressed in terms of the conductors geometrical performance and some other properties.
A0421
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04024 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 04021A0423
a) Magnetic force in respect to the current flow and conductor length, formula 0422
b) Magnetic force in respect to electric charge and the velocity of the charge
c) Magnetic force in respect to electric current and a straight conductor length
In respect to our constants Kt, Ka and Kv we find ;
A04244
A0421d
A0421e
THE FORCE EFFECT ON A CONDUCTOR IN A CONSTANT, MAGNETIC FIELD
The B field represents a mass flow with density B. This mass flow give rise to an inflow of matter to a charged particle (the
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electron in a metal for instance) and this matter is absorbed and thrown out by effect of the particles spin or rotation movement, creating a counter reaction force.
Using this idea on how a force is generated on a conductor moving in a magnetic field gives:
A0422
a) Magnetic mass streaming in to the charged particle, formula 0150a
Xxxxxx
b) Newtons law of force for revolving movements, the 0155b. The mass captured is creating a counter force
c) Formula (a) applied on the magnetic field. The magnetic field strength B
d) Formula 0101
e) The number of unit charges times the unit charge is the total amount of charge on which the Bfield is actuated, 0342
f) Solving out the number of unit charges N actuated by the Bfield
g) The electric unit char, formula 0323
h) The spinning time for an electron, 0326c
i) Inserting Min from c) in formula b), then the value of v from formula d) and the value of N from formula f) in formula j) Adjusting the expression in formula
I), extracting the terms B,i and ds and at last adjusting the expression in regard to the Kparameters 0326c
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See results from formulae 0122, 0426a,b and 0414
Hence, the end result for the energy density in a magnetic field will be:
A0429
The value of mo is 4p E7 which for a density of B= 1 Tesla corresponds to an energy density of 0.398 watt per volume centimetre
XA11
We now have calculated the magnetic field strength B, in a magnetic field outside a conductor. Obviously, this Bfield represents an energy stored in the space in the same way as for the electric field in an electric capacitor.
The magnetic energy stored is a form of mechanical energy in the same way as for energy in the electric field. The movement of mass in the field, is slowly in relation to the limit velocity of matter c, then for the stored energy in the magnetic field Newtons ordinary energy formula may be used.
A0425
The kinetic energy in accord with Newtons laws 0122
The mass m, represents the mass content in a small volume element in the common space field of density q, calculated before in 0318.
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The velocity v, is the momentary velocity of this mass, hence not equivalent with the flow velocity in the conductor.
As calculated before, in the formula 0406 of the magnetic flux density equal to B=qr.sin(a), the quantity of B.c is representing a mass impulse density in the volume element dV, that in the way it has been generated by the movement of the electric current and induced by it.
When this impulse influence the universal mass field in space with density q, this impulse is retransformed to the q field that get the velocity of vf..
From that the following equality is achieved:
A0426
XXXX
a)The impulse from the Bfield with density B and with velocity c being transformed to the universal mass field of density q and the transformed velocity of vf
b) Calculation of the transformed field velocity vf
The mass in the volume element dV with density q is:
A0427
Now we apply achieved results on the initial formula 0425 ;
A0428
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distance between the conductor y=1 meter, we get the force per length unit of the conductor F/L = 2.0E7 N/m, which is this reference that today is used as a current flow in a conductor.
Someone assert that electric current flow is an arbitrary chosen physical unit, as well as the definition of the electric charge magnitude. Hence, that is not true.
THE FORCE DEVELOPED ON AN IRON ARMATURE PLACED BETWEEN THE POLES OF A MAGNETIC AIR GAP
A0433
We make a study of a magnetic armature moving in an air gap of 2 magnetic poles. We make a study of the magnetic energy density in 2 cases where the armature is situated in position S1 and S2 respectively.
THE MAGNETIC FORCE BETWEEN TWO STRIGHT, PARALLEL CONDUCTORS
If we have two parallel conductors, through which flows a current of I1and I2 respectively, a mutual force between them arises.
The force stands in relation to the length of the conductors.
If you have these two conductors with length oo meter (infinitely in length) and placed them on a mutual distance of 1 meter, a force of 2.1E7 N will be measured. This measurement is now used in aim to determine the current strength of 1 Ampere, earlier defined as this current that extracts 0.00111800 gram of silver from a silver nitrate solution.
Another way of defining current is by defining the number of electrical unit charges passing a cross area each second, which for 1 Ampere is 6E18 electrons/secondG.
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If current flows through a straight conductor, the Bfield strength outside the conductor is calculated by :
A0430
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We imagine two conductors defined as infinite in length. A medium point is selected,
then the Bfield is integrated from this point to infinity in both directions in line with the xaxis, in directions of the conductors.
Inserting x=0 give zero, inserting x=oo give 1/y2. And because the integration is performed on both sides of the medium point, the received expression shall be multiplied with a factor 2. That gives for the Bfield strength in an arbitrary point outside the conductor:
A0431
In common we know (formula 0423), that the force on a conductor with length L and with the current flow of I2 is actuated by the force on the conductor by:
A0432
We know that uo= 4.p E7. If we insert I1= 1 Ampere and I2= 1 Ampere, and the
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Some common physical constants
eo = 1.60217733E19
Unit charge. measured
c = 2.99792456E8
Light velocity in vacuum, measured
eo = 8.854187817E12
Vacuum electric constant, measured
uo= 4. p E7
Vacuum magnetic constant, measured
me =9.109389754E 31
Electron rest mass, measured
re = 2.8179409238E15
Electron rest radius, calculated
A
0434
In the position 1, the magnetic field density is B1 , then the energy density in this position is written :
A0435
And if the armature is in the second position
A0430
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04034 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 04035
The energy transferred to the magnetic armature, the performed work).
DEFINING THE ELECTRO MAGNETIC PARAMETERS OF Ka, Kv, Kt
Notation of Ka, Kv, Kt in comparing with common theory
Formula
Formula
Kt
Ka
Kv
Electric field
0329

4.p
4.p
Electric energy
0337


4.p
Electric voltage
0340

4.p
4.p
Electric impedance
0345
2.p
4.p

Electric capacitance
0347
.
4.p
4.p
Magnetic field strength
0411

4.p
4.p
Magnetic force
0422

4.p
4.p
Electric charge
0323
5.3557000
4.p
4.p
e o, uo
0322
5.3557000
4.p
4.p
Hence we find a number of uniting values of Ka, Kv and Kt as associated values of the elementary particle s geometrical and accessing properties, that together with properties of the vacuum space give rise to the electromagnetic phenomena.
Summarizing :
A0437
Remark:
The 2.p value for the time factor Kt appear only in one single case, namely for the expression of the vacuum zero impedance, being a pure theoretical derived entity. For other cases the value is adjusted.
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Readers notes:
Some other relations:
eo = 1.60217733E 19
eo*=2Kt.Ka.sqrt(p/Kv).re2.c = 1.602E19
e o = 8.854187817E12
e o *= Kt2.Ka2.re3 /(me.Kv) =8.85E12
eo 2/eo =2.899161673E27
eo* 2/e o* =2.899107802E27
By dividing the measured experimental value of the electric unit with value of the eo, we can calculate the exact value for the entity of Kt.
= 5.3557000.
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When deriving electromagnetic relations from our theory, based on Newtons fundamental laws, we get the same results as for common electromagnetic theory, but a tail of expressions containing the K parameters as defined by us, appear. However these expressions will all be equal to 1, hence disappearing from the equations.
, Readers notes:
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general, wave equation with results from his electromagnetic theory mainly because of mathematical symmetry reasons in these equations.
Inspired by Maxwells theory, Michelson and Morley in 1887 performed an experiment aimed to measure the earths velocity in that assumed ether see. But the attempt was failed, hence denying the Maxwellian ether wave hypothesis, necessary for the validity of his theory.
All that gave rise to an exhausted debate of the nature of light during the subsequent part of the nineteenth century, a debate that declined by the birth of the theory of relativity from 1905. But today the problems still remain unsolved and all the old questions remain unanswered as in Maxwells days.
Our ambition here is not to discuss and penetrate everything in Maxwells work, not either to dig our way through all these formulae contained in this work. Our main interest is only to investigate if similarly
Chapter 5
MAXWELLS EQUATIONS AMD
MAXWELLS EQUATIONS
002
DERIVING THE EQUATION 0501a
006
DERIVING THE EQUATION 0501b
007
DERIVING THE EQUATION 0501c
009
DERIVING THE EQUATION 0501d
010
DERIVING THE EQUATION 0501e
011
DERIVING THE EQUATION 0501f
012
DERIVING THE EQUATION 0501g
013
DERIVING THE EQUATION 0501h
015
THE COMMON WAVE EQUATION
017
THE COMMON WAVE EQUATION,STEP 1
017
THE COMMON WAVE EQUATION,STEP 2
018
THE COMMON WAVE EQUATIONSTEG 3
022
THE ELASTICITETS MODULE IF THE SOURCE IS A PARTICLE SOURCE, STEP3
022
THE The particle mass density in a voume element V and VO respectively
023
THE COMMON WAVE EQUATION,
STEP 4
026
THE COMMON WAVE EQUATION STEP 5
028
LIGHT AND ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES
05031
Correction of Maxwells equation 0501f and 0511
036
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05002 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 05003
MAXWELLS EQUATIONS
James Clerk Maxwell published his famous electromagnetic field theory in 1873 by name Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, one of the most gigantic and important scientific achievement worked out by a single scientist ever.
An important result of his theory was that he found a close relationship between the electric field and the magnetic field, two sides of the same thing and from the same source. Another interpretation of the theory was that electromagnetic energy was assumed propagating in free space with the finite speed c, the same as light velocity in free space.
The nucleus of this theory was a theoretical and mathematical interpretation of the electromagnetic field phenomena summarized in a couple of formulae named Maxwells equations of the electric and magnetic field as propagating in free space.
Maxwells theory was built on the assumption
of existence of a mechanical ether carrying light and electromagnetic waves through the free space. This assumption was later on faded out of the theory and today mainly only a shell of mathematical formalism remains. In spite of the successes of the theory, the theory has not escaped from criticism. One point of criticism is, although the theory is assumed to give a correct description of electromagnetism, that it does not explain anything about electromagnetism, just in some degree describing it.
Other criticism is that the equations not are symmetric in respect to the Lorentzs transform and relativity theory, a problem we not have to worry so much about, because both these theories by themselves may be put into question.
But the most serious remark is the idea that electromagnetic energy is assumed to propagate like waves, disturbances in an ether sea, this ether that never was detected experimentally. Maxwell come to this conclusion by comparing the common, or
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05008 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 05005
A0505
Hence, if we integrate the charge in respect to the out streaming area dA related to the total enclosing area 4. p r2 we get:
A0506
D is the charging flow velocity, A is this area or window through which this flow is passing, Q is the total amount of charge flowing out through that window
results can be achieved with start from our own theory and at the same time trying to understand his way of thinking.
We begin by making a brief list over some of the most common used equations that are enclosed in his theory, with the name of Maxwells equations of the electromagnetic field:
A0501
A0501
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DERIVING THE EQUATION 0501a
We will now derive these Maxwellian equations with start from our own electromagnetic theory. We start with the equation 0501a, where we define a vector quantity D, which is a velocity of the electric field.
From equation 0328 for the electric field strength we have:
A0502
A0503
And from equation 0322 :
And by multiplying 0502 with 0503 and using 0523 is achieved :
A0504
DERIVING THE EQUATION 0501b
We integrate the electric velocity vector D over a flux area 4.p.r2, giving
A0505
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DERIVING THE EQUATION 0501f
The change in the magnetic field in accord with time give rise to a vector cross product of the electric field.
But there is a problem, it seems as there is something strange with the Maxweells equation being not in agree with how energy is transformed between the charge and the vacuum space. See equation 0426 where the B field impulse is transformed to vacuum with another parameters. More about that later.
A0507
DERIVING THE EQUATION 0501c
We start by defining the vector field D, where D= eo.E (see our derived formula 0504 above). We select a small volume element within this vector field D with sides dx, dy, dz (see figure above). D constitutes a field vector where each term Dx,Dy,Dz contain a quantity of charge expressed in variable of x, y and z.
Hence we define our field vector D in the way as is shown below:
In addition, with start from the equation 0323, we denote the partial charge streaming out from one of the unit surfaces limited by the edges dx, dy and dz:
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As we here will see, Maxwells equations contain not much of information of the real source and nature of electromagnetism. And as we even will see in the following investigation, most of it is mathematical manipulations of facts mainly already known from other parts of electromagnetic theory.
DERIVING THE EQUATION 0501d
This equation is just a vector manipulation of radiation out from a point source (that can be a point source of light radiation or a point
source of an electrical field sending out radiation from the source in the radius direction.
A0509
DERIVING THE EQUATION 0501e
This case is approximately the same as the case above, with difference that it here is a magnetic vector field. Streaming out from a magnetic point formed source in all radii directions.
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THE COMMON WAVE EQUATION
The general wave equation describe how energy in a field is transported as function of time. The equation has since long time been known, so even on Maxwells time when he formulated his electromechanical theory.
Because the equation mainly is used for describing how energy is transported in medium, it was natural for him to do a comparison between how electric and magnetic fields move through that hypothetical light ether. According to this idea, even light was such waves, by common terms denoted as electromagnetic waves.
In this comparison the mathematical expression got from the electromagnetic theory was in agree with the common wave equation. By that Maxwell considered it as proved that light was electromagnetic waves and that these waves were transported in an ether sea in the same way as for sound in air was transported.
A0511
ObS: in agree with Maxwell only if v=c !!! That is a mystery. In the end of this chapter we do a correction of this formula !
DERIVING THE EQUATION 0501g
The equation 0501g is achieved when changing the E field as function of time.
There is many reasons for such a change. One reason may be change in the current flow or when the conductor moves in an inhomogeneous magnetic field.
We limit here our investigations for the first mentioned case. We begin with our equation 0408 :
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A0511
The equation which shall be derived is
A0512
X
Hence, when an electric field is changed in accord with time, a magnetic field is created transversally to this electric field.
XXXXXA0514
DERIVING OF THE EQUATION 0501h
XX
a) Equation 0504
b) Equation 05508
c) Combining 0504 and 0608
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a) Boyles law0159, state 1
b) Boyles law 0159, state 2
c) Equality between a) and b)
d) Calculation of the pressure difference between state 1 and state 2
e) Reduction of the formula d)
f) End expression, approximation V1=V2
XA13
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However, experiments later performed could not confirm the ether hypothesis. The reason to that is to find in a missinterpretation of the common wave equation. This equation is valid even for the case when the source is a particle source, meaning this case where energy is transported longitudinally by a flowing process of matter from the source point (particles).
In order to demonstrate this fact, we will here investigate the background of this famous equation and even to see how to derive it.
The common wave equation STEP1
In this purpose we begin with studying a small volume element in the room outside the emitting source point. We let the edges of the element dx,dy,dz be parallel with the axis of the used coordinate system with axis x,y and z respectively.
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THE COMMON WAVE EQUATION, STEP 2
The propagating wave or transport of matter generate a pressure p, in the direction of movement. The pressure is a function of time, the waves velocity and the density of the medium.
A0516
a relation which is valid presupposed the field density q, is the same in all directions, which we here can assume being true with good approximation.
THE GENERAL WAVE EQUATION STEP 3
This step encloses a study of the relationship between pressure and density (if a medium) or the number of particles in a particle field is related to volume (in case of a particle transport).
IF THE FIELD IS A MEDIUM STEP3/a
In the case of energy transport in a medium, we make use of Boyles law (formula 0159), saying that the product of pressure and density is a constant entity.
XA12
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And from these relationships we get:
a) Divide 0519a) and b)
b) Subtract both sides with entity =1
c) Reorganize
d) The ppo is a difference dp pressure
e) Suppose m=mp approximated
Reorganise
0521 End expression for the pressure as function of change in pressure, in volume and change in volume
THE RELATION IN PRESSURE AND VOLUME AS FUNCTION OF CHANGE IN THESE PARAMETERS
A0518
From equation 0517f
Pressure contra common definition for the elasticity module of the medium
Combination of formulae above
Relation between the elasticity module, change in pressure, volume and volume
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THE ELASTICITETS MODULE IF THE SOURCE IS A PARTICLE SOURCE, STEP3/b
If the source is a particle source, the energy is transported as a longitudinal stream of matter. In a medium wave, the matter mediating the energy is not transported any long distances but work only as an intermediary substance, where the energy transport is realized by successive impacts between parts of the medium. In the case of a particle wave (a wave of matter stream) the pressure over a surface is got from formula 0204 to:
A0519
The wave of matter (a particle wave) pressure on a closed surface area
a) Pressure when medium density qo and medium velocity v
b) Pressure when particle density q and particle velocity v
The particle mass density in a volume element V and VO respectively
A0520
a) The mass density in a volume element Vo
b) The mass density in a volume element V
c) The density difference between 2 successive states a) and b)
d) Reduction of formula c), with approximation V=Vo
e) End relation for the density difference and change in volume between 2 states
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a) Combination of equations 0524 and 0525
b) Equation 0101
c) Replacing the parameter of velocity with the relation ds/dt
d) Reorganization of parameters ds=nabla in the left side, dt is time derivative in the right side
THE COMMON WAVE EQUATION STEP 5
We derive a new expression of the elasticity module, the field density and the energy transport velocity:
Hence, the equivalent elasticity module when the source is a particle source
A0522
Hence we find that the elasticity module for a medium and for a particle source is represented by a similar mathematical expression.
Why we here will point out this fact mainly depends on that we now with the same degree of reliability as Maxwell argued for, light being a wave in an ether sea, we can say that light is a stream of particles, hence not an electromagnetic wave as commonly argued for.
And a lot of experimental contradictions that are present in Maxwells equations then will disappear when we reinterpret his equations to be valid for another physical background than from the beginning was assumed valid.
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And a lot of experimental contradictions that are present in Maxwells equations then will disappear when we reinterpret his equations to be valid for another physical background than from the beginning was assumed valid.
THE COMMON WAVE EQUATION,
STEP 4
In aim of constructing a vector formula for the energy transport from the source point we now make use of some of the received results above.
A0523
a) From equation 0518
b) From equation 0523b
c) Combination of formula a) and b)
d) Reorganization
e) Deriving both sides of formula in respect to distance, ds
0523 in vector form
A0524
xxxxxx
Using results from formula 0516
A0525
xxxxxx
Combining equations 0524 and 0525, reducing the expression of pressure, gives:
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fields were spread in the same way as waves in a medium, for instance of how sound in air is spreading and propagating.
However, his conclusion was, that these electromagnetic waves, were fluctuations in a mechanic ether, a hypothetical medium through which these waves were transported. He arrived to these insights by manipulating results from his electromagnetic theory and by comparing the result with the common wave equation valid for ordinary media.
A0530
A0527
a) Newtons second law, the reduced version
b) Divide right side with the volume element dV, multiply right side with the same entity
c) Replace the relation m/dV with density q
d) Divide both sides with the volume V
e) Replace the volume V on left side with the product of area A and distance ds
f) Replace the relation ds/dt with the velocity v on the left side and transfer it to the right side of the equation
g) Transfer Dv,V from right side to left side
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We combine this result in 0527 with results from formula 0518 A0528
We combine this result with formulae 0526, giving:
Maxwell compared results from the common wave equation and results achieved from the electromagnetic theory about distribution of electromagnetic waves.
The conclusion drawn was that even light was of electromagnetic nature, assumedly a wrong conclusion.
In the here done investigation we have come to the conclusion that the wave equation even is valid for energy transport performed by movement of matter, hence transport by particles.And to end with we even shall derive this wave equation got from the electromagnetic theory as base.
LIGHT AND ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES
Now we have derived some of Maxwells most famous equations by applying vector operations on some of the results achieved from our own physical theory.
Mathematical operations can make relationships more simple and clear, but do not in itself supply anything that not was present from the beginning. It is a common misconception that mathematics supplies new facts, just hidden and done more clear by mathematical manipulations
Another important part of Maxwells theory includes ideas of how electric and magnetic fields propagate in free space.
By manipulating 0320 and 0409, that describe basic relations between electric and magnetic fields, he showed, that these
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electromagnetic phenomenon, hence waves propagating in a mechanical light ether.
However, when interpreting mathematical results one must be very careful regarding the coupling to the real physical world, hence try understanding what the formulae stands for physically. Subsequent experiments have shown that Maxwell was wrong on this point. Why and where he was wrong we shall investigate more carefully later when studying the nature of light.
Correction of Maxwells equation 0501f and 0511
A0531 A0532
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A0533
These results from the electromagnetism were compared with the general wave equation (the equation 0529) as derived above, describing the way by which fields are propagated into media. Mathematically there exists a clear agreement between these mathematical expressions, but physically there are serious problems. Hence our conclusion may be to be very careful in interpreting mathematical results in physical terms.
A0534
where we easily can see that the mathematical structure is the same.
What these equations describe is how the energy is propagating and distributed round a source point, but in fact giving not much information about the nature of the electromagnetisms real nature. And beside that, the equations are true both for a wave source and a particle source,.
Because light commonly is generated by oscillating charged particles in matter, Maxwell postulated that even light was an
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Readers notes:
v in this equation represent the current velocity in the conductor. The same velocity component is transferred to the electric field in transversal direction to its outflow.
From equation 0320 we see that the E vector contain 2 components, a field mass density and its velocity out from its source. Hence, by dividing the E vector with the outflow velocity vector we achieve a scalar, the electric field mass density:
A0555
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This mass density is transported transversally the electric field vector with the velocity of the current flow. This impulse is converted to an impulse in the vacuum with density q and another velocity vf (see equation 0426). That give us the relation:
A0556
The magnetic product of q.vf of B.c is the same as the product of /E/c).v as generated by the electric field and the current move, giving:
A0557
Squaring the current velocity and inserting it in our equation 0511 gives:
A0558
Hence. It seems as needed an extra term in Maxwells equation 0501f constituting the quotient between 2 mass densities. B for the magnetic mass density and E/c for the electric field mass density. If the magnetic and the electric field mass are the same, there is full agreement with Maxwells original equation.
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6.57E34 Ws2 given and defined in the common MKS(A) unit system.
At this time the inherent structure of the matter was very indistinct and unclear. Niels Bohr using results from Rutherford, Balmer among others  was the man who by his very simple atomic model in a theoretical way for the first time succeeded to describe the emission spectrum from the most simple known atom the hydrogen atom.
In spite of its simplicity this theory was revolutionary for this time and started up an enormous researching activity and development in the fundamental physical research.
But the model was only an approximation of the real nature of the atom. Of that reason the model later on was improved by other theories that in a better way explained observed phenomena in the atom. These efforts were above all aimed to describe atomic systems of more complex nature than that comparatively simple system represented by the hydrogen atomic system.
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Chapter 6
A NEW THEORY OF THE ATOM
SOME HISTORUC FACT
003
THE NEW THEORY
011
THE ATOMIC CDRE
012
ORBITING ELECTRONS
012
THE ELECTRIC COULOMB FORCE
012
INERTIAL FORCES INTO THE SYSTEM
013
NEUTRONS IN THE ATOMIC CORE
013
MASS DENSITY OF PARTIICLES
014
POLARIZING OF THE ELECTRIC FIELD
014
PRINCIPLE OF THE QUANTUM PROCESS
014
THE OSCILLATING PROTON
015
THE FREQUENCY OF RADIATION
015
DIFFERENT VARIABLES
016
THE NEW QUANTUM THEORY
019
ORBITAL ELECTRON KINETIC ENERGY
021
SOME FURTHER HYPOTHESES ABOUT THE ELEMENTARY PARTICLES
023
POLARIZED ELECTRICAL FORCES
024
BALANCE BETWEEN FORCES
026
THE OSCILLATING PROTON
026
SOLVING THE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION
028
THE ELECTRONS ORBITAL RADIUS
033
THE SYSTEMS TOTAL ENERGY STORED
035
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ENERGY DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TWO SUCESSIVE LEVELS
036
THE FREQUENCY OF THE EMITTED RADIATION
037
RADIATION FREQUENCY AT JUMP BETWEEN TWO SUCCESIVE LEVELS
038
THE PLANCKS CONSTANT
039
BOHRS QUANTUM MECHANIC RELATION
041
RYDBERGS CONSTANT
044
THE MINIMUM ENERGY QUANTUM
045
NUMERIC DETERMINATION OF SOME ATOMIC CONSTANTS
046
THE SHRDINGER EQUATION
047
DERIVATION OF THE SHRDINGER EQUATION
048
NUMERIC DETERMINATION OF SOME ATOMIC CONSTANTS
047
THE SHRDINGER EQUATION
048
SOME CONCLUSION
049
COMMON DISCUSSION
052
COMMON DISCUSSION
053
THE UMESON ATOM
058
THE BOHR MAGNETON
060
ARTIFICIAL ATOMS
063
QUANTUM MECHANICAL HALL EFFECT
0667
XA2
SOME HISTORUC FACT
Current knowledge's of matter on atomic level is founded on discoveries done over a long period of time. Some famous names are Ernest Rutherford, Max Planck, Niels Bohr, Ervin Shrdinger, Werner von Heisenberg, that to mention some of them all.
Max Planck is most known from his work of measurement and analyses of light and heat radiation from black radiating bodies. He formulated an energy distribution law related to wave length of the emitted radiation and found in this way that the energy emitted over different wavelength's were emitted in a discontinuous way, hence not as a continuous flowing stream. These revolutionary insights constituted the beginning of a new branch in fundamental science, the quantum mechanics. He introduced a new physical constant bearing his name "the Planck's constant" usually denoted by the letter h, having a very small but exact numerical value, by experiments determined to yjr value of
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But it is fully clear, that the existence of the atomic constants says a lot about the quantum mechanical processes going on in the atom, presupposed we are able to interpret them in a correct way. Of this reason we here shall spend some attention to these constants and see what they stands for.
Some points that we shall devote special attention to are as follows:
On pure speculative ground and without any mathematical, physical base, Bohr assumed that the electron's orbital momentum m.v.D was equal to h.n/(2.p), where m is the electron mass, v the momentary orbit velocity, D the mean radius of the orbital, h Planck's constant and, n an integer value, the main quantum number. Any real explanation to the validity of this relation never has been presented.
However, if we look some closer to Bohr's origin model, we find that Bohr was forced to make some pure hypothetical assumptions, witch not were given any clear theoretical motivations for. One of these hypotheses was the quantum mechanical relation written m.v.D =h.n/(2p), that shall be interpreted so that the electron orbital momentum, the product of m.v.D is an integer value of Planck's constant, h/(2p),.
However, Bohr never succeeded to give any plausible motivation to this relationship and got criticism because of that. But because his theory so well predicted experimental results, the idea was common accepted in spite of its incompleteness and shortcoming.
This relationship still today is not explained by the modern quantum mechanical physics, which clearly points on that the fundamental mechanism of the quantum behaviour of matter still not is fully understood. And it seems as modern quantum research even neglect to search for such
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knowledge s, a fact that has prevented us of reaching a full and deep understanding of these very fundamental phenomena in nature
Furthermore, Bohr's model was not able to explain why the frequency of the emitted radiation not was the same as the orbital frequency of the electron around the atomic core, but having a quite another value..
Hence, in spite of all success with Bohr's model, it never was explained why matter showed up such apparently very strange behaviour, why energy only existed in some very narrow intervals within the atom.
Why was matter quantified, why was not the energy of the atom emitted or absorbed in a continuous way?
The answer of these questions were hidden in the quantum mechanical relation: m.v.D=h.n/(2p), a pure hypothetical relation only justified by the good agreement with experimental data.
The very fundamental reason why the matter behaved quantified never was explained and has not even since then been explained by the modern quantum mechanical theories.
Associated with these fundamental questions there are further more questions marks of highly interest, for instance the presence of some very elementary atomic constants, all the time appearing in the quantum mechanical mathematical relationships.
These are
Planck's constant and the atomic fine structure constant
that especially arouse our curiosity.
These constants never have been given any plausible explanation, instead been surrounded by an aurora of mysticism, entities of matter regarded as being of supernatural nature, not possible to be explain in a rational way. One also are taking about hidden parameters in this context,
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OUR SYSTEM CONTAINS HAVE THE FOLLOWING COMPOMENT
A0601
THE ATOMIC CDRE 0601
The central particle in an atomic system is one or several particles with a mass content of 1836.12 times the mass of the electron (protons).
A0602
ORBITING ELECTRONS 0602
Around the centre particle(s) electron(s) move(s), having the relative individual mass content of one electron mass unit.
A0603
ELECTRIC COULOMB FORCE 0603
Both protons and electrons are electrostatically charged particles and because of that electrostatic forces act between them calculated by aid of Coulomb's law (0324).
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The reason why the emitted radiation not directly was related to the orbital frequency of the electron was not explained in Bohr's model.
The presence of some very fundamental atomic constants, like the Planck's constant and the atomic fine structure constant never have been given any trustworthy physical motivation.
The answer on these questions are of extremely importance, not only concerning the behaviour of matter on atomic level: but also in the understanding of how matter works on all levels, in particular concerning the area of particle physics. The latter is of special importance, that because the quantum mechanical ideas from the atomic physics partly have been transferred to the particle physics, where necessarily not the same rules are valid.
Heisenberg's uncertainty principle says that
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conjugating quantities as for example energy and time not simultaneously can be measured with the same degree of accuracy, where the product of energy and time always is a multiple values of Planck's constant.
This principle has been missinterpreted as a limiting property of nature itself, not just as a limit of measurements on atomic level or in atomic systems. The principle originally deduced from the atomic milieu  later on has been applied as common rules for all sorts of matter. The principle has been used in the atomic nucleus when describing the fundamental nature of the strong nuclear force for instance) and even in the particle physics when describing the strong forces between elementary particles.
Louis de' Broglie's idea of the wave particle duality of elementary particles is another typical example of how physical phenomena can be missinterpreted in an unlucky way.
According to this idea each particle is associated with a wave being related to the
particle mass and Planck's constant.
Maybe that will be possibly true for a moving electron inside an atom, but not true or valid for a free particle in free space Free elementary particles can move with arbitrary velocities and posses arbitrary energy levels not bounded to multiples of Planck's constant.
The Shrdinger's wave theory later on replaced Bohr's very simple and visual atomic model, describing matter in terms of probability. Even if this theory gave a more complete description of the phenomena in the atom, no deeper understanding of the quantum mechanical processes in matter has been achieved by this improvement.
THE NEW THEORY
A0600
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The frequency of radiation emitted from or absorbed by the atomic system constitutes the mean value of the difference frequency between two successive proton resonance frequencies.
These complementary properties of singular particles or properties of the atomic system constitutes one bit of the puzzle for solving the quantum problem. In aim of making it easy to follow the necessary calculations, we at first define a list of some symbols and variables that will be used in the succeeding calculations and discussion.
A0611
DIFFERENT VARIABLES 0611
me
Electron rest mass
mp
Proton rest mass
Mc
Rest mass of an arbitrary centre particle
Mo
Rest mass of an arbitrary orbital particle
vo
Velocity of a particle in orbit around the atomic core.
A0606
INERTIAL FORCES INTO THE 0604 SYSTEM
The orbital particles are assumed to move in some form of orbit around the central particle(s). This movement give rise to an outturned force in accord with well known Newtonian mass inertial laws (0114).
A0605
NEUTRONS IN THE ATOMIC CORE ..0605
We do not account for the fact that the atomic nucleus also contains uncharged particles (named neutrons), that we here assume will have no influence on the calculated results of the model.
The most part of all that more or less already are known and well established facts from atomic quantum theory. However, to proceed we must add some further assumptions, especially regarding properties of these elementary particles included into the atomic system. These new assumptions will be unique for our theory and constituting these
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complements necessary for solving the quantum mechanical behaviour of the aton once times for all.
A0606
MASS DENSITY OF PARTIICLES 0606
There is a close relation between a particles mass and its spatial extension, created by a quantum effect in particles mass..
A0607
POLARIZING OF THE ELECTRIC FIELD . 0607
The electrostatic force field surrounded an elementary particle is polarized so that a torque force will appear on it when the particle is turned out from a neutral position. This property may be compared with how a current loop will turn in a magnetic field.
A0608
PRINCIPLES FOR THE 0608 QUANTUM PROCESS
The quantum behaviour of the atom is a
The quantum behaviour of the atom is based on a system property of matter where particles in the system interacts by inertial and electrical forces. The proton will in this system oscillate with a frequency that disturb the orbiting electron in its movement. Hence, the quantum behaviour on the atomic level is no property of a solitary elementary particle (as in for example De Broglie's and Shrdinger's wave theories), but is a system property of the atom.
A0609
THE OSCILLATING PROTON 0609
The oscillating proton in the centre of the atomic system creates disturbances in the electron's orbit. Together with a memory effect in the electric field, these disturbances will force the electron to move in an orbit where the oscillating proton creates a complete number of oscillations constituting an integer value of the orbital period.
A0610
THE FREQUENCY OF RADIATION 0610
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A0612
A more simple way of expressing Coulombs law is by the following expression (0325):
Fo= force on a single orbital particle
me = the electron rest mass
re = the classical electron radius
c = light velocity in relative rest
D = distance between charged particles
Z = the number of charged particles in the core
c
Limit velocity of matter in a closed system, equal to the light velocity in the vacuum space, measured when the source and the receiver are in relative rest state..
re
Rest radius of the electron
Ro
Rest radius of an arbitrary orbital particle
Rp
Rest radius of the proton
Rc
Rest radius of an arbitrary centre particle
D
Distance between the orbital particle and the centre core
Fo
The electrostatic attracting Coulomb force between the orbiting particle and a centre particle in the atomic system
Fc
The centrifugal force acting on an orbiting particle as a result of its revolving movement around the centre particle in an atomic system
Ek
The kinetic energy (or moving energy) of an orbiting particle
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Ep
The potential energy of a particle situated in an electrostatic force field (the Coulomb field).
Etot
The total energy of a moving particle, constituting the sum of kinetic energy and potential energy
Zc= Z
The number of electric charged particles in the atomic core
To
The time it will takes for an orbiting particle to move one turn around the system's centre point
Tc,p
The time it will take for the proton in the atomic core to perform one oscillating period envelop.
fc,p
The frequency of the oscillating proton
l
The wavelength (the distance between two successive fluctuations in a propagating wave front)
a
The atomic fine structure constant
a1
The inverse value of the atomic fine structure constant
h
The Planck constant
n
An integer value, being equivalent to the main quantum number in Bohr s atomic model
THE NEW QUANTUM THEORY
To begin with we establish that Bohrs simple atomic model in its main parts was correct, yet not complete. We accentuate that because Bohrs theory erroneously has been judged as wrong or false only for reason that it it has been replaced by more sophisticated quantum mechanical models later developed.
But we will here show, that in the bottom of these new and improved theories, for instance Shrdingers wave equation for the atom, there is still Bohrs basic idea behind.
We make use of an atom consisting of Z, protons in the core centre and the same Z number of electrons in the orbits.
Between these particles, electrical forces act in accordance with Coulomb's law of electric force (0324). To begin with we do not considerate whether the neutrons in the core have any active effect on the quantum process, or not. . We do the following definitions:
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In our theory we regard electrons, as well as protons, as point particles having vortex form of different dimensions. By a quantum resonance process is valid: (see 0217,1232 )
A0217
A0615
Polarized electrical forces 0615
The electrostatic Coulomb force acts in a polarizing way on the proton, much in analogy with how a torsion momentum arises on a current wire loop situated in a magnetic field.
In accordance with this hypothesis, a torsion force is created on the proton particle and the magnitude of this torsion force or momentum will be in proportion to an angular divergence from a neutral position. In combination with mass inertial forces an oscillation is created in the system.
The orbital electron moves with velocity vo. We suppose the velocity is small compared to the limit velocity c in the system, so the kinetic energy of the electron may be computed by Newton's simplified formula (0115).
THE ORBITAL ELECTRON KINETIC ENERGY
The orbiting electron has the kinetic energy in accord with Newtons second law of mass and force (0122):_
A0122
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And the potential energy of the same electron (0123):
In a system where the energy content is constant, unchanged (with no radiation of energy and no absorbing of energy) the sum of kinetic and potential energy is all the time constant, hence by the equation 0122, 0123.
A0613
The total system energy of an orbiting electron is the sum of kinetic and potential energy. (By definition potential energy is defined by negative sign).
Some further hypotheses about the elementary particles
It is well known that the frequency of the emitted radiation from an atom (light) cannot be associated directly with the frequency of the orbiting electron, but differs from it. The reason for it will be described here in terms of some new hypotheses involving properties of those elementary particles contained in the system. Two of these hypotheses are as follows:
A0614
MASS/RADIUS OF PARTICLES 0614
In established physical theory the belief is that the extension of a particle (or particle system) is in an inverse proportion to its mass or energy content. However, this belief is, in the author's opinion, founded on a missinterpretation emanating from De Broglie's formula D = n.h/(2.p.p), applied as a universal rule for particles, or particle systems. Many experiments have been performed but there are no exact knowledge about size parameters of particles.
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illustrate this effect is to reduce the proton mass to a point mass situated on a pendulum axis distance with radius Rc=Rp, then calculating the torque force on it.
For small amplitudes in the oscillating, the torque force approximately will be in direct proportion to the relation s/Rp, where s is a very small angular distance on this circle that the pendulum axis describes on a pendulum axis distance with radius Rc=Rp, then calculating the torque force on it..
A0620
Solving the differential equation
Equations 0616, 0617are put together to form a differential equation where the proton's oscillation time and frequency is computed..
When the proton is twisting in the electrostatic field, inertial forces are created in accord with Newton's second law of force (0116), giving:.
Fm is the torsion force on the proton, acting on the protons radius Rp. Mp is the protons mass. Even see the common definition of the concept of acceleration in connection to the force, formula 0103
A0617
when the proton twist around its axis actuated by the electric force field and the inertial forces, the oscillating amplitude is a small distance s on the particles surface periphery with radius Rp from the centre point.
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BALANCE BETWEEN FORCES
These forces Ft, and Fm, here defined, are in balance at each moment of time, creating an electromechanic oscillator, described by the differential equation:
A0618
THE OSCILLATING PROTON
We define two parameters for simplifying our mathematical description and analysis of the quantum mechanical effect, Ko and Kc. Ko
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and Kc respectively, divided by the distance D squared between charged particles, give the Coulomb's force of particles involved. Ko is associated to the electric force acting on the orbiting particle, Kc is associated to the electric force acting on the centre particle in the core. Zo and Zc respectively, being the total number of active unit charges in each point = Z.
A0619
The force Fc is acting on the centre particle (commonly a proton) in the atomic core. The Coulomb force is polarized in such a way, that if the proton tries to twist around its neutral axis, a torque momentum arises on it. The easiest way to
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c) Combining 0622a. 0622b d) Solution of vo, from 0622c e) The equation 0620b f) The equation 0620d g) The equation 0619a h) Calculation vo, by the equations 0622d, 0622e, 0622f and 0622g i) Extracting the atom fine structure constant from equation 0622h j) Using the equation 0217 on 0622i k) Converting the orbital velocity in 0622h with aid of the equation 0622j
The factor a ((is usually named "the atomic fine structure constant" having the exact measured value of 1/137.03. Our value as defined by the relationship of the proton mass and the electron mass, risen to 2/3 is 149.xx, hence diverging approximately +9.4% from the measured value. We do not know the exact ratio Rp/re in 0217. maybe that is the reason to the discrepancy.
a) The searched differential equation
b) System constant for the oscillating period
c) The protons oscillating time in the electric field
d) The Coulomb force on the proton particle
tc is here defined as the oscillation time of the proton particle of the atomic system, caused by existing electrostatic forces and mass inertial forces that are involved in the system.
Because the proton, as well as the electron, is an electrical charged particle, both particles are surrounded by electrical fields. But there is a great difference between these two particles, they differ approximately in the ration 1:2000 in mass, with the result that the lighter particle, here the electron, will be more sensitive to disturbances in the surrounding electrical field.
We introduce, in a similar way to Bohr, a quantum number n, constituting an integer value between these two time periods giving:
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and the corresponding oscillation frequency of the proton
A0622
a) An integer relationship between the protons oscillating frequency and the orbital frequency. n is an integer value 1,2,3n
b) The electrons orbiting time
c) The electron orbiting frequency
d) The protons oscillating frequency
For simplicity, we here assume that the orbiting electrons move in a circle or an ellipse. But that must not be perfectly true
for validity of the relations above. We can assume that the orbiting radius and the orbiting velocity only represents a mean value of the movement.
With aid of all other results as achieved here before, we work with the equation 0621a in aim to solve out the orbital velocity of the electrons.
A0622
a) Combining equations 0621a, 0621b b) The equation 0620c
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a) Kinetic energy 0613
b) Potential energy 0613
c) Combining 0613a and 0613b
d) The orbiting velocity 0624
e) Equation 0619a
f) The orbiting radius 0626
End formula for total system energy 0625
THE ENERGY DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TWO SUCESSIVE ENERGY LEVELS
We study the energy in two different cases, when n=n1 and when n=n2, corresponding to the total system energies of E1 and E2 respectively.
A0623
a) The atomic fine structure constant is the relation between the proton mass/the electron mass raised to power of 2/3 (approximately)
b) The inverse value of the atomic fine structure constant
A0624
The electrons orbital radius
Furthermore, there are a balance between the orbital centrifugal force (0155b) inertial force and the electrical Coulomb force, giving
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25
a) The centrifugal force (inertial force) on the moving and rotating electron 0155b
b) The Coulomb force of the rotating electron 0620d
c) Defined constant for the Coulomb force 0619a
d) Balance between the centrifugal force and the Coulomb force
e) Combination of 0625a and 0625b
f) The electrons orbital velocity, 0624
The atoms orbital radius, the end result of the calculation 0625
A0626
The orbital radius of the electron in the atomic system
THE SYSTEMS TOTAL STORED ENERGY
We now can compute the total energy stored in the system by using 0122, 0123,0619a, 0619b
A0627
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same quantum (see equation 0630).Hence, if we divide the equation 0628 with 0630, we get the Planck constant, which is :
A0631
We compute the numerical value of h in 0641 by inserting known numerical constants, giving 6.62E34 Ws2 as the official known value where the atomic fine structure constant inverse is defined to 137.03 Our preliminary value is 149 (appr). .
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When the orbital particle jumps between these two states of energies, the energy difference E1 E2 is emitted in the form of radiation (light) or absorbing radiation from the environment). We find this energy difference to be:
A0628
a) The energy difference between two successive states
b) Using the energy equation 0627
THE FREQUENCY OF THE EMITTED RADIATION
As have been stated here before, the frequency of the radiated or absorbed energy of the atom is not the same as the frequency of the orbiting electron as computed from the
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equations 0621. Instead, the emitted or absorbed frequency of the atom constitutes a medium value of the difference value between two successive proton resonance frequencies at states n1 and n2 respectively.
Hence, by this hypothesis we can define:
A0629
A0630ab
RADIATION FREQUENCY AT JUMP BETWEEN TWO SUCCESIVE ENERGY LEVELS
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A0630cdef
a) Combination of the equations 0624, 0621b
b) Using the equation 0141
c) Combining equation 0630a and 0630b
d) Equation 0626
e) Equation 0629
f) Inserting results in 0630e
THE PLANCKS CONSTANT h
The Planck constant consist of the atom is the relationship between emitted energy quantum (see equation 0628 ) and the frequency of the
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Rydberg's constant is the inverse value of the emitted light wavelength, the f(n) and Z terms not included. We calculate Rydberg's constant below :
A0634
a) The equation 0630f
b) Equation 0619b for the limit force between 2 electrons on distance 2x re
c) The wave length when the radiation velocity is equal to c, the equation 0142
The reason for the small discrepancy is that the relation Rp/re is some 19% too large in comparison to the measured value of a1=137.03. In turn the reason for that is due to imprecisely known parameters of mass distribution, difference in mass density between the electron and the proton, and charge distribution of the proton and the electron particles respectively.
A0632
Anyhow with that the relation 0631 shows that Plancks constant is a system constant for the atom, only, and not any general constant usable for other types of particle systems.
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BOHRS QUANTUM MECHANIC RELATION
Its well known that Bohr made use of a mathematical relation that he not on pure
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theoretical ground could motivate. Even later quantum mechanical theory has not succeeded to present any good motivation of this relationship.
Bohr's quantum mechanical relation, written m.v.D=n.h/(2.p) then is computed in the following way: Inserting the result of 0624,0626,0631 in the product of m.v.D: :
A0633
a) The equation 0604
b) The equation 0626
c) Combination of 0624 and 0626
d) The equation 0631 for Plancks constant
e) End expression for the product m.v.D, the Bohrs quantum mechanical relation.
which is the quantum mechanical condition that Bohr used for his quantum theory, but without giving any physical/mathematical or logical motivation to it.
From equation 0217 we compute the proton radius to approximately 35 fermi (1 fermi=1E15 meters). The official sanctioned value for the proton radius is assigned to the charge radius of a point particle, hence not the same as the mass inertial radius (or the spatial extension) of a particle. The charge radius being in the range of 1 to 2 fermi.
Its important to make this distinction very clear, that because otherwise its easy to make mistakes in the interpretation of this particle or system parameter.
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DERIVATION OF THE SHRDINGER EQUATION
A0639
a) Equation 0620a b) Equation 0626a
c) Equation 0101 d) Equation 0620b
e) Equation 0627c f) Equation 0624
g) Equation 0623c h) Equation 0627b
i) Equation 0631c j) Equation 0619b
k) Equation 0619b
d) Rydbergs constant is defined as the inverse value of the wavelength , f(n) and Z not included.
THE MINIMUM ENERGY QUANTUM
The minimum energy quantum as emitted from an ordinary atom is 13.6 eV (electron volts), calculated below :
A0635a A0635b
The equation 0628
Common definition of energy expressed in units of electron volt, (see definition 0636 ).
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C) The least possible energy quanta from an ordinary atom 13.6 eV
0636
1 electron volt is defined as this work performed by a charged particle with unity charge when moving in an electric field and where the voltage drop is 1 volt
NUMERIC DETERMINATION OF SOME ATOMIC CONSTANTS
By inserting figures of known physical constants in the formulae above is achieved
re= 2.817 940 923E15 0637
a_1 = 137.035 989 561
c = 2.99 792 458 E8
vbohr = 2.187691417E6 .Z/n
Dbohr= 5.29 174 2489E11 n2/Z
THE SHRDINGER EQUATION
Shrdinger's wave equation has been of central importance in the development of atomic quantum theory. The equation is represented by the function y. Much has been speculated about what this mystical equation really stands for and what it represents or how it should be interpreted physically. The most usual interpretation is that it describe the probability of finding an electron in a specific point in the atomic system. It will here be shown that it, in principle, is the same as our equation 0620 above, but transformed to conditions at the orbital level of the atom. In our equation the function stands for this deviation from a neutral position the proton in the nucleus show up in each time event. transformed to the electron shell level. In its most simple form, Shrdinger's equation may be written as:
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The numerical value of the atomic fine structure constants (inverse) as here estimated to the value of 1/149.9 that is to be compared with the exact measured value of 1/137.03, that means 9.4% too small. But in pure theoretical calculus as here performed, where many uncertain factors are involved, a result within limits of 10% may be seen as a good result.
One source of error may be that we not exactly know the distribution of mass in a proton and an electron. Another factor of error may be how the electric force field is distributed around a particle body.
From history is well known that many have tried to find logical explanations to the atomic constants with start from mostly pure philosophical speculations.
In most these cases one have started from the idea that these constants not can be explained by rational methods but are associated with mystical numbers, like
If the value of k/v2 is inserted in 0639, Shrdingers equation In 0638 is received.
A0639
SOME CONCLUSIONS
Most of all the results here achieved correspond well with known results, accepted in current quantum physical theories, but there are also differences that deserve some attention. In some distinct points we here summarize the most important and unique results that have been so far arrived:
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Quantum mechanical processes within an atom can be described in terms of well known physical laws from electro physics and by using Newton's mass inertial laws on it. In this way the model gives a full deterministic description of these processes going on in the atom.
Planck's constant is an atomic system constant limited to atomic systems or atomic like systems, and having no common use. The constant is composed by four other more fundamental entities, the electron rest mass me, the electron rest radius re, the velocity of light c, and the proton rest mass, Mp.
The atomic fine structure constant is a relation between the electron rest mass me, and the proton rest mass Mp, risen to 2/3, (the exact value corresponds to the exponent of 0.65467 instead of 2/3 = 0.6667. This constant is contained in Planck's constant, which can be written h= 2p me.re.c.a1, where a1= Mp /me risen to 2/3 approximately.
The proton is a point particle with an isotropic distribution of matter (no quarks as current theory suggests). Mass density in all pointformed particles is regarded as a constants entity, question mark for electron. .
The proton radius or its geometrical extension is in the range of 35 fermi, hence larger than given from official data, 1 to 2 fermi. The proton radius as here discussed is the proton's spatial extension, not its charge equivalence radius as seen by another charged particle at probing..
The frequency of emitted radiation, usually light, from an atom, is not the orbital frequency of the electron, but a mean value of the difference between two successive stable proton oscillating states. An analogy is how signals are mixed in a radio receiver
Elementary particles of extreme nature, since they have a pointstructure, have polarized electric fields as well as even magnetic polarize field
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h is Planck's constant and p is the particle's momentum, the m.v.
If for test we do an estimation of the electron's radius with aid of De Broglie's formula for the innermost orbit, is valid that vo = c/a1, which gives l=re.a12 = 18774 x re, which of course is a completely erroneous value.
If we are kind we may put vo =c , then we achieve a considerable smaller value, but still more than 100 times larger than the classical radius of the electron. If we for a proton that moves with the velocity of light uses the same formula, we achieve 0.2 fermi, giving 10 times smaller result than this value that can be established by probing experiments measurement.
Hence, De Broglie's idea is not useable when estimating the spatial extension of elementary particles.
for instance the number of p, and the base of the natural logarithms, the number of "e".
It is a matter of fact that these speculations are erroneous, leading nowhere. As said before, these atomic constants have no common use, valid in atoms or atomic like particle systems, only.
Another parameter we briefly shall discuss is the radius or extension of a particle. Much researching activities have been performed, aimed to get an idea of this parameter, both regarding systems of particles as well as for single elementary particles.
Ernest Rutherford was the first scientist who by experiment and theoretical calculus, estimated the size of the atomic nucleus. He found that the atom mostly was empty void, where the active mass was concentrated in a centre point, the atomic nucleus core.
He bombarded a thin barrier of a gold atoms target with alpha particles (a two valence
atomic fragment equivalent with a helium nuclei) and studied how these particles were spread in the environment after the collision event.
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He estimated the gold atom nucleus as having an extension of about 47 fermi (1 fermi is 1E15 meter).
Recounting this value to the particle level of a single nucleon entity (using the drop model of the atomic core) , a proton or neutron entity, give a value of about 7 fermi (presumed that the nucleons in the kernel is very hard packet), that we not are exactly sure about however).
Newer experiments, using other experimental methods, have given values around 12 fermi, hence largely diverging from Rutherford's origin result (Obs! The charge radius).
But as a remark, it is usually pointed out that these results not shall be taken too seriously, there are always many unsure factors involved into these measurements, also indirectly interpreted by mathematical tools.
Its fully clear it is not the geometric radius that is measured in these probing experiments, but instead an equivalent "charging radius" that is seen by the probing charged particles. This "radius" will be the same unregarding particle type of a unit charged particle forms and is independent of mass or geometrical extension. The "classical" electron radius is got by pure theoretical calculus to 2.83 fermi, by integrating the charge force from infinity to the limiting radius limit. In our theory, we have not derived the electron radius in this way, but instead from start how the electrical Coulomb force is generated. In this context it's hard to believe that a particle, like for instance a proton being nearly 2000 times heavier, has the same radius (spatial extension) as an electron has. But that will be the case if we shall believe on current "experimental" interpretations in this task.
However, later in this theory we shall further investigate these properties of elementary particles. In classic theory its usual to do a rough estimation of a particle's spatial extension by using De Brogue's idea that each particle or body moving, is associated with a wave. The relation that is used is l =h/(2.p.p), where l is the wavelength or the spatial extension,
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End result for the orbital radius according equation 0626 where the orbital particle of an electron has been replaced by a myon particle.
THE BOHR MAGNETON
When an orbital electron moves in an atomic system, that is equivalent with a closed electric current loop. This current loop generates a magnetic field and a magnetic momentum, which by tradition is computed by
A0643
Where u is the calculated magnetic momentum, i is the current strength and A is the area that the current loop encloses.
Then, what is the reason to this great uncertainty of the spatial extension of elementary particles?
Of course the most simple answer is that all measurements must be done by indirect methods, by pure mathematical estimations, or by a mixture of them both.
Most of all experiments are performed approximately in the same way as Rutherford did, meaning charged particles with high energy being shot towards for instance an atomic core, studying the spreading in the environment space.
What the probe particles in all these experiment 'see' is a pointformed charge and not a particle that occupy a specific volume in space. The measuring result will be the same unregarding content of mass. Hence the extension of an electron and a proton will be the same in this probing.
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Therefore, we must make distinction between a particle's "charge radius" and a particle's "spatial radius".
The spatial radius only can be achieved by collision experiments "head on" with aid of uncharged point particles, and where the extension of the probe particles itself are well known. But that is not the case, even the probe particles have spatial extensions with value that is not known.
THE uMESON ATOM
In an "ordinary" atom the orbiting particles are electrons. However, if these electrons are substituted by myon, which are some kind of a heavy electron particles, but having a mass being approximately 207 times larger, a new sort of atom is achieved, or a new sort of matter. Atoms of this kind decay very rapidly, however, but they live so long time that they can be registered ln experiments.
We apply our theory on this type of atom. By starting from the formula 0636 and making some transformations on it, using results
from our theory. We find that the results will be the same as from conventional quantum theory.
The following transforms are performed
A0644
a) Equation 0626 b) Equation 0631c
c) Equation 0323c d) Equation 0322f
e) Equation 0323 f) Equation 0437
g) inserting parameters in equation 0641a
Reducing the expression in 0641 to a more conventional form, giving:
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and interpreted. We compute the revolution frequency of the electron in accordance with the formulae:
a) Equation 0431b
b) Equation 0551b
c) Equivalence between 0648a and 0648bb
d) Equivalents between 0648a and 0648b
e) Extracting of the velocity v
f) Equation 0141b
The electron that moves in the innermost orbit in the hydrogen atom, generates a magnetic momentum in accordance with the above equation. This momentum has been given the name of "Bohr magneton". We make use of the following equations for deriving the Bohr magneton:
A0644
a) Equation 0621b
b) Equation 0624
c) Equation 0626
d) Equation 0342
e) Equation 0631c
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The orbiting electron encloses the following area:
A0645
A0646
Now we insert the values in equation 0644 and get:
This equation can also be converted to an equation where the magnetic constant uo is included. That is done in the following way
A0647
ARTIFICIAL ATOMS
A new favourite sport in the physical research is to catch single atomic ions (charged atoms) or single particles in electromagnetic traps where they can be studied during very long time.
A sole electron caught in this way and where the electron moves in a closed orbit, can in some respect be compared with an artificial atom without material core in the revolution centre. And in this way sometimes this arrangement has been presented and
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A0651
The virtual impedance between two charged points in the matrix array
g) Calculating the orbiting time of a circular orbit, equation 0621b
h) Combining 0648f and 0648g
i) Inserting the value on v from the equation 0648e in equation 0648h
j) Inserting 0646j in 0646i
When studying this formula seduces us to believe that these artificial atoms not have something to do with the conditions in an ordinary atom having an active charged core.
However, as said before, every attempt to generalize the atomic constants and relations outside the atom is doomed to fail. With a simple operation performed on the formula above, we can easily see that Planck's constant can be eliminated.
We compute the revolution frequency of the electron in accordance with
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hence, contains no factor from the common quantum mechanics.
Clearly talking, Planks constant is a pure atomic constant, having no common use for all complex particle systems. Thats also true for all other constants associated with common matter.
THE QUANTUM MECHANICAL HALL EFFECT
Ohms law is known and defined as the law where the electric current flowing through an electric conductor is in exact proportion to the voltage amplitude applied over the substrate.
In 1985 Klaus von Klitzing (Nobel Prize awarded) discovered that this law was not exactly true during special conditions. When cooled down the substrate to a temperature very near the absolute temperature of 0K, it was shown that the current flow and hence even the electrical resistance in the substrate was quantified in integer quantum steps of the material. We will here derive a formula for the phenomenon, using basic concepts of our own theory as a base. We assume elementary charges (electrons for instance) are outplaced in an array structure. Between each point in this structure there exists an exchange of matter in the electric field, E
We study such pair of electrical charged points as a small capacitor.
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A0655
However, in common theory building this expression is presented in a some different way. As a consequence of that, we will convert this expression to this common form:
A0656
When the external Bfield is applied over the substrate, transversally over it, the electric field lines will be effected by a force.
Then the electrical point charges will be effected by a twisting force and the capacitor parameters will be changed by a little divergence in distance, dD. Hence we name this change in distance between the charged points by dD.
The B field will create a force B.e.v (0423), where B is the applied magnetic field density, e the point charge and v the point charges velocity in the magnetic field (formula 0432 some restructured).
The force holding back the magnetic force, is the Coulomb force acting between the charged points (electrons) and the core particles into the atom. These two forces (Fb, Fe), act on a momentum arm of distance D, where D is the electrons intermittent distance to the core. Calculating the deviation distance dD of the point charged placement in the matrix position
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A0653
Used relations from results in our theory
Calculation of the deviation value dD when applying a magnetic field with density B over the substrate
A0654
Combining results from 0663 and 0664 gives:
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Readers notes:
A06END
A0656
The first term has the unity of ohm and the complete expression has the unity of ohm per length unit over a square.
h/(e2.n) = 25 990 ohm
eo/(a21.re) = 0.16666
2/p = 0.63662
Then the total factor after the main impedance expression will be:
0.1666 x 0.6666 x 7.3 = 0.8 = appr
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A0658
Expressing the same thing in a more fundamental way as here derived, it will be :
A0660
Picture got from Quantum Hall Effect 05/02/87 by David R. Leadley
The Hall effect has got many practical applications in probes and sensors, especially useable in dusty and dirty places.
Even used as nonmechanic commutations in electric motors.
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source) get energy that later on is reradiated in form of light..
Even other forms of light sources are known, for instance the radiation from elementary particles, effected by angular acceleration in particle accelerators or from particles which with high velocity penetrate a dense transparent medium in which the propagating velocity of light is some lower than that compared with the velocity in free space (Cherencov light), named after its discover).
However, the most important light sources constitutes by stimulating ordinary atoms. This type of radiation has been studied and treated carefully in our atomic theory (chapter 6 and 7 ) when deducing the fundamental atomic constant and quantum relationships.
However, the relationship E=h.f (formula 0632) from the quantum theory, describing the relation between the emitted energy quantum and the frequency of it, being the most missinterpreted relation in the
Chapter 8
THE NATURE OF LIGHT
INTRODUCTORY DISCUSSION
003
SOME HISTORICAL FACTS
010
STRATEGY FOR AN ANALYSIS OF THE NATURE OF LIGHT
020
SOME DEFINITIONS
022
A PHOTON
022
LIGHT AS BALLISTIC PARTICLES
023
LIGHT IN RITZ CASE
023
ETHER THEORIES
024
LIGHT IN RITZ CASE
024
THE LIGHT BEHAVIOUR TOWARDS A MIRROR SURFACE
025
DESCRIPTION OF THE ANALYSIS
028
THE BALLISTIC CASE
030
RITZS THEORY
031
THE ETHER THEORY
032
EINSTEINS LIGHT POSTULATE
033
OTHER PROPERTIES OF LIGHT
034
DEFINITION OF FREQUENCY PARAMETERS
035
THE BALLISTIC THEROY IN THE FREQUENCY DOMAIN
037
RITS THEORY IN THEFREQUENCE DOMAIN
038
THE ETHER THEORY IN THE FREQUENCE DOMAIN
039
THE EINSTEIN THEORY IN THE FREQUENCE DOMAIN
040
THE CLOSED ROOM MYSTERY
041
THE BALLISTIC THEORY
043
THE RITZ THEORY
044
THE ETHER THEORY
044
THE RITZ THEORY
045
MICHELSON & MORLEYS LIGHT ETER EXPERIMENT
045
MICHELSONS EXPERIMENT AND THE ETER THEORY
046
EINSTEINS THEORY
051
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RITZ AND THE BALLISTIC CASE
052
CONCLUSIONS MICHELSON & MORLEYS LIGHT EXPERIMENT
057
LIGHT AS A WAVE OF MATTER
057
LIGHT AND EINSTEINS THEORY
057
THE LIGHT BUBBLE AND THE LIGHT FLASH
061
THE BUBBLE AND EINSTEINS THEORY
063
THE LIGHT BUBBLE AND THE ETER THEORY
065
THE LIGHT BUBBLE AND THE RITZ/BALLISTIC THEORY
066
LIGHT TIME, DISTANCE, AND VELOCITY
067
ABERRATION OF STAR LIGHT
070
LIGHT DEVIATION AT THE SUN SURFACE
074
SOME COMMENTS TO THE RESULT
080
GRAVITATIONAL RED/BLUE SHIFT OF LIGHT
083
RED/BLUE SHIFT FROM MOVING SOURCES
088
BRIEF SUMMARY REGARDING THE LIGHT DOPPLER EFFECT
090
RED/BLUE SHIFT OF LIGHT FROM DISTANT STARS
092
THE DE SITTERS ARGUMENT FOR LIGHT EMANATING FROM DOUBLE STARS
097
A SMALL CALCULATION ON A SYSTEM OF DOUBLE STARS
106
DE SAGNAS EXPERIMENT
113
COMPTONS EXPERIMENT WITH AID OF XRAYS
117
ESTIMATION OF MASS OF A UNIT PHOTON
122
MEASURENT OF THE LIGHT VELOCITY
129
LIGHT A WAVE OF MATTER
140
WALLACE KANTORS BOOK ABOUT NATURE OF LIG
143
THE CORIOLIS EFFECT
144
STAR LIGHT DEVIATION CALCULATED BY A COMPUTER PROGRAM
08146
XA1010
INTRODUCTORY DISCUSSION
As light we usually define this radiation that we can register visually, hence by our eyes, but in a more strictly meaning the concept also includes radiation with frequencies outside the visible area, for instance the infrared and ultraviolet areas.
Most commonly, the light source is an atomic system that by supply of energy from an external source (for instance a thermal
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For generating moving light sources, usually moving (rotating) mirrors are used. Even experiments with radar waves in space have been performed (in established theory radio waves and light is the same physical phenomenon, even if that not is verified by experiments).
In all these experiments there are great difficulties in interpreting the results, that because of all different experimental parameters involved in combination with the claim of the extreme accuracy needed.
Hundreds types of experiments have been performed during the latest centuries, still there is no secure answer given on this very fundamental problem.
In aim of avoiding interpreting errors one alternative is to do experiments where only time and distance are involved, that means, experiments where no interference or Doppler effects are effecting the result.
By using modern laser techniques combined
history of physics. This relation is often attributed inherent properties of the free light photon itself as propagating in free space, but that is not true. As shown in our atomic theory, the relation only disclosures the inherent properties of the atomic system, hence the source that generates the light radiation.
Light is characterized by some characteristic properties which can be summarized by :
a velocity in free space
a frequency or wavelength
a flow of energy or intensity.
The velocity of light in free space is in established theory determined to an absolute constant entity. A lot of experiments with an increasing degree of precision have been performed during a period of many centuries.
But most of all done measurements are performed in static measurement arrangement, meaning that both the source and the receiver are in relative rest.Statical measurements done show the following results:
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0801
1676 Rmer 302.000 km/s
1727 Bradley 299.000 km/s
1849 Fizeau 314,000 km/s
1862 Foucault 298,000 km/s
1876 Corno 300,400 km/s
1902 Michelson 299,880 km/s
1926 Michelson 299,796 km/s
1949 Bergstrand 299,792,7 km/s
1958 Froome 299,792.5 km/s
1974 Terrien 299,792.458
The latest information available is got from the CODATA TASK GROUP OF FUNDAMENTAL CONSTANTS, giving the value of the light propagation velocity in vacuum to 2.99792458(12)E8 m/s.
The first determination of the velocity of light using astronomical observations was done by the Danish scientist O.Rmer.
Later on, earth bounded experiments were performed where a light ray was divided by a rotating wheel with slits and where the light was reflected through that wheel via a mirror mounted on a static distance from it. At a distinct revolving velocity of the wheel the reflected light passed the wheel on its way back and by that it was easy to calculate the light velocity with good accuracy.
In modern science mainly laser interference techniques are used for this purpose. That is a method giving extremely high accuracy, but saying nothing about whether the velocity of light is dependent or independent of source or observer movements.
In interference measurements a phenomenon is used where interference fringes are generated when two spliced light rays from the same light source are slightly phase shifted in time. In time/distance measurements, time and distance are determined separately, then the light velocity is calculated by the common relation v=s/t (see the formula 0101)..
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instance, (see chapter 3,4,5), with results derived from his electromagnetic theory. In doing so, he succeeded to get a mathematical agreement that could be interpreted so that light was waves, an interpretation that become the leading idea since then.
In spite of that, experiments later on showed that Maxwell was wrong on this point, but his electromagnetic theory still is regarded as a creation not permitted to put in question.
One of these experiments was Michelson and Morelys experiment from 1887, one experiment among many that not was able to confirm Maxwells wave light theory.
A0820
by satellite, such an experiment would today be able to be performed (for such an experiment is accounted for later in this chapter).
The outcome of such an optical experiment would be of extremely importance, having farreaching consequences for the whole fundamental ideas of modern physics.
As to mention some detail regarding light properties, the theory of relativity is basically founded on the validity of the constant propagating velocity of light in the vacuum space. If not invariant, this theory must be totally revaluated, which of course would cause farreaching consequences for the conceptual ideas in the whole part of fundamental physics.
A small but in any case well documented divergence in the measurement of the light propagating velocity in the vacuum space, measured between moving objects involved, would determine whether or not this hypothesis is correct or not.
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SOME HISTORIC FACTS
The fundamental nature and behaviour of lightwhether wave or particles having constant or variable propagating velocity in the free space, together with varying interpretations of its physical effects in different physical relations, has been, and still remains, a steady source of debate, that has continued now for many centuries in the area of physical research.
If we begin with Isac Newton (16421727), who worked out very fundamental theories in the science of optics, his basic opinion of light was, that light was composed by particles (corpuscles), while a contemporary scientist of Newton, C. Huygens (162995) was of a different and conflicting opinion, namely that light was to be regarded as waves in a medium, the lightbearing medium even named the ether.
Since this time, many other scientists, researchers and philosophers have worked with this problem, giving us new experimental
results and experiences as well as different interpretations by new theories. However, in spite of all these efforts we can still not see any end of this very confusing and frustrating situation and the uncertainty seems today to be nearly total and we are almost as far away from a final solution as in Newtons time.
Looking some back through the history, the wave hypothesis of light propagation has been the most predominated idea. In spite of that, no convincing experimental evidences exist for such a belief. In studying Maxwells electromagnetic theory, we see that this theory from the beginning was worked out with the hypothesis of existence of an ether medium in the free space, a concept that later on was divorced from the theory.
The mathematical formalism stood by itself without the concept of existence of this hypothetical space medium.
Anyway, Maxwell performed his calculations comparing the already well known general waveequation describing how waves were propagating in a medium (sound in air for
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solutions were fully satisfactory and in 1905, when Einstein presented his special theory of relativity, this debate declined as a result of Einstein totally abolishing the ether concept, announcing that light propagates as by an incorruptible physical constant velocity value, both with respect to source and to observer movements and useable as an common reference to all other movements. Since then, no one on logical/scientific grounds, have succeeded in explaining Michelsons experiment by using Einsteins ideas; the problem remains still being unsolved.
As a remark, Einstein kept the length contraction hypothesis as a physical phenomenon but at the same time abolishing the ether concept, this medium being suggested as responsible for this assumed contraction!
The relativists refute this critics by saying that the length contraction just is imaginary, not real. It exists but cannot be registered in your own reference system.
Hence, not much was satisfactory explained
The intention by it was to, by start from the common wave hypothesis of light as an ether wave, establish or confirm this hypothesis by measuring the earths velocity in the solar orbit through that assumed static ether.
Theoretical calculations had been performed of the awaited displacement effect in an interference pattern when the apparatus was twisted in relation to the earths movement in the solar orbit. But as is well known, the awaited effect from this experiment was failed to appear. Hence, Maxwells hypothesis was not confirmed (see Chapter 5).
The reason for that seemingly contradicting result presumably was to find in the fact that light not is waves in an ether but instead a wave of matter (a particle burst). The general wave equation is still valid for the particle wave case,
A some desperate situation arose were one tried to find a solution on this dilemma and a lot of more or less fantasy fully suggestions were proposed
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Errors in the apparatus equipments However, estimations done of the result achieved showed that the equipments quality and exactness was fully good for the given purpose.
The ether was static in relation to the earth by the gravitation
The apparatus was influenced by the ether or by other unknown factors outside experimental control.
Parts of the apparatus changed its geometric extension, length, by effect from the ether (etherdrag so named)
Maxwells theory was erroneous One was not prepared to put Maxwells electromagnetic theory into question and its interpretation of the lights electro magnetic nature
Remaining alternatives that could influence the experimental outcome was unknown factors and as a consequence of that, a hunt for these factors was initiated.
That the light ether not existed or was nonexistent for light propagation was hardly not put into question...
The most natural and immediate reaction was to assume that the ether for some very strange reason perhaps because of the earths gravitational force field, was dragged by the earths movement, being more or less stationary or immovable related to the equipment.
However, this hypothesis was introducing a lot of other contradicting and logical problems and was for that reason soon neglected as a possible alternative of solution.
In year 1892, H.Lorentz (18631928), introduced, along with another researcher, Fitzgerald, and independently of each other, the hypothesis that one of the measuring arms of the interferometer apparatus (in the moving direction) of some very strange reason, was changed in length as a result of an ether drag from the surrounding ether field. And by using some mathematical tricks on this idea, this idea scanty could motivate the not observed and not awaited effect of the experiment.
However, no one of these suggested
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STRATEGY FOR AN ANALYSIS OF THE NATURE OF LIGHT
We will here do an attempt to perform a collected evaluation of different views concerning light, using analytical and objective methods, all in line with known and accepted scientific rules
We will make a study of some wellknown experiments and examine the results in relation to existing theories about light. These basic ideas are:
Ether theories
Ballistic theories, particles
Ritz emission theory, particles
Einsteins theory. not ether, particles ?
For the particle theories, we make use of the light particle nature as start, that together with well tested and accepted physical laws in accord with Newtons mass inertial laws. That together what we know about light interaction with matter, the atomic system . Regarding the ether theories, we assume light is transported
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by Einsteins theory, where light was allotted supernatural properties. And his basic assumptions regarding the properties of light were purely hypothetical without any strong experimental ground.
In 1908 an alternative theory appeared, presented by Walter Ritz, who made an attempt to modify Einsteins ideas in order to overcome the logical problems of the suggested light properties that Einsteins theory had suggested. Ritz suggested light being burst of particles, hence not ether waves, where these particles where reemitted from matter, which means, coming back with the matters internal velocity = c.
However, the theory was rejected because it was said that it was in conflict with the behaviour of light coming from binary stars and also being in conflict with Maxwells electromagnetic theory of light, that theory in turn being in conflict with Michelsons light ether experiment, hence not experimentally confirmed.
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(De Sitters argument of light emitted from double stars is one of these few experiments that give mental support of the relativistic believe, most of other experiments are in conflict with that theory, or more exact not either confirm or rejected it, giving zero result without any scientific value at all..
Our conclusion must be, that science not has had the ability to draw the correct consequences or conclusions from all these facts today available in an objective and inaffected way.
The situation is today not changed significantly, the confusion and uncertainties seemingly having become more or less total and as a makeshift solution one has now decided light as being composed of both particles and waves.
And in spite of logical contradictions of very serious nature, the ideas of light possessing such supernatural properties are still insisted on, in the name of Einsteins great authority
and his fantastic postulate that the light propagating velocity is independent of the motion of both source and receiver.
Why many experiments seems to show that light velocity is invariant to its nature may depend on the way light interacts with matter, and not as a separate property of light itself.
The relativists (those who support Einsteins ideas) and the etherist (those who believe in a lightbearing medium) as well as all other groups of different opinions still use all sorts of artful tricks and arguments to defend and maintain just their own favourite idea or beliefs, methods which often have very little in common with a true scientific search for truth.
This is a rough and brief description of the current situation in this matter and the discussions today going on in connection to these special things in physics.
XA084
Copyright Cadelco AB Sweden 2007 Copyright Cadelco AB Sweden 200708024 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 08021
ETHER THEORIES 0805
If light is ether waves, light energy is transported in this ether in approximately the same way as waves in other kinds of media are transported. Energy in such an ether is transported with constant velocity in relation to the ether, but not related to the source and to the receiver if moving. In addition to that may be said that the frequency and the wavelength parameters are not symmetrical in relation to the source and the receiver, but differ from it when moving.
EINSTEINS 0806 POSTULAT OF LIGHT
Einsteins light postulate says that the velocity of light is constant in relation to all other movements in the vicinity space, hence constitutes a common reference for all movement. Such an assumption claims change in space and time to work. There is no clear picture of the correlation between these entities and there is no reason given for why such change of space and time
as pure energy by aid of the medium and for Einsteins theories, his light postulate is the base.
For comparison reason, the same experimental basis and arrangement will be used for all chosen hypotheses and the same conditions are used for making comparing possible. And the judging will be done one purely objective and scientific grounds, all in line with well accepted and common scientific methods.
It has never been proved that light moves with constant velocity to all things in its environment space
It has never been proved that light is electromagnetic waves being able to induce an emf in an electric conductor
Most things point on that light is a wave of matter, hence a stream of neutral particles and that light is reemitted from matter when hit by it.
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If light not was reemitted from objects, but reflected, no objects would be visible in normal sunlight, hence we should live in an invisible world. (the sun light lacks colour)
SOME DEFINITIONS
For clearness and for avoiding of misunderstanding, we at first perform a number of definitions regarding the different hypotheses used.
A PHOTON 0802
Light appear in energy packets, named photons. A light photon contains of an energy quantum, frequency (colour) and wavelength and the energy is coupled to the relation E=h.f, where h is the Plancks constant (0632)
XA085
LIGHT AS BALLISTIC 0803 PARTICLES
If light is ballistic particles, light is treated in the same way as for ordinary matter in accord with Newtons mass inertial laws. A light photon then behave in the same way as when a ball is bouncing towards a wall what regards mass, energy and impulse (see 0131/4)
LIGHT IN RITZ CASE 0804
In accord with Ritzs theorem, light interacts with matter in such a way, that this light hitting a mirror or other kind of matter, always is reemitted with velocity c related to the subject.
Hence, there is no reflection of incoming light, but a reemitting from these parts of matter that has been stimulated by the incoming light. Simply said, an object (a mirror for instance) always will be a new light source. In most experiments the ballistic theory and the Ritz theory give the same result. The Ritz theory explain the slow light hypothesis of distant stellar objects in a more satisfactory way.
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DESCRIPTION OF THE ANALYSIS
Here below, we will now perform a consequence analysis of 4 different hypotheses regarding light propagation 1) the ballistic theory 2) Ritz emission theory 3) the ether theory and 4) the theory based upon Einsteins postulate of light. The analysis is done by aid of the equipment shown in figure 0807 and is preformed in exactly the same way for all the given alternatives, that for making possible a correct comparison and judging.
This or these theories giving results being in agree with known facts of experimental experiences, then are judged to be more true than the other alternatives showing up experimental or logical contradictions.
But sorry to say it is shown impossible on scientific ground making a reliable analysis of Einsteins theory on the same logical premises as for other alternative theories. On this ground Einsteins theory cannot be judged as true or false on pute scientific ground.
really occur because of changed relationships to other objects in the vicinity void. The postulate has no scientific ground to rest on, and of that reason cannot be treated by the same scientific methods as for other hypotheses about light behaviour
THE LIGHTBEHAVIOUR TOWARDS A 0807 MIRROR SURFACE
A0807
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The following nomenclature is defined what regards the objects involved in the system (source, transmitter, receiver and reflector), as well as the velocity of light related to these objects. This nomenclature then will be used consequently in the following analysis.
Vsz
The source velocity in Z
Vrz
The receiver velocity in Z
Vmz
The mirror velocity in Z
VRsr
Relative velocity between S and R
VRrm
Relative velocity between R and M
Vsos
Out velocity from S measured in S
Vsoz
Out velocity from S measured in Z
Vsom
Out velocity from S measured relative M
Vsor
Out velocity from S, measured relative M
Vrir
Incoming velocity to R measured at R
Vsis
Incoming velocity to S measured at S
Vsiz
Incoming velocity to S measured at Z
Vriz
Incoming velocity to R measured at Z
Vmom
Out velocity from M measured relative M
Vmim
Incoming velocity to M measured relative M
Vmiz
Incoming velocity to M measured relative
Corresponding parameters in respective space point are wavelength ( l ) and frequency ( f ) of the wave. For not repeating the table for these associated parameters, just replace v and velocity in the table with l and f resoectively.
XA086
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THE ETHER THEORY 0810
Out velocity from S measured in S
Vsos = c
Out velocity from S measured in Z
Vsoz= c
In velocity to M measured in M
Vmim = c  Vmz
Out velocity from M measured in M
Vmom = Vmim
Out velocity from M measured in Z
Vmoz = c
In velocity to R measured in R
Vrir =VmozVrz
Vrir= c Vrz
Vrir= c Vrz
In the case Vrz=Vmz, Vrir most be c, other wise the theory is false. Hence we see that the ether theory not satisfy this criteria, hence being not a possible candidate.
These phases the light passes through the experiment are:
A common coordinate or reference system Z is defined for a light source S, a mirror M and a received R
The light source moves in this system with velocity Vsz, the mirror with velocity Vmz and the receiver with the velocity Vrz
A light ray is emitted from the source S in the positive direction towards the mirror M.
The output velocity of the light relative the source is denoted Vsos
Then the ray velocity related to the system Z is denoted by Vsoz.
The emitted ray then will hit the mirror M with velocity Vmiz
The mirror M will reemit the light ray with the velocity Vmom.
The reemitted light ray then will hit the received R, there registered with the velocity of Vrir
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THE BALLISTIC CASE 0808
Out velocity from S measured in S
Vsos= c
Out velocity from S measured in Z
Vsoz=c+Vsz
In velocity to M measured in M
Vmim =(c+Vsz)Vmz
Out velocity from M measured in M
Vmom =Vmin
Vmom=(c+VszVmz)
Out velocity from M measured in Z
Vmoz =Vmom+Vmz
Vmoz=cVsz+Vmz+Vmz
In velocity to R measured in R
Vrir =VmozVrz
Vrir=c+2.VmzVszVrz
Vrir=c+2.VmzVszVrz
In the case Vsz=Vrz=Vmz, Vrir most be c, otherwise the theory is false. Hence we see that the ballistic theory satisfy this criteria, hence being a possible candidate
RITZS THEORY 0809
Out velocity from S measured in S
sVos= c
Out velocity from S measured in Z
Vsoz=c+Vsz
In velocity to M measured in M
Vmim =(c+Vsz)Vmz
Out velocity from M measured in M
Vmom =c
Out velocity from M measured in Z
Vmoz =Vmom+Vmz
Vmoz=c+Vmz
In velocity to R measured in R
Vrir =VmozVrz
Vrir=c+VmzVrz
Vrir=c+VmzVrz
In the case Vrz=Vmz, Vrir most be c, other wise the theory is false. Hence we see that the Ritz emission theory satisfy this criteria, hence being a possible candidate.
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lmim
The wavelength as measured at input to M
lmom
The wavelength after M measured in M
lmoz
The frequency after M as measured in Z
lrir
The wavelength at input to R as measured in R
lriz
The wavelength at input to R, as measured in Z
In the same way as we done in the analysis of the velocity/time domain, we will make use of the same equipment as for the analysis of frequency and wavelength parameters.
Then we will find that in these cases in the time domain where some parameters have influence, it will have no influence in the frequency domain. Of that reason, detecting an active ether, if existing, only can be done in the time domain by phase shift or by direct distance/time measurement,
EINSTEINS LIGHT 0811 POSTULATE
Out velocity from S measured in S
Vsos= c
Out velocity from S measured in Z
Vsoz=c
In velocity to M measured in M
Vmim =c
Vmim= c
Out velocity from M measured in M
Vmom =Vmim
Vmom=c
Out velocity from M measured in Z
Vmoz =c
In velocity to R measured in R
Vrir =c
This case cannot be analysed in a normal scientific way and of that reason must be judged as a NOT serious alternative.
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OTHER PROPERTIES OF LIGHTt
Besides the propagating velocity of light, two other significant properties of light exist, perhaps more frequently measured. These properties are frequency and wavelength.
Frequency is the number of intensity fluctuations of the emitted light countered during a unit interval of time. The wavelength is the distance between two such successive density fluctuations, from minims to minims or to maxims to maxims.
Lets now make a study of how all these parameters for light, frequency and wavelength, in the same way as for the velocity, alter at different points in the system. We denote frequency with symbol f , and wavelength with the symbol l .
The following parameters are defined for wavelength and frequency :
DEFINITION OF FREQUENCY PARAMETERS
fsos
The frequency as measured at the source S
fsoz
The frequency as measured after the source in Z
fmim
The frequency as measured at input to M
fmom
The frequency as measured after M in M
fmoz
The frequency after M as measured in Z
frir
The frequency at input to R as measured in R
friz
The frequency at input to R, as measured in Z
DEFINITION OF LIGHT WAVE LENGTH PARAMETERS
lsos
The wavelength as measured at the source S
lsoz
The wavelength as measured after the source in Z
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THE EINSTEIN THEORY 0815 IN THE FREQUENCE DOMAIN
Out frequency from S measured in S
????????
Out frequency from S measured in Z
????????
In frequency to M measured in M
????????
Out frequency from M measured in M
????????
Out frequency from M measured in Z
????????
In frequency to R measured in R
????????
Result
NO RESULT
The Einsteins theory cannot be analyzed in the frequency domain because it lack normal scientific grounds.
THE BALLISTIC THEORY IN THE 0812
FREQUENCE DOMAIN
Out frequency from S measured in S
fsos= fo
lsos = c/fo
Out frequency from S measured in Z
fsoz=fo.(c+Vsz)/c
lsoz = (c+Vsz)/(fo.(c+Vsz)/c) = c/fo
In frequency to M measured in M
fmim =fo.(c+Vsz Vmz)/c
lmim=(c+VszVmz)/(fo.(c+VszVmz/c)= c/fo
Out frequency from M measured in M
fmom =fmim
lmom = lmim
Out frequency from M measured in Z
fmoz =fo.(c+VszVmzVmz/c
lsor= (c+Vsz2.Vsz)/(fo(c+Vsz2.Vmz)/c) = c/fo
In frequency to R measured in R
frir =fo.(c+Vsz2.Vmz+Vrz)/c
lsor = lsor = (c2.Vmz+Vsz+Vrz)/(fo.(c2.Vmz+Vsz+Vrz)/c))= c/fo
frir =fo.(c+Vsz2.Vmz+Vrz)/c
lsor = c/fo
If Vsz=Vrz=Vmz, frir must be equal to the original value of f, fo. That is the case. The wavelength will not be changed. Hence the ballistic case is a clear candidate to calculate with.
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RITSs THEORY IN THE 0813
FREQUENCE DOMAIN
Out frequency from S measured in S
fsos= fo
lsos = c/fo
Out frequency from S measured in Z
fsoz=fo.(c+Vsz)/c
lsoz = (c+Vsz)/fsoz= c/fo
In frequency to M measured in M
fmim =fo.(c+Vsz Vmz)/c
lmim=(c+VszVmz)/fmom= c/fo
Out frequency from M measured in M
fmom =fmim
lmom = lmim
Out frequency from M measured in Z
fmoz =fo.(c+VszVmzVmz)/c
lsor= (c+Vsz2.Vsz)/fmoz= c/fo
In frequency to R measured in R
frir =fo.(c+Vsz2.Vmz+Vrz)/c
lsor = (cVmz + Vrz)/frir
frir =fo.(c+Vsz2.Vmz+Vrz)/c
lsor = (c  Vmz + Vrz)/frir
If Vsz=Vrz=Vmz, frir must be equal to the original value of f, fo. That is the case. The wavelength will not be changed under the same circumstances.
Hence the Ritz model is a clear candidate to calculate with.
THE ETHER THEORY IN 0814 THE FREQUENCE DOMAIN
Out frequency from S measured in S
fsos= fo
lsos = c/fo
Out frequency from S measured in Z
fsoz=fo. c/(cVsz)
In frequency to M measured in M
fmim = fsoz. (cVmz)/c
fmim = c/(cVsz). (cVmz)/c
Out frequency from M measured in M
fmom =fmim
fmom = c/(c Vsz). (cVmz)/c
Out frequency from M measured in Z
fmoz = fmom
fmox = c/(cVsz). (c Vmz)/ c
In frequency to R measured in R
frir = fmoz . (c+Vmz)/c
frir = fo.c/(cVsz). (cVmz)/c (c+Vmz)/c
frir = fo.(c+Vmz)/c (Vsz =Vmz )
frir = fo.c/(cVsz). (cVmz)/c (c+Vmz)/c
lsor = fo
If Vsz=Vrz=Vmz, frir must be equal to the original value of f, fo. That is the case. The wavelength will not be changed. Hence the ether theory works in the frequency domain.
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THE RITZ THEORY 0818
Path
Distance
Ray velocity
Elapsed time
L > A
s/2 + v.t
c + v
t = (S/2+vt)/(c+v)
t=So/(2.c)
L B
s/2 v.t
c v
t = (S/2t)/(cv)
t=So/(2.c)
L
C.D.E.F
Sqrt((s/2) 2 + (v.t) 2)
Sqrt(c2+v2)
t= sqrt((s/2) 2+(v.t) 2))/
sqrt(c2+v2)
t=So/(2.c)
L <
C.D.E.F
Sqrt((s/2) 2 + (v.t) 2)
Sqrt(c2+v2)
t= sqrt((s/2) 2+(v.t) 2))/
sqrt(c2+v2)
t=So/(2.c)
THE ETHER THEORY 0819
Path
Distance
Ray velocity
Elapsed time
L > A
s/2 + v.t
c
t = (S/2+v.t)/ct=(S/2)/(cv)
A0816
THE CLOSED ROOM 0816
MYSTERY
We now apply the results here achieved to another thought experiment that belongs to a very well known situation in the daily life. We imagine a closed room in a state of constant and unaccelerated motion of velocity v, related to an outer reference point Z, (the room may be a railway carriage in linear motion along a railway platform).
In the centre of the room an electrical lamp is outplaced and a measuring technician walks
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around, registering different parameters of the light (time, velocity, frequency and wavelength). If our technician makes measurements at arbitrary chosen points, all experimental experiences says that
The propagating velocity of light is measured to a constant value in all points of the room
No variations in frequency and wavelength are registered when the measurement equipment is in rest
a light ray will consume equal amount of time for equal distances unregarding where in the room the measurement is performed
We now assume that the lamp is lit at time to. The light is hitting the walls, roof and floor at time t, then being reflected back to the origin source. All light rays must return simultaneously to the source point.
Light rays in the room move L>A, L>B, L>C, L>D, L>E, L>F. We make a study of this time it will take for the light to move these distances in accord with the 4 theories for light
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as we have discussed before, the Ballistic theory, the Ritz theory, the Ether theory and the Einstein theory. In all these theories the consumed time must be S/c, where s is the side of the room and c is the standard light velocity.
A0817
THE BALLISTIC THEORY 0817
Path
Distance
Ray velocity
Elapsed time
L > A
s/2 + v.t
c + v
t = (S/2+vt)/(c+v)
t=S/(2.c)
L <
s/2 v.t
c v
t = (S/2t)/(cv)
t=S/(2.c)
L > B
s/2 v.t
c v
t = (S/2t)/(cv)
t=S/(2.c)
L
C.D.E.F
Sqrt((s/2) 2 + (v.t) 2)
Sqrt(c2+v2)
t= sqrt((s/2) 2+(v.t) 2))/
sqrt(c2+v2)
t=S/(2.c)
L <
C.D.E.F
Sqrt((s/2) 2 + (v.t) 2)
Sqrt(c2+v2)
t= sqrt((s/2) 2+(v.t) 2))/
sqrt(c2+v2) t=S/(2.c)
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In the same way as Michelson, we do an estimation of this time/phase displacement that should appear if an active light ether existed. Because the ray a and b go different ways through the apparatus and the ether  these times will be different. The basic idea is that the light ray 1 will be actuated different to ray 2, because ray 1 goes straight forwards but ray 2 goes transversally through the assumed ether
Hence, on basis of the ether theory, where a light ray in this ether propagates with constant velocity in relation to the ether, we for the ray path T1a get :
A0821
L B
s/2 v.t
c
t = (S/2v.t/c
t=(S/2)/(c+v)
L
C.D.E.F
Sqrt((s/2) 2 + (v.t) 2)
c
t= sqrt((s/2) 2+(v.t) 2))/c
t=(So/2)/sqrt(c2 v2)
L <
C.D.E.F
Sqrt((s/2) 2 + (v.t) 2)
c
t= sqrt((s/2) 2+(v.t) 2))/c
t=(So/2)/sqrt(c2 v2)
Hence we find that the ether theory works for frequency and wavelength, but not for time, velocity and phase between initial wave and reflected wave. So, an assumed active light ether would be discovered by time distance measurements or by phase shift measurements in this experimebt.
But no experiments exists where such effects have been registered.
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080046 Matter Unified ISBN91973818616 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861Unified ISBN91973818616 04080047 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 08047Matter Unified ISBN9197381861
MICHELSON & MORLEYS LIGHT ETER EXPERIMENT
In aim of giving further support to our particle thesis of light, we shall now make a study of a classical experiment, Michelson & Morelys light ether experiment and by that investigate this experiment in accordance with basic principles found above. We will show, that the awaited interference effect will not occur, hence being zero, all in line with the factual outcome of the experiment.
For clearness, we begin to show how the calculations were performed according to the ether theory, later on showing that the ether theory for light was erroneous. The ether was supposed to be stationary in space and was thought to stream through all parts of the measuring apparatus.
The apparatus worked so that a light ray was emitted from a monochrome (one coloured) source and was split into two separate rays. One of these rays was directed straight forwards, then was reflected by a mirror, the other part was
directed 90 degrees transversally towards the moving direction, then was reflected by a mirror Then both rays were put together in a common observer point.
Then, if the light rays, at turning the apparatus in different directions in relation to the hypothetical light ether stream, the consumption of time would be differing. Then the earth velocity in the sun orbit would be possible to be determined by calculation. However, no such change effect in the interference pattern was observed.
MICHELSONS EXPERIMENT AND THE ETER THEORY
A0820
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system and to all parts in the system. Length contraction of physical objects as function of movement, never has been observed, and neither can be given any reasonable physical motivation. The mathematical expression c+v has no physical relevance in his theory. On these reasons there is impossible to do a scientific analysis of Michelson & Morleys experiment in association to Einsteins light postulate. His theory is falling on its own absurdity.
RITZ AND THE BALLISTIC CASE
We start with the assumption that light is made up by particles, being additive to movements of the source. That is true for both Ritz and the Ballistic theory. However, when reflection towards a mirror surface there is a difference. In the Ritzian case, the input beam is reverted to the velocity of c, independently of the input beam velocity (it is the matter that reemit the light with velocity c). In the ballistic case the beam is returned with a velocity affected by the input beam velocity (see 0131/4). However, in this special experiment,
Solving out the time parameters T1a T1b from the equations
A0822
The total time for beam T1 is the summary of T1a and T1b hence :
A0823
For beam T2, we calculate the distance this ray moves forward and backwards in transversal direction in relation to the moving direction:
Copyright Cadelco AB Sweden 2007 Copyright Cadelco AB Sweden 200708050 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 08051A0824
and the total time T2 for beam 2 then will be :
A0825
The expression 0823 and 0825 are 2 completely different mathematical functions, that means, are changing differently when turning the apparatus in relation to the movement direction. And of that reason a change in the reference pattern would appear. But that is not the experimental outcome, there is no change observed.
In aim to overcome this dilemma, Lorentz and Fitzgerald 1898 (independently of each other) were suggesting that this divergence would be inhibited by aid of a mathematical trick, multiplying the time expression of the bbeam by a factor 1v2/c2)1/2, the Lorentz factor, having a physical equivalence in a length contraction, or distance contraction of the arm in the direction of motion.
However, from a pure physical viewpoint, it was very hard to motivate such a physical effect. This hypothesis was given the name of LorentzFitzgerald contraction.
The idea was later on introduced by Einstein in his special theory of relativity, but with changed basic presumptions, there inhibiting the assumed reason to the effect, the drag effect from the ether.
But observe, there is still lacking experimental evidences on that length contraction of physical objects as function of movement exists.
EINSTEINS THEORY
In Einsteins theory the light velocity is invariant in relation to both outer reference
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Hence, for the beam 2 the consumption of time is :
A0828
Hence we find that the phase/time difference between beam 1 and beam 2 is unchanged when turning round the apparatus related to the moving direction.
XA087
both these cases coincide, that because both the light source and all mirrors are moving in the same reference system and with the same velocity.
A0826
For beam 1 is valid, that if the light hits the first twisted mirror, half of the light goes straight forward to the vertical mirror in the moving direction. Even if the beam 1 has another velocity than c when hitting the first mirror, this mirror will normalize the beam velocity to c in relation to itself. The vertical mirror will
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move the distance v2.t before being hit by the light, having velocity c +v related to the common coordinate system, but having the velocity c related to the vertical mirror.
Hence, the vertical mirror is hit by light having velocity c related to its surface. But related to the common reference system the reflected beam has the velocity cv, but is meet by the first mirror, having velocity c +v, which means, the reflected beam velocity has velocity c related to the first twisted mirror, hence being hit by a beam having velocity c equal to the input velocity.
A0827
The other beam 2 first hit the twisted mirror, then being reflected upwards in perpendicular direction. After reflection by the horizontal placed mirror, this beam is turning back to the observer point, a point that has moved the distance v.t2a+v.t2b during this time.
Hence, this distance the beam 2 has to move is some larger than the distance 2.s (see figure), but because the beam in the same degree has change its velocity, the result of the elapsed time still will be 2s/c.
That is the difference between Ritz and the Ballistic theory contra the Ether theory and the Einsteinian theory, namely that distance and velocity are compensating each other.
In the Ether theory and in Einsteins theory, the velocity of the ray is not changed in the same proportion as the distance changes, and of that reason these theories does not work. (In both these theories light propagating velocity is invariant).
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THE LIGHT PROPAGATING VELOCITY IN FREE SPACE IS CONSTANT AND INDEPENDENT OF MOVEMENT OF THE SOURCE.
Because this theory only confess relative movements, it is not possible to judge whether source or receiver moves. Of that reason this postulate must be rewritten so that the light velocity is independent both by the source movement and the receiver movement.
Of that reason, the postulate may be rewritten to :
THE LIGHT PROPAGATING VELOCITY IN FREE SPACE IS CONSTANT AND INDEPENDENT OF MOVEMENT BOTH OF SOURCE AND RECEIVER OF THAT LIGHT.
Conclusions Michelson & Morleys light experiment
Ether theories and Einsteins theory (specially his light postulate) do not fulfil the experimental outcome of the Michelson & Morleys light experiment. Ritzs theory seems to be the best candidate of explaining all these types of experiments.
LIGHT AS A WAVE OF MATTER
A0829
Maxwells idea of light as an electromagnetic ether wave still is the predominated idea in the modern physics. However, the classical light ether on which he founded his theory, has been removed and as a substitute one today
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cryptically are talking about electromagnetic waves, propagating in an ether created by the wave itself! Not so convincing with other words.
From our own analysis of Maxwells equations in chapter 5, 0534, we found the following equations :
A0830
And Maxwells error is now relatively easy to discover. The explanation is, that for a point formed light source the mathematical description is represented by identical
mathematical functions, independently of being a wave source or a particle source.
By this statement we find that the contradictions found in both Micelsons experiment and the Maxwells theory will disappear. But we have to give up the Einsteins theory, a sacrifice easy to accept because it is erroneous.
Hence, we have found the reason of Maxwells mistake and the reason why his conclusions not was in agree with experimental outcome. Hence, the reason was, that light emits like particles from the source point and not as any waves in a hypothetical light ether medium. By that interpretation of the lights basic nature, light being pure particles, also Maxwells theory will agree with experimental outcome.
LIGHT AND EINSTEINS 0831 THEORY
Einsteins second postulate from his special theory of relative is formulated:
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during time t, but in negative direction. During this time the observer O, has moved the distance v.t in positive Xdirection and of that reason the distance between the light bubbles negative front and the observer O, will be :
A0835
that means, that the observer O, in a pure physical point of view, not is in the centre of the bubble, but recede from it.
The same reasoning may be done for the observer O. Then not either O will be in the light bubble centre, which means, the emitted light does not move with velocity c, in relation to anybody of the two observers.
We here do a brief study of this postulate and its consequences with start from a small thought experiment, described as follows :
THE LIGHT BUBBLE 0832
AND THE LIGHT FLASH
Two persons, O and O, recede or approach from each other with a relative velocity, v. In this moment when these two persons are in the same positron, the person O, lit a lamp that he has in his hand (the lamp belongs to him). The light pulse from this lamp is spread in the environment space like a bubble of light
Then we put the following question:
Whom of these persons is placed in the light bubble centre, this person having the lamp in his hand O, or the other person O, somebody, nobody or both?
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Since O, and O, both are in constant, linear movement in relation to each other, its impossible to imagine that the light bubble centre belongs to both O, and O, after an elapsed time of t. A spherical surface with two centre points does not exists in the physical world, such a shape is pure mathematical fiction.
Hence we are forces to decide to whom the light bubble belongs. For us, arguing for the particle hypothesis of light, the problem is relatively simple. Then the answer is, that the light bubble belongs to the person O, having the lamp, while the person O more and more will recede from the centre of the light bubble.
However, in accord with the relativity theory, the problem is not so simple. The second, main postulate says that the light bubble belongs to both O, and O, at the same time, that because it is said valid, that the light velocity is independent of the observers individual movements. From a logical,
common sense view, that is clearly crazy and absurd. But in spite of that, physicists have accepted it, something very astonishing.
THE BUBBLE AND 0833
EINSTEINs THEORY
Firstly, regard the observer O, who lit the lamp. Then in the positive Xdirection the light front moves the distance c.t during the time t. But at the same time O, moves the distance v.t, in the positive direction. Hence, during the time t, the positive bubble front is on the distance
A0834
This part of the light bubble that moves along the negative Xaxis, move the same distance c.t
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The modern physics is full of preconceived meanings about how we shall apprehend or interpret concepts of time, distance, mass and velocity.
The main reason to that is of course that the dogmas of the theory of relativity have been accepted as scientific truth. Of that reason its important that we try to return to the order of things, regarding these basic concepts of nature as rigid and unchangeable.
Of that reason we here even will point on another example where Einsteins interpretations will lead us to quite absurd conclusions in practical measurements, results that every scientist, lowing truth, ought to react on. The experiment is as follows:
A0841
Even if we are very kind to Einstein and assume the light move with c related to the person O, who send out the light, O will be positioned in the bubble centre, but O, will still recede from the same centre.
So our conclusion of this very simple example will be that Einsteins postulate of light does not work.
THE LIGHT BUBBLE 0836 AND THE ETER THEORY
For the Ether theory, approximately the same result is valid as for the Einsteins theory, hence that none of the observers are in phase with the light bubble movement centre point. In the Ether theory no such demands have been put forward (in Einsteins theory symmetry is a demand) but experimental experiences say that colour change of light is symmetric in relation to both movement of source and movement if the observer respectively. Only the relative velocity is deciding.
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THE LIGHT BUBBLE AND THE 0837 RITZ/BALLISTIC THEORY
Now let see what happens if we make use of the Ballistic theory or the Ritz theory. Here we can se a much better agreement with real experiences.
A0838
and for R we get :
A0839
hence O, will be in the centre of the bubble both for itself and for an outer observer. But of course O, will become out of phase from the bubbles centre point as before, receding from it.
The ether theories have the same problems as Einsteins theory, that means that O, is receding from the centre point as times goes by.
And at last, this person who not hold the lamp O, will come in asymmetry of the bubble centre in all suggested theories.
Hence, the light bubble always belongs to this person who lit the lamp, and this condition only can be satisfied with aid of the emission theories. Not Einstein or ether theories.
LIGHT TIME, DISTANCE, 0840 AND VELOCITY
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coming in touch with the walls of it.
But if the walker was moving, the raindrops would describe an inclined orbit in relation to the tube centreline with consequence that the raindrops would touch the inner walls of the tube. In order to avoid that, the walker should incline the tube at an angle related to his moving velocity
By aid of a very simple trigonometric formula this angle could be calculated to:
A0843
where v, denotes the walkers velocity along the earths surface and c, is denoting the velocity of the raindrops in the vertical direction to the earths surface.
Using Bradleys analogy and formula on the aberration phenomenon as here described and inserting the earths velocity in its orbit around
At the time 0, 3 particles are situated in the centre of the detector. The particle A is moving at right with velocity 1/2c, the particle C is moving at left with velocity 1/2c. Particle B is at rest.
Particle C outburst a light flash at time 0. This flash is registered by light sensors outplaced into the detector. The detector also can register the position of all particles. The light bulb and position of particles are registered after 3ns.
Because the light flash is emitted in this moment when all particles A,B and C are at the same position, In accord with the theory of relativitys thesis of the constant light propagation, all particles must be in the light bubbles centre after a while. Every physicist performing experiments with particles know well thats impossible. The light bulb may have only one centre, assumedly the centre of the emitting particle.
Hence, we can conclude, that the propagation
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of light only is invariant in relation to this source sending out the light. By that we in a convincing way have shown the invariant of light velocity dogma in accord with the relativity as being false.
ABERRATION OF STAR 0842 LIGHT
A0842
The aberration phenomenon of star light is a phenomenon that is got by observing light from very distant stars and can be described as follows:
The position of a polar star is recorded at a given time and then, after half a year when the earth is in the opposite position in the solar orbit, the measurement is repeated. Our first thought is that the star ought to be positioned along the same line of sight, but that is not the case. The maximum angular deviation between these two measuring events has been registered to 41 (angular seconds) and is named the telescopic aberration of starlight.
In year 1680, James Picard pointed out this fact as a result of about 10 years of observations, but first in 1725 James Bradley presented a reasonable explanation, which, however, was put into question and rejected.
Bradley made an analogy between light coming down a telescope and raindrops falling down towards a walker. He assumed light was made up of particles, here in this analogy replaced with raindrops. The walking man hold a narrow tube vertically in his hand, so that, if he stand still, the raindrops fell along the centre line of the tube without
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Where M is the earth mass, m is the photon mass, G is the gravitation constant equal to 6.67E11 (Ssee 0934) and, L is the distance between the two masses centre points.
A0846
The acceleration of the photon is a partial component of Fg
A0847
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the sun equal to 30 km/sec, we find an angular deviation that is in good agreement with the registered value of 2 x 20.5= 41. The factor 2 is got because the earth moving direction is altered between the two events of measurement.
A difference between Bradleys analogy with raindrops and the sole walker is that the telescope collect light via glass lenses, that may change or retransform the light to another velocity specific for the glass medium.
The reason to that is that the glass not pass through the original light but reradiating it
That is in agreement with Ritzs theory that we has discussed above. One argument against the particle theories for light has been, that if light from distant stars or galaxies should come in with lower velocity than c, (the slow light hypothesis), it should be registered by a differing aberration value. But different stellar objects on different distances show up the same aberration measurement.
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In Ritz theory, that is motivated by that the star light velocity is normalized in the telescope when interacting with the telescope lenses and mirrors, hence on the way down to the observers eye travelling with the same velocity c, through the telescope.
LIGHT DEVIATION AT 0844 THE SUN SURFACE
A0844
The astronomer Johann Georg von Soldner already in 1801 done a calculation how much a a light ray was deviated when passing near the sun surface based on Newtons theory of gravitation (what else?), presumably using the assumption that light has real mass, with the
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result of 0.83, the value that was first computed by Einstein but later on was adjusted to a somewhat higher value of 1.75 in better agreement with experimental findings of 1.75+10%.
We investigate how we imagine Soldner reasoned with start from Newtons law of gravity (0902) :
light are particles having mass on which gravity forces act
light is effected by gravity in approximately the same degree as for ordinary matter
From these starting points we can do the following calculations:
The active force deviating the light ray is achieved from Newtons law of gravity :
A0845
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SOME COMMENTS TO THE RESULT
Hence we find a value of 0.9. The value is in near agreement with Soldners value of 0.78.
That light is particles, we do not put that into question; yet, it may be debated whether or not gravitational forces act on the photons exactly as for ordinary matter. We know nothing about that, we can only speculate.
Hence, Einsteins theory gave a better theoretical result compared with measuring
Hence, the force that deviate the light beam will be :
A0848
The relation between X,R,L is achieved in accord with Phytagoras theorem :
A0849
But the photon moves with the velocity of c, from the star towards the sun and the observer on earth. Hence :
A0850
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Inserting 0850 in 0849 and thereafter 0849 in 0848 give
A0851
At acceleration of the photon is achieved a change in the velocity in the transversal direction of the movement, hence:
A0852
A0853
Equivalence between 0851 and 0852 is giving
Integrating this equation in respect to time from zero to infinity gives:
A0854
The relation v/c represents the deviation angle in radians on each side of the sun, hence the total deviation angle is 2.v/c radians.
(The problem here is to on analytical way doing a correct integration, but with aid of a computer program in the end of this chapter, a more correct value of 1.4 is calculated).
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The formula that describe this phenomenon is given by :
A0857
where dl( is the wavelength shift between two points D1 and D2 in the field, where l is the wavelength at the origin source. M is the gravitating body s mass, G the gravity constant and c the standard velocity of light in vacuum space.
It s easy to show, that this expression can be achieved on pure Newtonian basis, making the assumption that the gravity forces as well as inertial forces act on light particles in the same way as for ordinary matter, the result will be the same. In our case we will achieve a shift in frequency instead of wavelength as in Einsteins theory.
data, provided that data can be assigned purely gravitational effects.
The problem and shortcoming of Einsteins theory is that his theory in its most part is a pure mathematical theory, not giving any deep physical motivation to the gravitation phenomenon as a physical process, that beyond the confusing statement that the space is bent by the gravitating field.
In Einsteins theory, a light ray deviate from a straight line because of a curved space, not by reason of an acting gravitational force on the photon.
This experiment commonly is used as a proof of that Einstein was right. But, some comments can be put forward, as follow
Which effect had the sun corona on the measurement? The corona reach long distance outside the sun. Some effect would be accounted for.
Which effect had the aberration caused by the earths movement around the sun?
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The position of the reference star that was used at the measurement, was determined during night and at quite another time event. The experiment was performed during daytime.
Normally, all important experiments are repeated a large number of times and by different researchers at different events. What is known is, that this experiment was performed 19th of May 1919 and by control by the scientist Sir Arthur Eddington, at this time being one of Einsteins most devoted admirer !
In a some similar calculation where the same physical phenomenon is actual, the red/blue diverging of light in a gravitational field, Einsteins and Newtons theories give the same result. (see calculation 0864 ). This phenomenon is the same as for the sun deviation case. Then we may ask, how can this contradiction be explained or motivated
Yes, there are a lot of unanswered questions associated with this and similar types of experiments, questions that would be a subject for more investigations.
if claimed as a proof of Einsteins theories. And this experiment is one of the few that is said to confirm his theory, doing Einstein famous all over the world. (Also see our computer calculus of the same problem in the end of this chapter giving the result of 1.4 ).
GRAVITATIONAL RED/BLUE SHIFT OF LIGHT
A0856
Einsteins cult of relativity has now for many decades prevented us from reaching a better understanding and description of phenomena in the physical world.
A phenomenon treated by this mathematical theory but not given any comprehensible description or explanation is the wavelength shift of light when passing a gravitational field.
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Hence, we here have one case where Newtons and Einsteins theory give the same results (unregarding that we here get a shift in frequency instead of wavelength). The physical background is the same as in the case of the deviation of light from a star at the sun surface, where the results where deviating from each other! Remarkable!
RED/BLUE SHIFT FROM MOVING SOURCES
The Doppler effect, named after Christian Doppler, an Austrian physicist, is a well known effect produced from moving sound sources, for instance the sound from an approaching or receding ambulance siren.
A similar effect is observable for moving light
We denote the photon mass by dm; the mass of the celestial body by letter M; the distance between this mass centre and the flying photon by letter D; the gravity force acting on the photon particle by letter F; the velocity of the flying photon particle by letter v; and the standard velocity of light as emitted from its source by letter c.
A0858
A0859
A0860
Equality between 0858 and 0859 gives;
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Let dt, represent a small time interval for the flying photon particle in its orbit on distance D, out from the mass body.
Then we define :
A0861
We combine equations 0860 and 0861, giving:
A0862
We integrate both sides of this equation, where we assume that there is a linear relationship between distance D, and velocity v<
A0863
The first term is very small in comparison with the term 2.v.delta(v) and can of that reason be inhibited. Only if M, is extremely large, v will diverge much from the standard velocity of c. Of this reason we for most common cases can put v=c
Furthermore, for our particle theory of light the frequency of light is in direct proportion to the propagating velocity, giving that the relation 2.v.delta(v), can be substituted by a relation df/fo, giving :
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Then only the particle alternative remains, where the velocity of light particles are additive to the source movement (or movement of the observer or both). Hence, by consequence, the registered velocity of light is c+v and not constant c, as stated by Einsteins theory , that as a claim for upcome of an active Doppler effect of light.
Hence, its the velocity of a moving light source that is transferred to the light photons or the movement of the observer relative these photons that causes the light red/blue shift effect at the observer. This interpretation also fulfill the claim that the effect is fully symmetric in respect to movements of the source or the observer, respectively. Hence, its the relative velocity between the source and the observer that is the valid parameter of this effect.
RED/BLUE SHIFT OF LIGHT FROM DISTANT STARS
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sources, when the light source approach or recede an observer, or if the observer himself approaches or recedes the light source.
For a moving source there exists two possible reasons for the upcoming of this effect :
a light ether exists and the Doppler effect is produced in a synonymous manner as for sound in water or air.
if no light ether exists, or if the ether is nonexistent for light propagation (physical inactive), the Doppler effect can be motivated by that the light emission is additive to the source movement.
For a moving observer (source in rest) there are the following alternative solutions:
If a light ether exists, the light propagation is constant in this medium, producing a standing wave in it. Walking along this standing wave produces a red or blue shift of the observed light.
If an active light ether do not exists, the light must be a stream of particles with a
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fluctuating field density. If an observer moves along this train of flowing particles, it give rise to a red/blue shift of the light, an effect similar to a Doppler effect.
Doppler effect of light is a well known phenomenon, but current theory has no physical reason to offer why it appears.
In the theory of relativity the light ether is nonexistent, having no active effect on light propagation. Furthermore, the second postulate of the theory says, that the light velocity is invariant in relation to all observers, and on this base no alternative solution remains.
About that, see our earlier investigation about light velocity, frequency and wavelength in different measuring situations as performed before here in this chapter.
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A BRIEF SUMMARY REGARDING THE LIGHT DOPPLER EFFECT
There are 2 possible and known physical reasons for upcoming of a Doppler effect from moving oscillating energy sources (sound or light)
a suppressing effect in a medium
in cases that an active medium lacks, an adding effect between the source or the observer or from both .
There exist no experimental proofs of existence of a light ether, so we have to inhibit this alternative. So is even done in the theory of relativity, and we have no reason to protest against this conclusion.
Then the remaining alternative is, that the equivalent Doppler effect is caused by an adding effect between light particles and movements of source and/or the observer.
But here Einsteins theory get problems, that because his second postulate of light, on which his theory of relativity is founded, deny the possibility that light propagation is a variant entity.
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d) of this reason the relation between velocity and wavelength of in/out light is equal
e) the resulting wavelength output as function of input wavelength and input light velocity
Hence, we find, that if the light is coming in with slow velocity c , and with wavelength l , which is the same as for the source, an increased wavelength is got after transformation, meaning a shift towards red in the spectra.
So, the slow light hypothesis of light from distant stars and galaxies, where the light is deaccelerated on its way, is a good candidate to that red shift that Hubble observed.
Also a further remark is, that about <=15% of all observed galaxies show up shifting towards blue, meaning they are approaching us in accord with common theory. Of course, this phenomenon cannot at all be motivated by any now established cosmological theory,
The astronomer E. Hubble discovered that light from distant stars and galaxies in its main parts were displaced against red in the light wavelength spectrum.
In established theory, that is explained by the light Doppler effect or alternatively, caused by that the space itself is expanding.
In the first case it is referred to the Big Bang hypothesis with an initial explosion ended by a spreading out of matter in the whole Universe. In the latter case there is the Universe itself that is expanding, giving rise to the observed increase effect in the light wavelength.
But non of these models hold in the Einsteinian case if his light hypothesis would be true, meaning that the light velocity always is measured as constant independently of source movements. Beside that, that is also excluded by the fact that no active light ether is assumed in the relativity theory.
We shall also note that Hubble himself never
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suggested any solution or reason to the observed red shift effect, the suggested interpretation has been done by other scientist after him.
As we will show later in this theory, in association with our treatment of gravitation, we will find a fully plausible explanation why light loses velocity on way from a distant star through the space, from the source to us.
That would depend on that the gravitation is an active creation process of new matter in Universe, a process that goes on in space all the time, also acting on light photons, obviously. If so, the photons will be heavier with time, causing a successive reduction in speed (and an increase in mass). The proportionality factor in this process is the Hubble constant inverse, a period of time.
One argument against the slow light hypothesis, a hypothesis also suggested by others, is that if in case true, it would be possible to observe it, for instance by measuring the aberration effect from different stars. No such difference has been observed.
However, if we apply the Ritz hypothesis on the nature of light, we will find, that when the slow light hit the telescopes lenses or/and mirrors, the light is converted or is normalized to the velocity of light, c.
But at the same time a wavelength shift is occurring, that because the light frequency is constant, unchanged.
A0865
a) incoming light, frequency, wavelength
b) output frequency and wavelength from the telescope objective
c) in and output frequency unchanged
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even referred to as an experiment) predicts the appearance of stellar ghosts and the distortion of the orbits of the double stars.
The argument is utterly misleading in that it tacitly supposes an unambiguous knowledge of the stellar motion. The only direct knowledge of the stellar motion is provided by the light received from the stars. It is therefore circularly unproductive to infer the speed of propagation of the light emitted from the moving stars on the basis of the motion of the stars, since the only direct knowledge of the stellar motion is provided by the very same light whose speed of propagation will have its effect in the observed motion of the stars. Thus the appearance of ghost and distorted orbits could not be recognized as such, unless the speed of propagation of the light were known independently beforehand.
If the stellar motion were known independently of the light, the distorting effect of the speed of the light could be recognized. Such knowledges are not available. The exact indirect interference of
not even by Einsteins light hypothesis where wavelength information from source to observer not can be transferred.
THE DE SITTERS ARGUMENT FOR LIGHT EMANATING FROM DOUBLE STARS
A very well known and also very frequent argument used in favour to Einsteins hypothesis of the invariant propagation of light, is De Sitters argument of light from double stars. The argument sounds attractive at the first instance but is not at all free from opposition in a closer performed examination.
From W. Paulis Theory of relativity 1958 we can quote the following:
De Sitter later discussed the problem quantitatively and came to the following conclusion: If the velocity of light were not assumed constant, then for circular orbits of spectroscopic twin stars the time dependence of the Doppler effect would correspond to that
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of an eccentric orbit. Since the actual orbit have very small eccentricity, this leads on to conclude that the velocity of light is, to a large degree is independent of the velocity v, of the twin stars.
If one assumes the expression for the light velocity to be of the form c+k.v, then k must be smaller than 0.002.
From w. Kantors book Relativistic propagation of light we quote the following:
There has been a persistent history of a disposition to accept uncritically wellintended but erroneous logical rationalizations as proof of the Einstein postulate on the absolute speed of light. These arguments, such as that of De Sitter and also the extinction hypothesis, usually take the form of the introduction of another seemingly plausible hypothesis which is either not subject to experimental observation or has not been or cannot presently be experimentally observed. The diversionary hypothesis is then regarded as if it or its consequences were
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confirmed, in order to sustain the absolute speed of light hypothesis.
The De Sitter argument, which for a long time enjoyed acceptance as convincing, is an example of such untenable assumption. Fox correctly objected to the De Sitter argument on the basis of a possible phenomenological alteration of the relative speed of light due to its propagation through lightyears of intervening interstellar media of varying and quantitatively unknown density.
In addition, the light emitted from a moving binary component had to pass through the relatively dense atmosphere surrounding the binary system which, at least in its outer portions, may not have partaken of the periodic motion of the binary components about their centre rotation. Thus, the relative speed of the light emitted from a stellar component may have been, for the little we known, altered, to a speed c, or to some other value that was not indicative of the motion of the binary star.
The De Sitters argument (sometimes
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in spectroscopic way by regular light variations caused by that the two components are shadowing each other in its envelope.
Many double stars, especially those which components are situated relatively near each other, are surrounded by gasstreams or have a common gascover. That leads to that the spectrum will be very complicated because absorption of the emission spectrum lines appear, caused by the surrounding gas cloud. The interpretation of these systems are equipped with great difficulties.
Many double stars are false double stars, having no physical effect on each other. They are situated along the same sight line from the observer, which gives an image of a double star. In reality they are very far apart from each other.
Visual double stars hence seems to be the only stars which are under some direct control visually.
Furthermore, these stars must be situated very closed to us, which means that the out
binary stellar motion from celestial mechanics is also circular, since all celestial motions are only known exactly by the light or other radiation received from the celestial bodies.
Gravitation theories of motion must always confirm to observation, and not vice versa. It is from the light messenger of the motion of celestial bodies that the system of celestial mechanics is erected. The independent determination that the speed of light was relative could clearly modify current celestial mechanics, at least for sufficient high speed bodies. The actual presence of interstellar media and strong gravitational gradients would complicate matters.
Thus the De Sitters argument is both wrong and inconclusive. Related arguments based on light or other radioactive signals received from pulsating stars are also similarly circular unproductive speculations .
END OF CITASION
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The De Sitters argument is still a frequent and popular argument used in favouring Einsteins theories. However, what makes us to wonder is as follows:
If this argument is so important, why do not Einsteins supporters offer us a distinct object on which exact calculations or observations of this phenomenon can be performed?
Obviously, the reason for it frankly is, that there does not exists any such an object that can be used as a proof for the argument.
If studying some facts available in literature regarding double stars, the following information is given:
Double stars are very common objects in space. It is relatively easy to decide their masses on basis of their rotation period, that can be seen by fluctuations in the stars light spectrum.
The distance between double stars can be large as well as very narrow. If very narrow, they can deform each other, doing it by that
matter can stream from one star to the other, hence having a common atmosphere.
One make differences between visual double stars, spectroscopic double stars, photometric and dynamical double stars.
Visual double stars can be observed and be dissolved directly on the photographical platen.
They have a relatively large apparent distance of angular distance, between components. These stars are situated relatively near us but the components are relatively far away from each other measured in absolute terms. The orbital time will usually keep the size of some hundreds of light years.
There are also spectroscopic double stars, which can be concealed by means of displacements in the spectrum lines, hence not by direct visual observations.
Photometric double stars also are concealed
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a) The propagation distance of light from the positive part movement of the star.
b) The propagation distance of light from the negative movement part from the star
A0868
That will causes a distortion effect of the image from the stars on great distances. We compute this distortion factor to:
a) The phase distortion expressed as distance in absolute figures
b) Using result from the equation 0867
c) Calculated phase distortion in absolute figures
phasing effect that De Sitter was arguing for has little importance because of the very short distance relatively to us.
Furthermore, to note, for the outphasing effect the period time must be very short in relation to the distance, meaning that the stars lie closed together, in turn meaning that these stars are equipped with a common gas cover, which disturb the effect, reemitting the primary light from the stars.
The De Sitters argument is only valid for direct emitted and undisturbed light from two stars.
Most of all observable double stars are of other types than direct visual, most of them are only being registered by spectrum measurements. Of that reason there will not be so many or perhaps any object remaining on which De Sitters argument is applicable as support to Einsteins light hypothesis.
Other factors also are that the two components in double stars seldom have equal masses, furthermore do not rotate in a plane in full line
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with the observer. Gas around the stars is disturbing the observation effect and so on.
So, our conclusion up to this point must be, that the De Sitters argument only can be taken seriously if anyone can account for an object in space on which the analysis can be performed without any problem.
In physics textbooks the De Sitters argument is very frequently cited when arguing for Einsteins light hypothesis, in fact one of the very few remaining support for this theory at all. But one carefully avoid to exactly account for one single experiment done, that unambiguously shows that the argument is valid.
A SMALL CALCULATION ON A SYSTEM OF DOUBLE STARS
Its always useful to support a theoretical reasoning by some mathematical formulae, in which concrete figures can be inserted. In that aim we make a brief analysis of the De Sitters argument in the following way :
Both the distant stars are assumed radiating light in all directions, and if light is additive to the source own movements, which we here scantly assume, the velocity of this light as registered in a distant observer point will vary some little as function of the stars orbiting movement.
Because different components of the radiated light will have some differing velocities, on large distances it will cause a distortion of phase of the observed image of the two stars.
That was De Sitterss argument of double stars.
If all parts of the light radiation propagate with the velocity of c, after the time t , the travelled distance will be:
A0866
and for the two single components in an extreme position of the orbit movement
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c = light velocity c= 2.99783E8 m/s
60x60x24x365 seconds per light year
tLY = observer distance in light years
DLY = distance between double stars in light years
p=3.1141592&
If we assume a total phase diversion of 360 degrees, the relation ds/l=1. Then the observer s distance to the stars in light years be calculated to :
A0874
Lets assume two stars with the same mass as the sun M=2E30kg, rotating on a relative distance from each other 10 light minutes (DLY=10x60/k=2E5 light years). Then we get the following result from our formula tLY = 16000 light years distance.
which is the distortion factor constituting a part of the period of the stars envelop.
For simplicity we suppose that both the stars have the same content of mass. Then, by using Newtons gravity law and mass inertial law for revolving movements, we get the equality :
A0869
a) Equality between Newtons gravity law (see formula 0904) and the force law of revolving movements (see formula 0155b) . OBS that Newtons gravity law will be derived here later (Chapter 09)
b) Calculating the orbiting velocity of the mass M of the star
The cyclic time of an envelope of the stars
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A0870
We combine equations 0866, 0868, 0869 and 0870
A
0871
a) Formula 0868
b) Combining formula 0868 and 0866
c) Combining formula 0871/b and 0870
d) Inserting 0869 in 0871/c
We define time in units of light year and also the propagating distance in light years, giving :
A0872
a) time tLY is given in light years and is converted to seconds
b) Distance DLY is given in light years and is converted to meter
c) Constant K is number seconds during 1 year
A0873
M= 2E30 kg for the sun mass
G= Gravity constant G=6.67E11 (in MKS(A) unit system)
Copyright Cadelco AB Sweden 2007 Copyright Cadelco AB Sweden 200708116 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 08113A0878
a) The time difference between the two ray loops
b) Inserting of equation 0877 in 0878
c) Reducing 0878b
d) The normal looping time when the wheel stahds still
e) The phase difference in relation to the total looping time
hence being the distortion factor that is generated by the two beams in the observer point, that as a result of the wheels revolving velocity. This theoretical calculated value fit well with experimental findings.
In this example, the two components have come totally out of phase 360 degrees. 1% phase difference then is equal to 160 light years distance, even that a considerable value, regarded that the distance to our nearest star from us, our sun not included, is about 4 light years of free sight.
DE SAGNAS EXPERIMENT
A0875
De Sagnacs experiment constitutes a typical example of experiments where rotating mirrors/ or lenses are used. The idea is, that by using a spliced beam of light emitted from a common light source point, travelling clockwise and counter clockwise of a revolving wheel on which the mirrors or lenses are fixed,
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an interference effect would be created in a common observer point.
And such an effect is achieved. The effect is quantitatively in the same range as given by the ballistic or Ritzian emission theories of light. Even the ether theory will give such an effect and can of that reason not be inhibited as a candidate here in this special case.
However, Einsteins theory give no effect because the light velocity not is affected by the rotating mirror movements.
In the Ritz theory the process is as follows:
The light beam first will hit the first mirror with velocity cv. This mirror will normalize the beam velocity to c, before it proceed to the next mirror with velocity c+v. Because even the next mirror moves, it will be hit by c. This process will be repeated for each singular mirror passed in the chain. The last mirror will send the beam with velocity c+v towards the observer, and because the observer do not move, this difference in velocity will remain,
The process is in well agree with the following calculating model :
A0876
a) The velocity of light as leaving the positive rotating mirror (clockwise), measured in the reference plane
b) The light velocity leaving the negative rotating mirror (counter clock wise), as measured in the reference plane.
A0877
Now we calculate the time difference between these two light rays, then calculate the relation between this difference and the total elapsed time in the loop;
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An electron orbit reacts if the photon falling in has the same frequency of that electron, hence giving :
A0883
Observe that the photons energy is m.c2 in accord with 0247
Inserting this value of mph in the relation above gives:
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There are a huge amount of similar experiments performed, where moving lenses and mirrors are involved. However, to notice in the evaluation of these types of experiments, its seldom assumed there are any interaction process between light and matter, lenses and mirrors are regarded as very neutral transport companies of light. Thats perhaps may be the reason to the very strange interpretation of the light behaviour done in association to these experiments performed.
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EXPERIMENT WITH AID OF XRAYS
Sir Arthur Compton directed Xrays towards a target and registered a shift in wavelength of the reflected ray of dimension:
A0879
where dl is the registered difference In wavelength, l is the original wavelength, h is Planck s constant, c is the light velocity in vacuum and me is the electron mass (in this case the mass of the target)
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He was able to in a theoretical way calculate this expression, simply by using a set of very common physical laws, partly fetched from the classical physics, partly from the quantum mechanics. In spite of this very important insight that the photon consists of particles that were ruled by common Newtonian laws of inertial mass, these important insights have been neglected by physics science.
Approximately, the expression is derived in the following way moh = the photon mass. If this photon has the initial velocity of c, its impulse is moh.c. When it collide with a free electron in the target, this electron will take some part of this energy and impulse. The photon loses the speed dv, hence :
A0880
a) The change of the photons velocity is related to the relation between the photons mass and the electrons mass
b) In accord with the emission theories the wavelength is changed in the same degree as the photons velocity is changed
c) By combining equation 0880a and 0880b we can solve out the mass of the photon as function of change in wavelength and electron mass
Hence, a shift in wavelength will occur when the reflected photon loses energy and velocity. In accord with the quantum theory, see our atomic theory formula 0632);
A0881
And using the mass/energy equivalence law 0247) :
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outburst between 2 nearby fluctuations, by N.
By aid of these definitions we can write
A0886
a) Equation 0632
b) Equation 0628b
c) Combination of equations 0886a and 0886b
d) Solving out the frequency f in 0886c
e) Plancks constant from 0631a
Because singularities in the energy packet
A0884
a) Equation 0883
b) Equation 0880c
c) Combining the equations 0883 and 0880c
This also is the experimental deviation value.
Here observe, that it is the energy formula E=m.c2 0250 that is used. From beginning Newtons energy formula for kinetic energy was used, giving a value of factor 2 larger than given in the formula above.
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ESTIMATION OF MASS OF A UNIT PHOTON
A0885
The photon has a spiral or vortex structure got by that the oscillating source successively emit unit photons from it. Make a comparison to a model where a person, holding sand in his hand, rotate or making a loop and at the same time emit this sand.
In the previous chapters we have found, that an atomic system composed by electrons, protons and neutrons has the ability of absorbing or emitting energy in form of light. The emitted or absorbed energy is quantified, which means that the energy only can be given in distinct intervals or quanta, or energy packets.
The reason to that we have accounted for in detail in or atomic theory chapter 06 and 07, so we do not need to repeat it here. But by that is not said that a photon is any singular particle travelling from the source by the velocity of c, having an inherent oscillating frequency of f, as the formula seems to say.
We instead must imagine such an energy packet as an outburst of several much smaller entities, where wavelength and frequency of this packet is determined by a particle density fluctuation in it. And the velocity of the photon packet is determined by the source outburst, hence not by any special inherent property of the free photon itself. By these insights we may at last have a reasonable chance to achieve a real understanding of the lights fundamental nature.
We give the name of a singularity within such an outburst, containing many particles in movement, the notation of a UNIT PHOTON, and do here an estimation of its mass content. We define its mass content to an entity dm, and the number of such entities within a single
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This result is valid for the least energy of a photon 13.6eV. And of course this result shall be seen just as a very rough estimation of the unit photon mass.
Hence we find that a unit photon is a very small part of the photon and that the photon is build up by millions, or perhaps billions of such unit photons in each outburst.
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moves with the velocity of c, having the wavelength l (the distance between two successive fluctuations in the wave packet), we have (see the formula 0142a) :
A0887
Combination of equations: 0634d, 0322f, 0323c, 0323d for n=1 and Z=1:
A0888
By using the equation 0635 and rewrite the photon energy in form of a product of the unit photons mass dm, and the number of such unit photons N, of such an outburst, we can write;
Copyright Cadelco AB Sweden 2007 Copyright Cadelco AB Sweden 200708126 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 08127A0889
We study a volume element within the out going wave between two successive nodes. This volyme will be:
A0889
a) The volume between 2 successive nodes in the outburst photon.
b) The electron s orbital radius, 0626
c) Equation 0888
d) Inserting 0890b,c in 0880a,b,c calculating the volume V
Now we assume that a unit photon occupy a volume element dl3..
The number of N such unit photons occupying this volume element V as calculated, gives
A0891
Now we assume the unit photon has a wavelength less or equal to the electron size.
Then we solve the equations 0891a and 0891b, then deriving the Funit photon mass dm from 0881c
Copyright Cadelco AB Sweden 2007 Copyright Cadelco AB Sweden 200708132 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 08129
On a railway track there are two wagons placed. On the left one there is a light source placed out and on the right one there is a measuring equipment, that consists of two light sensors, coupled to inputs of an atomic clock. One of these inputs is coupled to the start trigger input, the other to the stop trigger input.
The measurement is performed in the simple way, that the light source is lit during a short moment of time, and the elapsed time of the first light front passing the two light sensors on the other wagon. The elapsed time is registered by an atomic watch. The onrushing front begin to start the atomic clock, and some time later the same front stops the other clock.
The measurement is performed in a number of different moving cases. These moving cases are listed in the table below :
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MEASURENT OF THE LIGHT VELOCITY
In a personal letter from Einstein dated august 1913, to Erwin FinleyFreundlish, Einstein says as follows:
if the speed of light is in the least bit affected by the speed of the source, then my whole theory of relativity and theory of gravity is false
The thesis of the invariant velocity of light is summarized in the second postulate, formulated :
light always is propagating in empty space with a definite speed c, and is independent of the state of motion of the emitting body.
In the conceptual world of relativity even the thesis of everythings relativity includes The principle of relativity originated by Poincare several years before Einstein published his theory in 1905 with the name On the
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Electrodynamics of Moving bodies the work is usually regarded as the foundation paper of what we today name the special theory of relativity.
The combined hypothesis of the absolute propagating speed of light and the relativity principle, give the consequence that it is physically impossible to decide whether there is the source that moves or whether there is the observer who moves. Hence, only the relative velocity is physically relevant and measurable.
Hence, Einsteins second postulate can be expanded to be valid even for observer movements in relation to the source, not just for source movements. From this perspective, it is strange that Einstein ignored the observers rule when he formulated this postulate, it seems as he not understood the fully consequences of his own proposals.
In spite of the strange consequences of this postulate, the conclusion, that the velocity of light is independent of both source and
observer movements, it is fully accepted by todays science!!!!!!
The idea to use the propagating velocity of light in vacuum as a common reference for all movements was Einsteins idea and has in many respects influenced the debate concerning these questions since then. But the thesis has never been proved experimentally, in contrary, other models are better candidates for explaining these experiments.
A0893
We make use of the following arrangement, aimed to make measurements of the propagating velocity of light both in respect to moving sources and to moving observers possible.
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radio signals in a constant interval dt, and the other satellites receive these signals. The satellites are equipped with precise atomic watches which register the interval between two emitted or received signals respectively.
Anyone trying to call the invariant velocity of  light dogma into question, is invariably attacked by Einsteins supporters who will use any method to defend the prevailing view.
The fact that light is a physical phenomenon, behaving as it does independently of Einsteins theories and his believers seems to make no difference.
Light travels very fast and that is one of the problems behind performing measurements with enough high accuracy, especially if moving light sources are involved. So, Doppler shift measure is used, whereas in fact time/distance measurement would be most suitable.
Doppler wavelength/frequency shift measurements are indirect methods and results always can be rejected as invalid by
Velocity, light wagon
Velocity, measure wagon
Calculated front velocity
In rest, v = 0
In rest, v = 0
Case 1: ds/dt = ?
In rest, v = 0
At right, v = +V
Case 2 : ds/dt = ?
In rest, v = 0
At left, v = V
Case 3 : ds/dt = ?
At right, v = +V
In rest, v = 0
Case 4 : ds/dt = ?
At left, v = +V ==
At rightt, v = +V ==
Case 5 : ds/dt = ?
At left, v = +V
At left, b=V
Case 6 : ds/dt = ?
At right, v = V
In rest, v = 0
Case 7 : ds/dt = ?
At right, v = V
At right, v = +V
Case 8 : ds/dt = ?
At right, v = V ==
At left, v = V ==
Case 9 : ds/dt = ?
At right, v = V <>
At left, v = V <>
Case 10 : ds/dt = ?
At left, v = +V <>
At rightt, v = +V <>
Case 11 : ds/dt = ?
Copyright Cadelco AB Sweden 2007 Copyright Cadelco AB Sweden 200708134 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 08135
Any hypothetical theory that treats the propagating velocity of light problem can be tested in relation to this table. The theory of relativity says that all observers will measure c, so the convinced relativist has to input the value of c, in all places into the table.
All convinced relativists now have the chance to show how the theory works, using all the artfuk tricks and formulae of time and length on it.
Observe that the light must go undisturbed in free space to both the sensors.
USING EINSTEINS FORMULAE ON THIS PROBLEM MUST SHOW, THAT THE QUOTIENT OF ds/dt IS A CONSTANT ENTITY IN ALL CASES. AND IT SEMMS TO BE A HOPELESS AND IMPOSSIBLE TASK .
Science of nature is held in esteem because its said that this activity solely is based on common sense, facts and logical thinking. In view of what we now have seen, it is surprising that a theory like the theory of relativity, with its inherent unlogic and inconsistencies has been classified as
science, something which make us suspect that the confidence for science in many respects is overestimated.
Measuring light velocity by aid of sarwllites
A0894
Within the frame of todays techniques there is a possibility to arrange an experiment where direct time/distance measurement is used. That can be done by satellites, perhaps as follows:
We can imagine two satellites revolving in the same direction and in the same orbit. Another satellite moves in the sama orbit but in the opposite direction.
They meet each other regularly in the same point. One of them is sending light pulses or
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If performing this experiment, the question of light or radiowaves propagating velocity being source dependent or mot, once time for all would be answered.
LIGHT A WAVE OF MATTER
In common scientific theory its common to describe light as an electro magnetic wave, meaning a phenomenon near associated with electric and magnetic interaction, where the energy oscillate between a positive and a negative potential around zero
This apprehension mainly emanates from Maxwells electro magnetic theory, which since then has remained as true in the world of physics. But as a remark, this hypothesis about light never has been tested as valid in any experiment performed.
No experiments have been done showing that light is of electro magnetic nature. For instance, a sharp pulse of light with Laser light does not create any electro magnetic pulse in a coil where the light pulse passes.
Einsteins supporters who say that the product of frequency and wavelength always is c. By this, other alternative theories and interpretations can be rejected as unnecessary.
But distance/time measurement would be possible by using satellites. And the result from such an experiment would be hard to distort and missinterpret.
Consider satellites A, B, and C, moving in the same orbit around the earth A, and B, move in the same direction with the constant relative distance and with the same velocity and C, moving in the opposite direction. The C, satellite emits radio or light pulses continuously and A, and B, catch these signals and register arrival time in computer data registers.
The local time registration of each pulse in each satellite is continuously transmitted to Earth and the time difference
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of received data is calculated.
When satellite C, approaches or recede A, and B respectively, the elapsed time AB, will be:
A0895
a) Calculated time based on absolute time measurement in satellite A and B when satellite C meets satellite A and B.
b) Calculated time based on absolute time measurement in satellite A and B when satellite C recede satellite A and B.
where k =0, if Einsteins invariant light hypothesis is valid and k=1, if the emission theories c = c +v is used between A, and B. Alternative values of the factor k lack physical relevant alternative for now
Calculated time difference will be :
A0896
a) The time difference between registering in satellite A and B for the two different events.
b) The relative velocity between light front and satellite A and B
Inserting figures in the formula v= 30 000 km/hour or 8333 m/s, c= 300 000 000 m/s, S = 100 km, k=1 gives approximately 18.5 ns (nanoseconds). If the distance between the two satellites is increased to 1000 km, the time difference will be 185 ns, or nearly 0.185 us (microseconds), a value easy to establish. Contrary to that, if Einsteins hypothesis would be true, no time difference would be registered.
Who believe on that?
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world of science so uncritical has accepted Einsteins dogmas, not unequivocally confirmed by any known experiment.
A0898
The Coriolis effect
When a boat moves from the equator towards the earth pole region area, a side force appear, named the Coriolis effect. This effect depends on that the mass inertial effect will keep the transversal velocity of the boat. When the rotation radius decreases during the journey, the result will be a side deviation of the boat, that because the boat will keep its transversal velocity. In order to compensate for it, the captain has to direct the boat in the opposite direction.
The experiment
Assume a rotating disc with radius R. The disc rotate with velocity v on its periphery
An electric or magnetic pulse will do that. Laser light that lit on an electric micro chip does not create any functional disturbances on that chip inasmuch there is not any quantum mechanical effects generated on the substrate.
Light passing through thin optical fibres, not either interacts with electro magnetic fields and cannot be disturbed out by aid of such kinds of external fields.
A wave of matter, that light is supposed to be, contains a great number of neutral particles that transport the energy. These kinds of neutral particles only interact with matter by mechanical impact, and that happen only on the atomic level where a fluctuating photon comes in resonance with an oscillating movement into the atom.
When the inflow frequency of the wave of matter comes in resonance with the atom, energy is absorbed by it.
Hence, the light interaction process with matter shall be seen as a mechanical interaction process, not an electro magnetic.
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A wave of matter is built up by a great number of neutral particles with a fluctuating flow density. Such an energy flow can be described with an amplitude between zero and a maximum value, that in comparison to an ordinary wave changing between a maximum positive value and a maximum negative value.
Principally such a energy flow can be illustrated as the picture below is showing:
A0897
a) A wave of matter
b) An ordinary ether wave
WALLACE KANTORS BOOK ABOUT NATURE OF LIG
Wallace Kantor is a researcher who has spent much time on investigating the behaviour of light in different experiments in his book, Relativistic propagation of light where he has examined about 60 different light experiments performed, he says: It will come as a further surprise, initially surely taxing the credulity of most physicists, that there are, instead, five different types of experiments that flatly contradict, both qualitatively and quantitatively, the kinematics consequences of the Lorentz transform and the Einstein special theory of relativity.
The conclusion Kantor draws of his analyses is, that the velocity of light is of relative nature, not absolute
The speed of the light is relative and not absolute as postulated by Einstein.
Clearly spoken, the velocity of light is constant in relation to the emitting source and not in relation to any outer objects in space, travelling with a different speed compared with the source. It is surprising that the established
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Readers notes
A08end
A laser emitter is placed out on this periphery, sending its ray towards the centre point of the wheel, where a photo sensitive receiver is situated. The receiver is equipped with a filter mask with a slit, having the size of dS.
When the disc is in rest, the laser ray is adjusted to shine directly towards the slit and the target, hence giving the receiver photo sensor full light effect. When the disc rotate the ray will deviate a small bit in the range of the slit size giving darkness to the photo receiver.
A0899
Copyright Cadelco AB Sweden 2007 Copyright Cadelco AB Sweden 200708146 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 08147
Star light deviation calculated by a computer program
PROGRAM INCX2;
VAR
dev,C,G,Msun,Fy,Fa,Z2,Dmax,Dstep:real;
Rsun,pi,Z,D,dv:real;v,dt:real;
control:char;
N,NN,Nmax:integer;
PROCEDURE print_parameters;
BEGIN
WRITELn(' N ',N);writeln;
WRITELn(' Nmax ',Nmax);writeln;
WRITELn(' Msun ',Msun);writeln;
WRITELn(' Rsun ',Rsun);writeln;
WRITELn(' D ',D);writeln;
WRITELn(' Z ',Z);writeln;
WRITELn(' Fy ',Fy);writeln;
WRITELn(' Fa ',Fa);writeln;
WRITELn(' Dstep ',Dstep);writeln;
WRITELn(' v ',v);writeln;
WRITELn(' Dev ',Dev);writeln;
for nn:=0 to 20 do begin
writeln;end;readln;END;
begin
for n:=0 to 30 do begin; writeln;end;
Write(' control data y/n ');readln(control);
Write(' number of steps ');readln(Nmax);
writeln;
dv:=0;v:=0;dt:=0;Rsun:=6.8E8;Dstep:=Rsun;
Dmax:=Nmax*Rsun;G:=6.67E11;Msun:=1.99E30;c:=2.99793E8;
pi:=3.141592;dt:=(Dmax/c)/Nmax;
(* photon > syn *)
for N:=0 to Nmax do begin
D:=DmaxN*Dstep;Z2:=D*D+Rsun*Rsun;z:=sqrt(Z2);
Fy:=Msun*G/Z2; Fa:=Fy*Rsun/Z;
dv:=Fa*dt;v:=v+dv;;
dev:=(1/2)*(1/pi)*360*60*60*(v/c);
if control='y'then print_parameters;
end;
(* photon < syn *)
for N:=0 to Nmax do begin
D:=N*Dstep; Z2:=D*D+Rsun*Rsun;z:=sqrt(Z2);
Fy:=Msun*G/Z2;Fa:=Fy*Rsun/Z;dv:=Fa*dt;
v:=v+dv;dev:=(1/2)*(1/pi)*360*60*60*(v/c);
if control='y' then print_parameters;end;
dev:=(1/2)*(1/pi)*360*60*60*(v/c);
writeln(' dev= ',dev);
for n:=0 to 30 do begin
writeln;end;readln;end.
The calculus gives a result of 1.35 that to be compared with 1.75 +10% as the experimental known value.
Even see discussion with beginning of point 0844 above where a value of 0.9 could be motivated by a rough mathematical analytical estimation.
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these two kinds of forces. We take two electrons as our reference masses.
By using Coulombs law of force (the formula 0324) we get:
0903
0903
a) The mutual electric force between two unit charges in accord with the formula 0324
b) The numerical value of a unit charge
c) The numerical value of the deelectricity of vacuum constant
d) The calculated numeric electric mutual force between two electrons
Chapter 9
ON GRAVITATION
INTRODUCTORY DISCUSSION
002
THE EORY
008
HELP PROGRAM FOR CALCUATING THE GRAVITY CONSTANT
029
THE COSMIC RED SHIFT FROM DISTANT STARS
033
THE MODERN GRAVITY RESEARCH
038
THE PLANKS COSMICAL CONSTANTS
040
QUOTATION AND TRANSLATION
FROM NEW SCIENTIST MAGAZINE
041
THE EARTH EXPANSION BY THE PRAVITATION INFLOW
045
A0901
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INTRODUCTORY DISCUSSION
In this chapter we shall treat the process of gravitation in terms of an inflow process of matter into material bodies, with a rate over time equal to the Hubbles constant H. The cause of this flux is assumed to be the free thermal radiation in space of 2.73K (Kelvin) known as the thermal background radiation of space.
Newton was the first man who understood that celestial objects were effected by an invisible force, the same force that attracts earthbounded objects to the surface of the earth. With the aid of astronomical data for planets and stars, he formulated the gravitation law of force between massed objects, given by the known relation :
0902
Where M1 and M2 are the two masses
involved, G is the gravity constant, D is the distance between the two bodies and Fg is the mutual gravity force acting on each body.
The formula asserts that the attracting force between two objects is in direct proportion to the product of their masses and in inverse proportion to the square of the relative distance between them, multiplied by a cosmic constant G, the gravity constant, determined by Newton himself on an pure empirical basis (based on experimental experiences).
Commonly, we experience the force of gravity as a very strong force by comparison with other force effects known in nature. However, in fact, the force of gravity is the weakest force of them all. If we, for instance compute the force developed on the same piece of matter, firstly in respect to the gravitational force and then in respect to the electrostatic force actuated at the same distance, we will find a large discrepancy. With purpose of elucidating this fact, we may make a small calculation of the force relationship between
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For instance, Diracs theory of 1938 contains such a proposal. However, experiments have not confirmed it.
In modern physics one tries to connect particle physics with the existence of different kinds of forces existing in the physical world, including the force of gravity. There are ideas that the gravity force is caused by intermediating particles in a similar way to that in which photons create electromagnetic interaction forces. Not even these theories have proven successful.
THE NEW THEORY
One important reason why the riddle of gravity has not yet been finally solved maybe that this force is of a very complex nature and where so many processes of fundamental physical nature are involved in its final process.
Our basic idea is that the gravity force emanates from a free thermalor electro magnetic field in space, disturbing elementary particles in ordinary matter by an inflow process
where we make use of the MKS(A) unit system, From Newtons law of gravity 0701 we have
0904
a) The mutual gravitation force developed through the gravitation process between the two bodies m, on the mutual distance of D. G is Newtons gravity constant.
b) The electron mass
c) The by experiment determined gravitation constant
d) The calculated force between the bodies developed by the gravity process
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Hence, the relation between these two forces is:
0905
The relationship between the electromagnetic force and the gravity force as calculated on the same amount of mass and on the same mutual distance D
It is well known that Newton himself never suggested any cause and origin of the force of gravity. He accepted that this force was of cosmic nature, an action at a distance, activated by some unknown physical mechanism inherent in the nature of matter.
In spite of all efforts done since the days of Newton, this deep secret of nature still remain unsolved.
A remarkable property of the Gforce is that this force does not seems to be activated by
any known properties of matter: as for example, chemical structure, heat, mass density, electrical or magnetic charge, state of aggregation (solid, liquid or gaseous states), content of energy, state of motion, and so on ; or in any way other than the content of mass of the bodies involved and the mutual distance between them.
However, perhaps there are exceptions. Recently, there have been found indications on that there are some very small discrepancies between the force activated on lighter and heavier basic elements, discovered by repeating Roland von Etvs experiments of 1889.
If that is true, it will destroy one of the basic hypotheses of Einsteins general theory of gravity, namely the thesis that relates to the perfect equivalence between inertial and gravitating mass.
There exists also suggestions that the gravitational force is not a constant but varying with time of any unknown reason..
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a) Formula 0908
b) Formula 0909
c) Combing formula 0908 with 0909
Now we have 2 expressions describing the relation dP/dA We combine the equation 0907with the equation 0910:
0911
0906
We identify this field as the thermal background radiation of 2.73K and the rate of inflow by Hubbles Cosmic constant H, with an approximate value of 2.32E18 s1. Also involved as a basic hypothesis is that light is made up by pure particles, having mass, meaning that all of Newtons fundamental laws work on them. That means that light hitting the surface of a particle will create impact forces as well as even thermal energy on them.
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With the help of Stefan Boltzmans law, we begin by converting this mechanical impact energy inflow of the thermal field to entities of mechanical energy according to
0907
where dP is the developed mechanical power, dA is the area on which the thermal energy acts, T is the temperature of the medium in Kelvin and S is the Stefan Boltzmans constant equal to 5.6703E8 in the MKS(A) unit system
If the inflow amount of matter during each time unit, is denoted by the symbol dm, and the velocity by which this matter interacts with an elementary particle is denoted by vf, we can compute the mechanical energy generated by the inflow matter as:
0908
The interacting velocity of the inflow matter is lower than the limit velocity of light, c. In this case Newtons formula (0122) for kinetic energy is valid . The common hydro mechanical formula for a material inflow over area dA, as function of flowing density qf, velocity v, and time dt, is given by (see 0145) :
0909
We combine 0908 with 0909 and obtaining
0910
Copyright Cadelco AB Sweden 2007 Copyright Cadelco AB Sweden 200709016 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 090130914
We now assume, that the inflow of matter per time unit stands in relation to the Hubble constant R=H x k, . where 1/R is the time period were the inflow of matter to a particle corresponds with the particles own rest mass, but because the mass all the time will grow, the inflow function will not be exactly linear with time, more like an exponential function.
0915
a) Equation 0907
b) Equation 0910c
c) Combining the equations 0911a and 0911b
d) Solving out the thermal field strength from equation 0911c
0912
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Now we have an expression that provides the relations between the mass density qf, of the
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thermal field T, as function of its velocity vf, and Stefan Boltzmans constant S.
The next step here is to find out a basic process by which the inflow of matter from the thermal field reacts with elementary particles in solid matter. Mass in normal solid matter mainly consists of protons and neutrons, the mass content of all electrons being negligible in this context. It is therefore here natural to state that the interacting velocity vf, is equal to, or nearly equal to, the spinning velocity of a proton and that this inflow matter will create disturbances in the spinning movement of these fundamental particles, causing a slowing down effect on them.
Hence, each hit of a randomly inflow electromagnetic particle from the field (a photon) in the first step will cause a disturbing effect which is a retardation of the spinning movement and as a secondary effect, an absorbing of matter from the surrounding space (see equation 0322f, space density
1/eo= 1E11 kg/m3).
Furthermore, this absorption of matter will create a corresponding absence of matter around the body and this effect is spread in the vicinity void, disturbing another mass body situated at some distance from it by a pushing effect.
Our hypothesis is that a mass quantity of dma, is absorbed by the body of mass m, during time dt. During time T, the absorbed mass constitutes the mass of the body itself.
We can express it by the following analogy:
0913
Change of mass is in direct proportion with time. During a period time T (the mass content of a body has been doubled
We designate the relation H (by the symbol R, representing that frequency by which the mass body doubles its mass content in the gravitational field. That gives
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a) Equation 0920
b) Equation 0919a
c) Equation 0919b
d) Equation 0919c
e) Combining 0921a,d
f) Extracting the thermal mass density in the equation 0921e
Combination of 0911d and 0921 and solving out the thermal field velocity vf fom it to:
0922
0916
At time t= 0 ; m= m0
At time t= 1 ; m= 2*m0
At time t= 2 ; m= 4*m0
At time t= 3 ; m= 8*m0
Hence, the conventional Hubbleformula can be rewritten:
0917<
0918
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At short distances when t<1/H the relation R=H will be true approximately. At t= 0.5 *1/H, R=1.41*H approximately: Hence, the inflow rate is assumed some larger than the start value of 1/Ho.
At the inflow of matter from space, a retardation effect is achieved of a particle. The retardation effect of the spin movement of matter stand in relation to :
0919
where mp is the proton or the neutron mass
By using our mass inflow formula equation 0145, we put the absorbed mass dma to:
0920
Using results from formulae 0919a, 0919b, 0920, combining them and solving out the gravity field density qf from it, gives:
0921
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mass from M2. We compute this negative mass inflow to :
0927
a) Using the mass flow equation 0145
b) The total interacting surface for M2 is the number of t protons in M2 multiplied with the protons interacting surface area Ap
c) Putting together the equations 0927a,b and extracting the inflow field mass dM2
We multiply both sides of the equation 0927c with the inflow field velocity vf and make use of Newtons simplified law, the equation 0115:
xxxxxx
a) Formula 0911d
b) Formula 0921) Combination of 0911d and 0921.
C) Solving out the field velocity vf
The last step is to deduce Newtons gravitational law of force. We make use of our hypothesis of the absorption effect of matter in the gravitational process. Our base hypothesis is, that matter is absorbed at a rate R, according with equation 0914 above, approximate equal to H.
We begin by computing the total inflow of matter to a body with a total amount of matter M1 and having the total interacting area, A1. By our mass flowing formula (0145) we get
0923
which is in agreement with the inflow formulae 0920
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The amount of inflowing mass to M1 during the time dt. The inflow velocity is v1 and the total interacting surface is A1 The thermal field mass density is equal to qf
b) The relation inflowing mass and start mass M1 stands in relation to the product of R and the inflowing time dt
c) Combining the equations 0924a,b
From this we can calculate the inflow density very near the limiting area of M1 giving:
0929
However, this mass density will decline as a function of distance. The inflow mass will be spread over an inflow area at distance D equal to, AD = 4.p.D2 , giving the field mass density at this distance equal to
0926
a) The thermal mass field strength on distance D out from t the mass M1
b) Equation 0925
c) Extracting the field strength qD from 0926a.b
Another mass body M2, situated in a point D, because of the absorbed mass in , M1, will be effected by a negative inflow since M1, steals
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09028 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 09025
0933def
R=1.855.H
True on short distances
S=5.6703E8
Stefan Boltzmans constant
T=2.73K
Thermal background temp
re=2.8179380(70)E15
Classic electron radius
me =9.109534(47)E31
Electron rest mass
c= 2.99792458(1.2)E8
Light velocity in vacuum
mp=1836.15152(70)x me
Proton rest mass
G=6.6720(41)E11
Newtons gravity constant
H=2.5E18
Hubbles constant (appr. Valid linear for short distances over a cosmic period of 1/H)
0928
We make a summary of expressions and results
0929
A09APPLE
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09026 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 09027a) Equation 0828b
b) Equation 0926c
c) Inserting equation 0929b in 0929a and extracting the gravity force Fg
Comparing this result with Newtons gravitational law of force, we can identify the expression within the parenthesis bracket as Newtons gravity constant G. Hence :
0930
The variable Ap, is unknown to us, but if regarding the proton as having shape of a vortex ring with the limiting area is (see formula 0437) :
0931
Observe here that for the Ggravitation process, the whole limiting surface of the proton is active, the formula 0226. For the electro magnetic process the formula 0225 is valid, that because electro magnetic processes are polarised.
From the equation 0217 we solve out the proton radius as function of its mass and the electron radius and its mass;
0932
We nake a summary of achieved results:
0933
XX
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Here observe, that the gravity force fundamentally not is any massforce, but a surface force, as acting on the surface on each elementary particle in matter. The proportionality to the mass content then only is a result of the fact that mass of a body stands in proportion to the number of protons on which the Gforce interacts with. Of this reason its plausible that the Gforce effect on other elementary particles, as for example electrons and photons, is different, as well as for heavy atomic cores, where the protons are tight packet. In the last case then the Gforce may be some lower than compared with lighter atomic cores because of a slight screening effect between individual particles in the core.
xxxxxx
The Universe as treated by the modern cosmological theory, is 13.7 billions of yeasrs. That correspond with a value of the Hubble constant of 2.371E18 s . Our theory gives a very near value of the gravity constant, in the area of 5 >7E11 to be compared with the exact measured value as given above.
Even see the help calculation program GRAVITY.PAS as given below.
HELP PROGRAM FOR CALCUATING THE GRAVITY CONSTANT
program gravity;
program gravity;
var H:real; (* Hubble constant *)
Rp:real; (* Proton radius, meters *)
vp:real; (* Proton spin velocity *)
G:real; (* Gravity constant *)
Ap:real; (* Proton interacting area *)
Mp:real; (* Proton mass *)
Me:real; (* Electron mass *)
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c:real; (* Light velocity *)
T:real; (* Thermal background radiation in space, degrees *)
S:real; (* Stefan Boltzman constant *)
Re:real; (* Electron rest radius *)
Pi:real; (* The number of pi *)
R:real; (* Rate of mass inflow *)
a1,a2,a3,a4,a5,a6,a7:real; (* common help variables *)
procedure init;
begin
me:=9.109534E31; (* electron rest mass *)
c:=2.99792458E8; (* light standard velocity *)
S:=5.6703271E8; (* Stefan Boltzman constant *)
Re:=2.817938070E15; (* classic electron radius *)
Pi:=4*arctan(1); (* MATH NUMBER IF PHI *)
T:=2.73 (* background thermal radiation *)
end;
Procedure compute;
begin
h:=1/(60*60*24*365.24*13.9e9);
R:=1.855*h;
Mp:=1836.1515270*me; (* proton mass *)
Rp:=Re*exp((1/3)*ln(Mp/me)); (* proton/neutron radius *)
Ap:=4*Pi*pi*Rp*Rp; (* proton/neutron area *)
vp:=T*T*SQRT(2*S*Ap*(1/R)*(1/Mp));
G:=R*vp*Ap/(4*pi*mp);
end;
Procedure printout; begin writeln('G nominial= 6.672041E11'); writeln('G calculated value = ',G); end;
(* program gravity main loop start *)
begin
init;
compute;
printout;
readln;
end.
(* end of the program gravity *)
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The original mass of the photon has the mass mph, and during the flight time t, (without interacting with matter) this mass has been increased by an entity of dm.
The mass impulse is supposed approximately being constant with time, giving :
0937
Using our definition of Hubbles constant H=R, (approximation for short distances) and for relatively short periods of time :
0938
Hence there are a clear relationship between the gravity constant G and the Hubble constant H. Its here assumed that creation of new matter in Universe is due to a condensation process from vacuum space into matter with an inflow rate of factor H, corresponding to the newly measured and determined value of the Universes age of 13.7 billion years. Then the H = 1/(365 x 24 x 60 x 60 x 13.7E9) = 2.313E18) s
THE COSMIC RED SHIFT FROM DISTANT STARS
The idea that the gravity process is founded on an inflowing process in ordinary matter, is here based on an interacting process with mainly elementary particles of protons and neutrons involved. It is not clear that the process can be applied to all sorts of matter, for instance lighter particles such as electrons and photons, but if we assume that, the gravity process is the same for all kinds of matter,
xxxxxx
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some old classical problems of cosmology can be solved in an attractive way. Such old problems are :
The red shift of light from distant celestial objects;
Olberss paradox;
The creation of new matter in a pseudo steady state Universe.
The cosmological red shift from very distant celestial objects then can be interpreted as a slowing down effect of light travelling long distances (we use the model of light as being a wave of matter, not an ether wave).
The wavelength of the travelling wave is constant but the frequency varies in time with the slowing down effect on the light velocity; hence :
0935
Frequency shift of a light travelling long distances through space without interaction with matter. The light photon will be heavier and travelling more slowly WITH TIME.
where c=cdc. This gives a small shift in frequency of light to :
0936
The frequency shift caused by the light slowing down effect, when travelling long ways in free space, caused by the gravity condensation process:
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In aim to briefly elucidating that, we do the following calculus. We assume a situation where entities of mass, time and distance reach limit values denoted mg, tg , rg
THE PLANKS COSMICAL CONSTANTS
0939
The so named Plancks constants, as commonly used in modern physical theory (string theories) of gravity.
which shows a frequency Doppler shift of long travelling light from distant celestial objects as resulting from a slowing down effect on light.
Stretching this idea we can see the process by which new matter in the Universe is continuously created by condensation from vacuum space. During each period of about 1314 billion of years, the mass in a body (the earth for instance) has doubled its mass content; during the following period the original mass would have increased by four times its initial value (a logarithmic mathematical function).
By the same process, long travelling light outburst from distant stars and galaxies will decline with time, losing its inherent energy. What remains is only the common electromagnetic noise that we now observe as the common known background thermal radiation of 2.73K. Hence, this noise is the common link of distant interaction between celestial objects, resulting in the process of gravity as here briefly described.
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THE MODERN GRAVITY RESEARCH
The modern gravitational research has during this and previous century to a great extent been impressed by Einsteins general theory of relativity, where this theory has been united by the hypothesis of perfect balance between heavy and inertial mass.
The gravitation is in Einsteins theory no force in its true meaning an action by distance as Newton would say, but instead properties of the space time continuum, where celestial objects follow geodetic lines. constituting the shortest way between points, a kind of the least resistance law for gravitating bodies.
By this way of describing the phenomenon of gravity, you get the favour of not having the need of explaining source or reason to the gravitation as a physical process, a some comfortable attitude, but not solving the problem.
But Einsteins theory is not alone into the
modern gravitational research. Since long time back there has been endeavours of finding a uniting theory for all forces in nature, united in a common theory, named Grand Unified Theories, where all force actions are mediated by force particles, so even the gravitational force. There has not been any great success for these theories either and in addition to that they contain a lot of strange things that not has much in common with what is known from established physical laws.
Some entities that frequently are occurring in this context is the Planck entities, The Planck_mass, The Planck_time and the Planck_radius. If we eliminate a lot of complicated tensor calculus and only keep these parts which contains couplings to the physical world, we will find that a lot of physical laws are uses, where each single law may be correct in its limited context, but when combined them not give any guaranty of being correct in true physical meaning and interpretation.
XXXXXX
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Hence, from our own theory we have found a further possible explanation of the Olbers paradox, namely that light from distant stars never reach us. Light is retarded and converted to matter during its way to us.
Because the gravity force primary not is any mass force as suggested by Einstein, but a combined mass and area dependent force, we must imagine the possibility that the gravitation strength to some degree is dependent of sort of element into the mass body. The reason to that may be motivated by that the effective working area per mass unit will be less in heavier and more compact materials. Strictly that means, that the mass equivalence principle stating exact equivalence between heavy mass and inertial mass, not is valid for all basic material elements.
Even a very small discrepancy would inhibit Einsteins idea
The Plancks cosmic constants as present in modern physical theory, Cosmic theory and particle String Theory are as follows:
mg = 2.19E8 kg
tg = 5.42E44 sec
rg = 1.6E35 m
Whic if serious disqualify Einsteins whole general theory of relativity.
Hence, The Planck mass is well as big as the mass of an one cell organism. If the gravitation would be intermediated by such a heavy particle, no life would be possible to exist here on earth. Everything would be destroyed by this heavy radiation.
0940
Quotation and translation 0940
from New Scientist Magazine
OLBERS PARADOX
If the Universe is boundless, filled up with shining stars and galaxies unlimited, the sky would blaze up with the intensity of our sun both night and day.
XXXXXX
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That simple argument has baffled astronomers since more than three hundreds of years, and has been given the name OLBERS PARADOX, from Heinrich Olber as one those astronomers following up this old discussion in a work published 1823.
From an article in New Scientist 14th of August 1986 by John Gribbin we can read that:
THE FIRST PERSON TO RESOLVE THE PUZZLE CORRECTLY IN PRINT WAS A POET, EDGAR ALAN POE, IN THE 19TH CENTURY. BUT ASTRONOMERS IGNORED HIS CONTRIBUTION AND CONTINUED THE DEBATE. EVEN A HUNDREDS YEARS LATER, WHEN THEY THOUGHT THEY HAD THE ANSWER TO THE PUZZLE, THEY WERE JUST BARKING UP THE WRONG TREE.
ONLY WITHIN THE PAST DECADE HAS THE CORRECT EXPLANATION FOR THE DARKNESS OF THE SKY GOT INTO MANY, BUT BY NO MEANS ALL,OF THE PHYSICS TEXTBOOKS. FIRST, WE NOW KNOW, AS KEPLER DID NOT, THAT A STAR LIKE OUR SUN HAS A LIFETIME OF ONLY ABOUT10E9 YEARS.THE PARADOX OF THE DARK SKY ONLY STRIKE WITH FULL FORCE IF EVERY STAR SHINES FOR AS LONG TIME IT TAKES FOR LIGHT FROM THE MOST DISTANT STARS TO REACH US.
BECAUSE STARS HAVE FINITE LIFETIME THERE CAN NEVER BE MORE THAN 10E13 OF THE RADIATION THAT YOU WOULD REQUIRE IN ORDER TO MAKE THE SKY BLAZE WITH LIGHT. THIS IS THE POINT (WITHOUT THE MATHS) THAT EDGAR ALLAN POE HAD SEIZED ON INTERSTELLAR SPACE TODAY. THE PUZZLE HAS BEEN TURNED ON ITS HEAD NOT WHY ARE THE GAPS BETWEEN STARS SO DARK, BUT WHY ARE THERE ANY BRIGHT STARS AT ALL.
Ed of citation
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Readers notes:
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THE EARTH EXPANSION BY THE GRAVITATION INFLOW
0941A0941
As treated in above chapter, we have found that the gravity is the process where new matter is created in The Universe. The force associated to the gravitation then is just a secondary effect of this inflow process.
The converting time for a particle or a mass body, for instance the earth, for doubling the mass content,, hence is the Hubble time equal to 13E9 years.
We here perform a rough estimation of the consequences for the earth regarding mass increase and change in radius.
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a) The earth mass at time 0
b) The earth mass after the Hubble time
c) The earth mass increases to the double value on the Hubble time
d) The earth radius after the Hubble timee) The earth radius increase expressed in percent of origin radius
f) The earth radius increase in mm/year
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equipments must be enormous, but it seems as these problems are solved very successfully by engineers, technicians and scientists working with this part of the problem. Hence, the critical part of this research not seems to be on the practical level by arranging these experiments, but instead in these theories by which one tries to explain the experimental findings.
Obviously, the problems on the theoretical plane must be considerable since enormous efforts have been done by the most brilliant scientists in many decades, but without still having given any convincing theory explaining why there exists particles and why these particles behave as they do.
All official theories currently existing are grounded on the idea of quarks. The word quark is from the beginning a nonsense word given to those hypothetical particles supposed to be the intrinsic constituents of particles seen and registered by experiments. There exist several theories with some small
Chapter 10
ELEMENTARY PARTICLES
The singular forms
COMMON BACKGROUND
003
INFLATION IN PARTICLE PHYSICS
013
PARTICLE EXPLOSION: PARTICLES POSTULATED BUT NOT YET CONFIRMED
017
A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF HOW FORCES ARE CREATED IN ACCORD TO MODERN PHYSICAL THEORY
020
THE ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FORCES.
023
THE STRONG FORCE.
024
THE FORCE OF GRAVITY.
024
THE WEAK FORCE.
025
HYPER WEAK FORCE.
025
MASS INERTIAL FORCES.
028
HOW ESTABLISHED THEORY DESCRIBE THESE FORCES OF NATURE
027
THE NEW THEORY
039
THE MYON SPECTRUM
042
THE KMESON MASS SPECTRUM
044
THE TAU PARTICLE SPECTRA (()
044
XXXXXXXXXXXXXX<<<<<
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HIGHER UP SPECTRA
045
MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS
048
THE NEW PARTICLE THEORY
051
DEFINITION OF PARTICLE 1003 PARAMETERS
052
THE RESONANCE, QUANTUM MODEL
064
COMMENTS OF RESEIVED RESULTS
054
XA1026
COMMON BACKGROUND
Today, enormous resources are spent in atomic and particle research, all in aim to come to a more basic understanding of these laws that are valid on the microcosmic level of matter.
A great amount of measuring data are now available for different particle forms found in experiments and this quantity increases continuously as the technical measuring methods and measuring equipments are developing and improving.
The total number of registered particle forms now exceeds more than a hundred of particles of more or less elementary nature. New particles are found and many experimentalists think there doesnt exist any upper limits
Machines are constructed with kilometres in circumference for the onrushing particles. The technical problems of constructing such
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The smallest existing charge is still the unit charge of an electron 1.602E19 As equal to the base unit of 1, still remain unchanged.
If those fractional electrical charges would exist, and by this way also the quarks, those fractional charges 1/3 and 2/3 respectively of the unit charge must be exact, otherwise a difference easily would be detected in the macrocosmic world, that because the electric charge is additive in character.
For example, an atomic nucleus contains a lot of charged parts, and if a very small divergence would exists, that would be manifested in a large difference on the macro cosmically level of matter. A great number of experiments have been performed in aim to come to a final solution, but up to this time there have been no successful reports.
However, there are still many serious problems with the quark model. All the time the model produces new concepts, not motivated by experimental support.
differences, but as a matter of principle the basic ideas are the same in all of them, namely that quarks are the building blocks of matter. The idea is that many wellknown particle forms are built up by these constituents named quarks and by combinatory laws most of all known particle forms in this way may be explained or described in these terms.
When the quark idea for the first time was presented, not all took this idea seriously, but in time to that more and more new particles where registered and documented, a need of a system was accentuated. The quark model was relatively satisfactory and was by this reason accepted as a base for a systematizing. From the beginning the quark theories were very simple in its basic assumptions. 3 quark particles were thought to explain the structure of all known particles at this time, but it happened quite surprising that new more heavy particle forms were found, not at all awaited. The situation in the theoretical particle physics then become critical at this event, but the
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theorists solved this problem in an elegant and clever way, simply by inventing a set of new quarks and other pure hypothetical particles. Today, the number of quarks are 6, all in aim of achieving a consistent theory.
Despite of these troubles, the situation was not so alarming, the idea of quarks still was a relatively simple and promising idea.
But the main problem was that no quarks in free states were found, the quarks had a somewhat curious property always to appearing in bounded states together with other quarks.
For many scientists this property of quarks was very hard to understand and even to accept and a hint for free quarks was begun. But without positive results.
Still , there are today no proofs on that quarks exist, the only positive experiment done is shattering experiments directed towards protons and neutrons.
Bombarding protons, in the beginning of
1970, (positive charged atomic nuclei particles) with lighter particles, one has studied and interpreted the scattering pattern of these particles. It is said, that these experiments could be interpreted so that there was a grainstructure in the protons. But sorry to say, its always hard to estimate the value of results achieved on indirect way as in this case. However, this experiment is the only we have to refer to what regards as proofs on the existence of quarks.
A very strange property of the quarks and even an absolutely necessary property is that they are fractional electric charged, which means equal to 1/3 or 2/3 of the electrons unit charge.
The search for such fractional charges has been going on intensively for long a time and over optimistically researchers from time to time have reported that they have found signs in this direction.
But trying to repeat these experiments always have been failed. So, still there are no signs on that fractional charges exist.
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aid of some mathematical, strongly speculative tricks, even such a mad idea is accepted without problems.
Using Heisenbergs uncertainty principle  assumedly valid on atomic level  this contradiction can be rejected. Otherwise, also the mass of the gluons must be weighted in together with the quarks and then the total weight of the particle system must be much larger than that corresponding to the sum of the quark weight. In aim to conceal this weakness one say that gluons are virtual massless which means that these particles exist but cannot be registered!
To this day one has defined six different sorts of quarks, having 3 different colours, giving 18 different possible combinations (there are suggestions of 8 quarks today).
plus a number of other particles situated outside the quark model, the lepton particles for which existence no one has the least idea of (to note is that leptons are very frequent appearing particles, the electrons are for instance such particles).
Above that an unspecified number of gluon particles are needed (approximately 12 types) usually more than they solve, all in time to that new and not awaited problems arise. Perhaps, temporarily and apparently that solve a problem, but in the long run to the prize of a more and more complex and inconceivable theory building. The simplicity of the origin ideas has been lost and the chance of having a simple description of nature seems of that reason more and more remote,
As an example on such a situation was when one was forced to give up Paulis exclusion principle one of the fundamental principles in the atomic physics, but necessarily not valid in the particle physics. Shortly this principle says that two particles cannot stay within the same electromagnetic phase room at the same time if they both have the same quantum mechanical properties.
But in the model of quarks it easily happened that 3 quarks get the same basic properties when put together, hence being in conflict with this principle. In aim to walk around this problem, a new property of quarks frankly was invented, were properties were different,
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resulting in that all these quarks had individual anf unique properties.
This new quality of the quarks was given the name of colour. 3 such colours are assumed to exist, but sorry to say, no one have the least idea about what this new property of nature represents.
Working in this way seems desperate. Temporarily and apparently one are solving a problem and avoiding an acute moralistic crisis, but at the same time creating new problems that later on have to be solved.
The total number of unsolved problems will in this way steadily increases instead of converge towards a more simple and easy theory.
Strong forces are supposed to act between quarks that hold them together. For this aim are needed mediating particles between these quarks that generate these strong forces.
In the electromagnetic theory, photons are supposed to be these interacting force
particles, the same type of particles bearing the visible light, radio waves etceteras.
However, these forces acting between quarks are considerably larger than those forces acting between electrical charged particles, so photons are not enough in this case.
Therefore are needed another particles for this purpose, particles with a considerably higher energy content than that of photons. These particles even if pure hypothetical have been given the name of gluons ln a thought analogy with a glue binding things together. Many such gluons types are needed, but serious theoretical problems exists even regarding these particles, they have a very strange property that has no correspondence to well known properties of matter they have a large content of energy but lack measurable mass.
That property contradict all experiences and known properties of matter and is against the well known mass energy equivalence principle, the mc2 relation (0250). But with
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My list presents more than 100 named particles or particle genera, and many of these could represent several hundred particle states.
If just a small percentage of these alleged particles did exist, then the Universe would seem a strange place indeed, in that so little of its mass and energy has been accessible to date.
If physicist go on postulating particles at the present rate, they will come up with more particles than exist in nature. It seems to me that nonexistent particles are already surpassing existent particles in number and this could have serious consequences of the
future of particle physics.
Science cannot become a methodology for filing or classifying the nonexistent, the inexperienced or the experimentally undetectable. If it does, then it soon will degenerate into a series of mnemonic exercises for a coterie of fellow travellers
Hence, as a minimum 4050 different kinds of elementary particles are needed for a consistent theory building and description with 36 different quarks that should explain all other registered particle forms.
And besides that a lot of other particles are suggested which not fit into the quark model at all.
INFLATION IN PARTICLE PHYSICS
In New Scientist 5th of May 1988, we read the following by John Kenny, physicist at Bradley University, Illinois, USA
In the past quarter of a century, physicist has invented a plethora of particles. To explain the innards of hadrons, the missing mass problem of cosmology, and the freedoms that exist in some of the more conventional and successful theories, they have postulated a bevy of particles to validate their assumptions and the theoretical
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prejudices. Thus, the standard model of the electroweak interaction demands the existence of Higgs sector dominated by Higgs fields and a series of at least one, and perhaps up to 20, Higgs bosons. Super symmetric theories demand the existence of the likes of photinos, gravitios, axions and a series of heavy neutrinos. Some unified versions of field theories demand Higgsinos, and when higher dimensions are considered a whole set of particle families make their appearance.
There is a danger in all of this classifying of the inexperienced. The danger is that, because almost none of these postulated particles has serious experimental candidates at present, modern particle physics could degenerate into filing and cataloguing these highly inflated mental constructs.
All too readily they can become mental culdesacs. They can build bastions in theory which could readily repulse actual experimental finds which do not meet their specification,
t can be argued, and with considerable justification, that the real inflation of our times
is in mental constructs such as these. There are so many choices and so many versions that the picture emerging from what should be the most primitive branch of physics (after all, these are supposed to be elementary particles) is confusing. Just making a catalogue of these postulated particles is a chore, to say the least, and far from easy.
I have made a list of the postulated particles which, as yet, have not been matched with clear experimental finds (see adjoining list). The list is arranged alphabetically, and is by no means exhaustive, as several of the particles mentioned are generic classifications and could in turn represent a whole family of additional particles.
I have not given references, as even a list of the basic references to many of the particles would be as long as a typical particle physics journal.
What makes things even more complicated is that many of these particles mean different things in different versions of theories.
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And too many fundamental phenomena in the physical world are not yet understood. Until this understanding has been achieved there is no chance of understanding the elementary particle problems.,
A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF HOW FORCES ARE CREATED IN ACCORD TO MODERN PHYSICAL THEORY
Newton was one of the pioneers what regards the use of a quantified description of the concept of force in the way forces appear in nature. His three basic laws are formulated:
matter keep its moving state until an opposite force acts on it
a force is created when the moving state of an object is changed and
if a force is created, an equal and opposite force is generated.
Those seemingly simple and evident physical laws have been the dominating rules for the evolution and progress in physics since then. No experiments done show that any of these laws are wrong or incomplete, they belong to the natures most fundamental laws
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and the orthodox believers..
End of citation
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PARTICLE EXPLOSION: PARTICLES POSTULATED BUT NOT YET CONFIRMED
A: alphon, anomalons, arion, axiinstanton, axino,axion
B: beiton, Bogolon, bottomium, bradyon
C: calaron, centauros, cosmos strings, cosmion, cosmon
D: dilaton, domain walls, dyons
E: emon, exotic mesons
F: familons, flavoron, flucton, Froissarion
G: gaugino, geon, glueball, gluino, gluon, goldstino, Goldstone boson, gravitino, graviton,GUM(Grand Unification Mass)
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H: haplon,heavy neutrinos, higglets, Higgs boson, higgsino, hylon
I: instantons, intermediate vector mesons or bosons
J: no listed particles
K: no listed particles
L: luxons
M: magnino, majoron, mandela, maximon mirror particles, meron, monopoles (magnetic)
N: neutralino, neutrinos(right handed, simpson, sheavy),new neutralgauge mesons(W),newtonites, nuclearites
O: octonions, odderons
P: paraphotons, parton,Perry poles, photino, Planck mass, plasmon, XXXXX
pomeron, preon, primatom, primordial black holes, psions, pseudo goldstone bosons, pyrgon
Q: qark,quark nuggets,quarkonium
R: rainon, reggeons, reons,right handed neutrinos, rishons
S: sakaton, Schwarzschild mass, screwon, sfermions, shadow matter, Simpson neutrinos, skyrmions, sneutrino, soliton, spurion, squark,stponium, straton, superon, supersymmetric string mass
T: tachyon,techni particles, toponium, trigluonium, trion
U: uniton V: valon,vorton W: WIMP X: Xons
Y: no listed particles Z: zerino,zeron
John Kenny has a similar apprehension and theory as that which here later on will be presented.
So, the main impression got when dealing with these theories is, that they contain a troublesome number of hypothetical assumptions and contradictory problems.
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Very generally we can describe the electric force as coupled to electrical charged particles in rest, but where the magnetic forces are coupled to effects created when such particles move.
THE STRONG FORCE.
The strong forces hold the nuclear particles in the atomic nucleus together. These forces estimates being in the size of 150 times larger than that of the electromagnetic forces compared with the same amount of matter and distance.
THE FORCE OF GRAVITY
The gravity force is this force perhaps most familiar for everyone, a force that we can register continuously and which acts on all matter around us, small as well as on cosmic level, of matter. The force of gravity also have its own hypothetical force particle, not either confirmed by any experimental outcome. In respect to the enormous weakness of the gravity force, the virtual mass and energy of these interacting gravitation particles
valid for every1thing in nature. These laws say, that if a force shall arise it demands that
an object has a measurable content of mass and
that this mass changes its moving state.
Inversely follows that lack of mass not can create a forces and that all creation of forces in its fundamental level is of dynamic nature, hence claim changes.
On macro cosmic level (the things around us) one sometimes talk about static forces, but according to Newtons basic concepts of force, no such kinds of forces exist, all forces are of dynamical nature.
To give an example the seemingly static and constant pressure in a car deck or the seemingly constant stretching force in a spring of steel, both these forces are caused by dynamical activities in particles on microcosmic level of matter, an accumulated and cooperative effects of
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myriads of small force impact particles generating the measurable forces on macroscopically level of matter.
The important conclusion we must draw from this introducing discussion is that: there is only one principle in nature by which forces are created, this principle is when matter change its moving state as function of time.
The concept of force is very fundamentally equipped with the concept of mass hence absence of mass cannot produce any force.
That statement is for us now 300 years after Newton selfevident but nevertheless it must be accentuated again and again, that because the modern physics has ignored this very fundamental and incorruptible principle, creating their own rules, overruling common sense.
An important activity of the modern physical research is to attempt explaining all different forces that appear in nature, also incorporating them all in a common theory.
The modern physics describes or classify forces as follows:
electromagnetic forces
strong forces
gravitation forces
weak forces, hyperweak forces
The meaning by describing forces in this way is to find a common base for how these different kinds of forces work in nature, arranged in a common uniting theory.
However, in spite of great efforts done in this direction, no consistent theory yet has been presented. In any way. we shall here compare existing ideas of these theories with Newtons origin definition of the concept of force.
THE ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FORCES.
Electromagnetic forces are divided into electric and magnetic forces. What is known from Maxwells electromagnetic theory (and even from our own theory) these forces are manifestations of a common source, yet these forces seems very different.
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For describing and explaining these forces in the proton, one assume existence of particles by the name of gluons are acting. Even these particles are pure hypothetical and never registered in free state.
A great amount of gluons are needed for the theory. Responsible for the weak force is the Z and W particles recently detected in CERN and the discovery even Nobel Prize Awarded. These particles are supposed to be involved in the decay of the neutrons to a proton, an electron and radiation.
If the purpose of a theory intend to explain something in nature, it is a reasonable claim that the suggested idea at least in theory has a chance to work. But that cannot be said about many of these ideas that dominate physics today. At a closer examination it seems as the used ideas to its most part lack all support in the real world.
The common properties of the force bearing particles according to these ideas are, that all force mediating particles must be virtually massless, but having energy.
must be enormous (in accord to the theory, mass and energy of an intermediating particle is thought to be in inverse proportion to the strength of the force). In association to our treatment of the gravitation in another chapter of this book, chapter 09 , we have shown how to calculate this mass of the hypothetical gravitating particles (see Plancks mass formula 0939)..
THE WEAK FORCE
The weak force is a pure hypothetical force based on the assumption that principally all elementary particles are instable, which means, all particles soon or later will decay and destroying themselves. The proton particle is seemingly an absolute stable particle, however the theory predicts a small probability for its decay. However, no experiments yet have confirmed such a decay, the proton seems to be an entirely stable particle. The neutron decay after about 10 minutes.
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HYPER WEAK FORCE
Weak forces and hyperweak forces probably must be seen and interpreted not as forces in its common meaning, but instead a way to in accord with modern ideas of particle physics  describe how particle systems are decaying
For instance, the weak force is connected to the decay of a neutron (a neutral nucleus particle), decaying to a proton, an electron and radiation.
The hyperweak force is connected to the idea that seemingly stable particles, like for instance the proton, will decay after a very long time. However, such decays never has been registered, that in spite of intensive experimental efforts done over a long period of time.
MASS INERTIAL FORCES
The mass inertial forces according to Newton, usually not is included in the description of forces in nature, which seems very strange. The inertial force is that force that is most common in daily life. Maybe that is the reason for not including it in the common listing of forces ??!!!,
HOW ESTABLISHED THEORY DESCRIBE THESE FORCES OF NATURE
Established theory describe all these forces by an intermediating process constituting an exchange of virtual force mediating particles.
For the strong nuclear force the my(meson particle is involved (a particle having a mass of approximately 273 times the electron mass, but inside the nucleus having zero mass according to the theory !, being the particle acting like a glue between nuclear particles.
It was Hideki Yukawa who firstly postulated this particle in aim to explain the strong nuclear force in the atomic core. He used some well established physical laws known from the area of atomic physics, among them De Broglies particle wave duality principle, Heisenbergs uncertainty principle and the mass energy equivalence principle. e
Copyright Cadelco AB Sweden 2007 Copyright Cadelco AB Sweden 200710/032 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 10/029But that is of course pure fiction, it is only the resulting effect of all pushes. The problem with this and similarly attempts to explain the mechanism for the upcoming of attracting forces between particles is that just repelling forces are created.
The balls which are used must have real mass according to Newtons definition of that concept
the fictive force here generated is an equivalent repelling force, not attracting which one was intended to demonstrate by the model.
Hence, the only existing model for explaining how forces between particles in a system are generated in accord with the modern intermediating particle exchange ideas, in fact not works at all  that because only repelling
forces are created, not attracting.
One have tried to go around this dilemma by also suggesting a boomerang effect). Perhaps it is not necessary to point out that such an attempt to revise the model only seems desperate and silly.
Such a property already from the beginning is impossible in the light of Newtons origin definition of mass, force and energy, entities which are intimately connected to each other and cannot be separated in this way.
The idea by mediating force particles demands that the well known relation between mass and energy E =m.c2 (see equation 0250) must be stated as invalid. The physicists walk around this problem by postulating gluons as virtual massless particles, hence particles having energy but lacking measurable mass content. This idea is consolidated by Heisenbergs uncertainty principle, a rule got from the atomic physics, saying that some complementary entities like for instance energy and time not at the same time can be determined by an unlimited degree of accuracy.
Of course, even if this idea is correct on the atoms electron level, it cannot
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without discussion be applied on conditions in the atomic core or on an arbitrary chosen system of particles where we can guess that completely different conditions are present.
However, the idea is that an instable particle having a limited short lifetime is carrying a high amount of energy and viceversa. And if the energy is large, the lifetime will be so short that it will be impossible to measure the particles mass. Of that reason the particle has virtual mass.. Hence, one say that the particle mass is virtual.
Yakawa used this idea together with some other ideas from the electron orbital level of the atom, De Broglies particle wave duality principle and the Bohrs quantum mechanical relation of m.v.D= h/(2. p), , a relation limited to the electron orbital level of an atom, not useable within an atomic nucleus or arbitrary particle system).
The conclusion we here must draw from it is that rules and analogies fetched from the
atomic physics uncritically seems to have been used in the nuclear physics as well as further on in the particle physics where completely different conditions are present.
We are therefore forced to classify these methods as nonscientific, built on completely wrong assumptions.
One model that is used to demonstrate how forces act in accord with the modern particle physical ideas is by imagining two boats situated in rest on a plane water surface. In each boat one man is situated and both men are throwing and catching a ball between each other. For each throwing and for each catching in accord with Newtons laws an opposite force impact is got on the two men together with their boats, causing the boats to successively recede from each other. For an outer observer it looks like as if the two boats are activated by a repelling force.
A1001
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it is possible to create quarks, at least intermittently, by matter not from the beginning containing quarks?
hence quarks are not elementary particles as said because they can be created or destroyed in laboratory experiments
it needs less energy of creating quarks than it needs for separating them out of a bounded system (which is impossible).
We make some further conclusions:
No relevant model exists that can give an inviolable description of how the idea by intermediating particles works.
The existing models of particle physics can only motivate repelling forces, not attracting forces as it was intended to account for.
Above that, the existing model claims presence of real mass content of the interacting particles, gluon particles must be massless to satisfy the theory.
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The weak intermediating force corresponds to an intermediating particle with an energy (virtual mass) content in the range of 40 times of a proton, the gravitation is caused by a particle having energy in the range of 1000000000000000000 proton masses, the so named Plancks mass (see formula 0939). The absurdity in these facts talks its own language and we need not to comment it further.
The gravity force seems to act even on the most elementary particles in matter, protons, electrons and perhaps even on the light bearing particles, the photons. The necessary question therefore must be how can particles with such very large mass and energy be able to interact with these monsters of force particles?!
Why do not spontaneous nuclear reactions all the time occur into matter by the impact of these gravitino particles hitting the earth and all things on it?
Hence, our conclusions must be that these
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10/034 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 10/035ideas have nothing to deal with reality at all, just being what they basic are, pure fiction without any contact with the real world at all.
Another oddity of the modern particle theories is the apprehension of how forces act between quarks (hypothetical constituents of protons and some other particles). In spite of intensively experimental efforts during the latest years, one has never succeeded to make these quarks free, the quarks always remain in the bounded state.
This irritating fact naturally must be given some form of a theoretical motivation, it is said that the postulated forces between quarks have a tendency to increase when trying to draw them apart. The force is increased to the limit of infinity, then excluding all possibilities to make them free, but also giving the theoreticians alibi for their theses about the existence of quarks.
Of course, all of that is pure nonsense. Everything we today know about the behaviour of forces talks against it, force effect between objects usually decline, most often in time to the inverse square law.
Furthermore, we can accentuate the fact, that if the quarks exist, it would exist a theoretical possibility to make them free in spite of the infinite forces between them. That would be possible by the tunnel effect, an effect that is assumed to work between quarks in a similar way as for electrons in atomic systems.
However, in spite of these potential possibilities and in spite of all intensive experimental efforts during the resent years, it has given no result.
One remarkable fact, which here ought to be pointed out, is that quarks can be created by matter that from the beginning not contain quarks. That will happen in collisions experiments between electrons and positrons (for instance in LEP, CERN where Z and Wparticles are created). In decay of these particles, quark, antiquark pairs are said to be created. That in line with established standard particle theory
Some strange conclusions drawn by it are:
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of what has been registered by experiments. A new theory also may be able to predict new and not yet registered particles.
Our main idea is, that a new model can be achieved within the limits of the classical physics, using Newtons fundamental formulae and laws on the microcosmical parts of matter.
That thought is in fully line with our main intentions of our theory and we will proceed using the same fundamental principles that we have found useful and valid in other parts of physics.
The new particle theory here briefly described is based not upon quarks and gluons and all other associated particles and strange hypothetical properties, but instead on completely new and different ideas.
To begin with we must establish that the present pattern of systematizing of different particles used is erroneous and misleading and must be replaced.
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Laws, rules and analogies fetched from the atomic physics are used uncritically both in the nuclear physics and in particle physics. There is no guarantee that physical laws from one particle system can be transferred to another system and working well in this system.
Newtons origin laws regarding the relation mass/energy/force is inhibited so even the mass energy equivalence principle of E=m.c2.
Particles having energy but no mass, a property of matter that lack all known experimental support.
Origin and source of all force exchanging particles needed for the theory are lacking. These particles are pure hypothetical, and lack all experimental support.
Forces between quarks increase to the limit of infinity with increasing relative distance. This behaviour of forces is against all known behaviour of forces in nature. Such a behaviour only a rubber band will show up..
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To end with, a short list aimed for meditation for them who think that the critics of the modern particle physics is mad and wrong:
Has any free quark been observed in spite of extremely efforts done by experiments to find such quarks?
Has any free force particle been observed, gluons, so named?
Has any fractional electrical charge as postulated by the theory been observed?
Can any comprehensible mechanism be offered by how gluons create attracting forces between quarks?
Can any reasonable motive be offered why force particles lack measurable mass in spite of being present in close systems (in the atomic nucleus for instance)?
Can any physical mechanism or motivation be given to the existence of colour forces of quarks?
Does it exists any theory for why leptons exist outside the quark particle model ?
Why do it only exist a fixed number of quarks and gluons?
Does it exist any good theoretical motivation to the very well defined masses of elementary particles as observed in experiments?
Does it exist any good and convincing theory for the whole fundamental physics giving motivation to the existence of elementary particles as a physical phenomenon?
Studying the list we may wonder what the physicists work with. If theories can explain nothing, the physics will be just a therapy without content and meaning and it have to be inhibited and ought to be replaced with something more useful.
THE NEW THEORY
A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF BASIC PRINCIPLES AND CONCEPTS
Hence, we are forced to say that the current ideas in particle physics are erroneous and must be replaced by something new, which in a more comprehensible and less contradictory way can give a description of
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charged particle, constituting the main constituent of the atomic core.
The first proton spectrum particle is the neutron (n), having 1836.68 electron masses, followed by another uncharged particle, lambdazero (Lo) with the mass of 2183 electron masses, only observed in neutral state.
Furthermore, there are a lot of other particles registered where the most common ones are Sigma(S), Xsi(X) and Ohmega ( W ).
THE TAU PARTICLE SPECTRA (t)
The next step is the Tauparticle (t ) with 3492 electron mass units, a point particle having similar properties as for the electron, positive or negative charged. Immediately above this mass there are Do with 3646 electron masses and D+ having 3656 electron masses, as to mention some of them all. .
A list of facts giving a new systemizing may look as follows:
Point formed particles (true elementary particles) have no distinct internal structure, are pointformed and have always electrical charge.
Electric neutral particles of this sort lack, that because the electric charge is a primary property of these particles.
Complex elementary particles are compounds of point particles (true elementary particles). In this latter group both electrical charged and mot electrical charged particles occur.
To begin with, we shall in some degree study how we can systematize these particles in accord with done observations. We begin with the electron (negative) and the proton (positive). .
The electron, together with the proton, belong to the most stable and common occurrence particle forms, responsible for the electric current in a conductor wire and
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as part in the nucleus core respectively. If we disregard the positron system there are no particle spectrum observed immediately above the electron level (with spectrum is meant a particle system having a larger mass content than the base particle).
If we put the electron mass as our reference mass, unit =1, then in the proceeding discussion we more easy can describe the masses of other particles in relation to that reference mass object.
THE MYON SPECTRUM
Above the electron mass, there are an electron like particle that has been given the name myon (m) with a mass equal to 206.77 electron mass units. This particle has electron like properties. The myon has its antiparticle with the same mass but with opposite charge polarity.
The myon (m) belongs to the group of singular base particles and of that reason no uncharged variant exist of it.
The myon has a spectrum by the pmesons with the mass of p o = 264 electron mass units and p + having 273.1 electron mass units respectively.
THE KMESON MASS SPECTRUM
To the next particle group there is a big step. The base particle is there the electric charged Kmeson with the mass of 966.1 electron mass units, having both positive and negative electric charge. This particle has a spectrum of several other particles, where Ko with a mass of 972 electron mass units and the ho (etazero) with 1075 electron mass units are the most common in this particle spectrum..
THE PROTON SPECTRUM
The next spectrum group begins with the proton (p) ), having the mass of 1836.15 electron masses, being a stable positive
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MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS
As pointed out before, our hypothesis is that all spectrum particles are composed by those point formed particles defined, e, E, u, K, p, t in a shifting pattern. In such a hierarchic system the most simple combination is a system composed by two singularities, giving rise to an electrical uncharged system (as seen by an outer observer).
If studying the table and data given above, this hypothesis seems to be confirmed in a very
HIGHER UP SPECTRA
Furthermore, higher up is registered hc with mass 2.978Gev corresponding to approximately 5830 electron mass units.
This particle also has a set of different complex spectra.
After that follows the Bmeson with mass 5.3Gev corresponding to 10400 electron mass units. Even this particle has a spectrum. After it is a particle with mass 8.3Gev, corresponding to 18900 electron mass units and has been given the name zeta(z). Even this particle has a lot of particles in its spectrum.
Higher up in the energy scale there are similarly structures of regularly pattern
The meaning with this listing has been to point out some properties that are common for all fundamental particles of this sort.
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The lowest level in a particle spectrum always is a singular particle having electric charge properties.
The first spectrum particle above the base particle is always electrical uncharged, being always some more heavy than the base particle.
Very often even the second spectrum particle is electrical uncharged but then having a considerably higher mass content.
This pattern is repeated consistently and in a regular way throughout all occurring spectrums. That cannot be any occurrence BY accident, but instead pointing on fundamental principles hidden into matter.
Hence, the purpose here is to try understanding the basic principles on ground of already known laws of physics. To begin with we do a brief list of mass differences between some of the well known and registered particles as listed below. The aim of the listing is to see if there are any regularity percent in the differences.
po  u
264.1 206.77
=
53
electron masses
p+  u
273.1  206.77
=
66.3
electron masses
K+  Ko
973.9  966.1
=
7.8
electron masses
ho  K+
1074  966.1
=
107.8
electron masses
r  K+
1506  966.1
=
539.9
electron masses
w  K+
1506  966.1
=
566.1
electron masses
n  p(+)
1838.9  1836.2
=
2.53
electron masses
Lo  p(+)
2183  1836.2
=
347.1
electron masses
S p(+)
2328/23431836
=
491/507
electron masses
X  p(+)
2573/25861836
=
734/750
electron masses
Do  t (+)
3649 3492
=
157
electron masses
D(+)(t (+)
36583492
=
167
electron masses
Copyright Cadelco AB Sweden 2007 Copyright Cadelco AB Sweden 200710/052 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 10/049pmeson, the neutral kmeson, the neutron, the neutral Lambda L0(( particle) and many others.
Our first task is to find out a basic principle by which point formed particles are created, and how they behave and how they get different mass content in spite of that they have the same content of electric charge (the electron unit charge is 1.6E19 As). The solution of that problem is a rotating ring, a vortex, that vibrates and interacts with its own electromagnetic field surrounding it.
DEFINITION OF PARTICLE 1003
PARAMETERS
P
The maximum force on the particle surface
Peff
The total effective force being the difference PPo
Mo
The total mass content of the particle
me
The electron rest mass
c
The limit velocity of matter in a closed system
vi
The internal spin velocity of a particle
q
The vacuum mass density (see equation 0323)
Tc
The revolution time of a particle around an axis
Tr
The revolution time around its own mass centre
N
The particles quantum resonance state number
convincing way. The first spectrum particle in each individual system is an electrical neutral particle without exceptions.
However, to begin with, our hypothesis of point formed base particles being the constituents of these spectrum particles seems to make trouble.
There exists no point formed particles with mass corresponding with the mass difference as calculated above! For instance, take the po meson, here supposed being composed by a myon u=206.77 mass units and another unknown particle. The nearest particle available regarding mass content is the electron, with 1 mass unit, but lacks 531=52 electron mass units! The same thing can be observed for the Ko particle in relation to K where 7.81=6.8 mass units lacking. For the neutron in relation to the proton 1.53 mass units is lacking,.
And so on for other heavier particles..
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Copyright Cadelco AB Sweden 2007 Copyright Cadelco AB Sweden 20070/050 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 10/051
The solution of this problem is relatively simple and can be motivated by already well known and verified physical laws. It is well known from particle physics, that a particles mass increases when moving with a high speed in relation to the electromagnetic environment, a physical phenomenon discovered by Kaufmann already 1901, using cathode rays (accelerated electrons) as probe particles, also derived from our own theory based on Newtons kinetic laws (see equation 0250)
Hence, our conclusion is that the mass difference may be motivated by that an orbiting particle in a closed system moving with an extremely high velocity into this system, a velocity nearly the limit velocity of light, will achieve a mass increase, motivating this mass difference.
As a remark Einstein derived (suggested, proposed) 2 expressions of this mass increase for the same particle, in longitudinal and in transversal direction. Both erroneous.
Later we will develop a theory based on that idea.
THE NEW PARTICLE THEORY
CREATION OF SINGULAR PARTICLES
Hence, we do not believe on quarks. We do not believe on gluons holding particles together. We do not believe on the way of classification of particles as done in current particle physics. We think the conceptual base of todays particle physics is mainly wrong. Hence, we must try to find another conceptual basis of the existence of elementary particles, constituting the least fundamental parts of what we name matter
In this theory we assume there exists a set of particles that are singular, mainly/ approximately, point formed in shape. The myon, Kon, the proton, the Tauon are examples on such particles (the electron is outside and some unique). Combination of these base particles (where even the electron may be included), create complex particle forms consisting of at least 2 and more particles of the first class.
Examples on such particles are the neutral XXXXXXXX
Copyright Cadelco AB Sweden 2007 Copyright Cadelco AB Sweden 200710/056 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 10/0531009
In this differential equation, the parameter Po must be known. Furthermore we must know how the particle mass is related to its spatial extension, the radius Ro.
We begin with by computing Po. In each oscillating period, a mass, dm, is exchanged between particle and the vacuum space, having density 1/e0 ((see the equation 0322f ). We calculate this mass and the energy associated to this process, using the previous derived formula 0250
Xa101
1004
The resonance, quantum model
At start we make a study of a particle as a closed entity of matter into space.
We begin by trying to formulate a differential equation, determining the oscillating movement of the particle plasma in the radius direction.
We start with Boyles law for gases, saying that the product of pressure and volume in a closed entity, is an invariant, provided the temperature is constant (see equation 0159).
Copyright Cadelco AB Sweden 2007 Copyright Cadelco AB Sweden 200710/054 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 10/0551005
For simplicity, we here assume the particle mass entity having a spherical form, giving the following relation between the neutral state and the oscillating state:
1006
The total acting forces on the particles surface in the neutral state and in the oscillating state (compressed or decompressed states ) then will be:
1007
1007
This force interacts with the particle massinertial force when oscillating. Then in accord with Newtons law of force and mass, the inherent, expanding force will be ( 0116 )
1008
In each moment of time, these two forces are equal, hence in balance. That give us the following differential equation, describing how the particle plasma will oscillate as result of a mass and force interaction processes involved:
Copyright Cadelco AB Sweden 2007 Copyright Cadelco AB Sweden 200710/060 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 10/0571014
These vibrations of the particle plasma in the radii direction, generate disturbances in the particles surrounding electromagnetic field, giving rise to a resonance effect (a quantum effect) between these vibrations and the particles own spin movement.
The particles oscillation in its own electromagnetic field can be calculated from the common pendulum equation in the same way as was demonstrated in our atomic quantum theory.
The electromagnetic field force is here me.c2/re, the particle mass M, and the pendulum radius R:
1010
a) Change in mass of the particle caused by the oscillation Coulomb change
b) This mass converted to energy in accord with formula 0250
But according to Newtons laws, energy is the product of force and distance, giving (0121):
A1011
xxxxxx
Copyright Cadelco AB Sweden 2007 Copyright Cadelco AB Sweden 200710/058 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 10/059
From our atomic and electromagnetic theory, we know that the mass of all point formed base particles is in the relation to their radii in cobe. Using the electron particle as our reference with radius re, then the mass of an arbitrary point formed particle can be calculated to (see our formula 0217) :
A1012
Now we calculate the variable Po /(Mo.Ro ) in our differential equation 1009.
We start with Po from formula 1011 and insert value of M from formula 1012, divided with Ro.
After that the eo is replaced by values from formula 0322d, 0323f from our own electromagnetic theory, and A0 is rewritten by use of formula 0437 from the same theory:
1013
a) Equation 1011b
b) Equation 0437 and 0132
c) Equation 0322f and 0323d
d) Combination of 1013a,b,c and using 0217
e) Solvinhg out the constant K from 1014d
The solution of our differential equation 1009 then will be:
Copyright Cadelco AB Sweden 2007 Copyright Cadelco AB Sweden 200710/064 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 10/061
A1018
COMMENTS OF RESEIVED RESULTS
n
Mass from experimentsor predicted mass
Unit
Value of k
Comment
1
16
Mev
predicted
(1)
2
105.65839
Mev
0.941127
u, mu (6)
3
493.646
Mev
1.051727
k, kaon (6)
4
938.2723
Mev
0.974450
p, proton (6)
5
1784.1
Mev
0.965783
T, Tauon (6)
6
2.976
Ge v
0.954871
n, eta
7
5.26
Ge v
0.987142
B(2)
8
8.3
Ge v
1.007657
z, zeta (3)
9
11.5
Ge v

JETS (5)
10
15.8
Ge v

JETS (5)
11
21
Gev

JETS (5)
12
27.4
Gev

JETS (5)
13
34.8
Gev

JETS (5)
The particles oscillation in the radius direction (time period tr) will be in resonance with the particle s spin movement(time period ts) in its own electromagnetic field, times a half integer n unit of it.
However, we prefer to express the equation in full integer values, introducing an correction factor k = 1+x times the number of p, giving the following set of formulae for the particle mass (the spin movement time of the particle is 2.p in accord with equation 0437):XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
xxxxxx
Copyright Cadelco AB Sweden 2007 Copyright Cadelco AB Sweden 200710/062 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 10/063
a) Resonance condition between the particles spin time and the oscillation time in the radius direction
b) Equality between the spin time of the particle and the particles oscillation time in the radius direction, the quantum number n is represented by the relationship between these oscillating periods
c) The mass of the searched particle as function of the electron mass as reference and the quantum number n=1,2,3..
xxxxxx
d) where n is an integer number n=1,2,3 for the integer number of oscillation in the radius direction as function of the particles spin time
e) K is a constant with nominal value equal to 1 but some fluctuating around this value in comparison to experimental finding and measurements
xxxxxx
Some of these point formed base particles can be identified as follows
A1017
Copyright Cadelco AB Sweden 2007 Copyright Cadelco AB Sweden 200710/068 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 10/065
Comment 101
Obs THAT THE w PARTICLE IS A NEUTRALLY ELECTRIC CHARGED PARTICLE. HENCE HAVING A TOO LARGE MASS IN COMPARISON TO OUR PARTICLE MODEL.
OF THAT REASON THE BASE PARTICLE OF w PARTICLE MAY HAVE A LOWER VALUE THAN THE GIVEN VALUE OF W.
Comment 102
IN DERIVING THE QUANTUM FORMULA 1018 IT HAS BEEN ASSUMED THAT THE RELAYION BETWEEN MASS CONTENT AND SPATIAL RADIUS OF A PSRTICLE IS IN ACCOTD WITH FORMULA 0217 Because the formula 1919 very well give correct values of mass of experimentally found particles, we can conclude this relation is valid with good precision.
14
43.4
Gev
0.997973
Reg. (4)
15
53.4
Gev

JETS (5)
16
64.8
Gev

JETS (5)
17
81.0
Gev
1.013342
W, (6)
18
92.4
Gev
0.999883
Z, (6)
See New Scientist 11th february/p14,15 1995
Bmeson, see CERN data booklet
zeta, see New Scientist 16th august 1984
43.4 Gev, see 25th of may 1984
See statistics from reports Physics Review Letters below
Se CERN Particle Data Group booklet
From New Scientist 24 may 1984
A1040
Copyright Cadelco AB Sweden 2007 Copyright Cadelco AB Sweden 200710/066 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 10/067A10KOSMOS
Statistic from Swedish KOSMOS 1981 page 100
XA1025
Report of the zeta 8.3 Gev particle in a German Scientific journal. OBS! cited text limited
Copyright Cadelco AB Sweden 2007 Copyright Cadelco AB Sweden 2007
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a,b) The mass increasing formula
c) The particle velocity derived as function of mass increase
The orbiting particle is kept in orbit by the strong force between the particles included into the system.
This force is a shadow force on near situated particles got by the full pressure of the vacuum field (see 0703). This force is in balance with the inertial orbiting centrifugal force.
Xxxxxx
xxxxxx
Chapter 11
ELEMENTARY PARTICLESThe complex forms
INTRODUCTION
001
MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS
003
CALCULUS OF PARTICLE MASSES
011
SOME CALCULATED MASSES
012
INTRODUCTION
015
FROM NEW SCIENTIST 26 NOVEMBER 1987 WE CAN READ THE FOLLOWING:
016
HELP PROGRAM PCOMPLEX, TURBO PASCAL
020
INTRODUCTION
As discussed before, complex particles are defined as these particles composed by two or more basic particles as defined in section 10. As to give an example, the neutron is composed by a proton and an electron. The mymeson is composed by a myon and another particle in orbit. Individual particles in such a complex particle system, are influenced by the strong force, being the shadow force from the very strong vacuum field.
Copyright Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2007 Copyright Ove Tedenstig Sweden 200711/002 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 11/003XXXXXX
At first instance, we look at some well known mass particle spectra, that in order to see that there in fact exists a very clear pattern by which spectrum particles are built up.
A1101
If we study the mass difference between the base particle and the nearest spectrum particle, we se that this mass difference not correspond with mass of any known singular particle form. But we easily see, that this mass difference can be motivated by a mass increase of the orbiting particle in accord with
how mass is added from the surrounding electromagnetic field when moving fast in this field. The mathematical formula for this mass increase we find in the relation 0242
MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS
The principle of the calculation is, that the orbital particle moves with high velocity around the central particle. The particle is hold in orbit mainly by the strong force with a small contribution from the electromagnetic force. In a similar way as for the quantum atom, the orbiting particle will come in resonance with some of the system particles own resonances.
For a system containing 2 particles, there are 4 different states, resulting in 4 different mass results of the calculation. If these mass values are very apart, each mass may be seen as a separate particle. If the mass values are very near, the mean value is the calculated particle mass value .
XXXXXX
Copyright Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2007 Copyright Ove Tedenstig Sweden 200711/008 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 11/005
a) 4 different resonance states of the central particle respective the orbiting particle
b) The orbiting time for resonance with some of the systems particle resonance states
c) The orbiting particles rotation distance to the central particle, together with its velocity, that as function of the actual system resonance
If there are more than one orbital particle in the system, the total orbital mass shall be introduced in the formula., hence Norbit x Mo .We collect some of results achieved
A1106abcde
A1103
a) Illustrating the shadow effect between particles and in the vacuum field
b) the force on the particle surface from the vacuum field, equation 0308
c) the force effect on particles in the shadow field as function of the relative distance D, formula 0703
d) the equivalent attraction force between particles M1 and M2 respectively
Copyright Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2007 Copyright Ove Tedenstig Sweden 200711/006 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 11/007
When the orbital particle moves, there
will be an outer expanding force according to Newtons law of force (see formula 155b). This force will be
A1104
a) The centrifugal force for the rotating particle (see formula 155b)
b) The distance between particles in the system is some dependent of the mass distribution between the particles
According our particle theory (chapter 10 ), every base particle in the particle system has two independent plasma resonance frequencies. These oscillations disturb the environment electromagnetic space field, that vary with these oscillations (see equations 1014 and 1015). An orbiting particle then will follow these variations, resulting in that the orbiting time will be equal to one of these system oscillation frequencies. In a system containing 2 particles, hence there are mainly 4 possible orbiting time resonance frequencies states possible.
A1105
Copyright Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2007 Copyright Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2007XXXXXX
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If both particles in a system of 2 have the same or near the same masses, both particles are to be regarded as the same particle. In the formulas considerations have been done to these circumstances.
A1108
SOME CALCULATED MASSES
A1106fg
a) Equation 1102c
b) Equation 1104b
c) Equation 1105g
d) Equation 1104a
e) Equation 1103d
f) Putting together 1106d,c,a
g) Putting together 1106e,a,b,c
There is also some strong force interaction between the orbiting particles as well as there are electromagnetic forces between them. But the electromagnetic forces are relatively small in comparison to the strong forces, so they may be neglected in this context.
For the strong force interaction between orbits we simply exchange Mc in the formula 1006e with Mo and multiply with the number of
Copyright Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2007 Copyright Ove Tedenstig Sweden 200711/010 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 11/011XXXXXX
orbital particles with N1. For the electromagnetic interaction force we uses the Coulombs law (0322)
The force equations are solved so that the sum of all forces into the system will be zero. The output mass of the complex particle then is the sum of the total particle mass involved.
a) The sum of all forces in the system is routed to zero.
b) The sum of all masses in the system is the systems total mass content.
XXXXXX
The program Pcomplex.pas found in the appendix will help you to do calculations from this model. The model have been some adjusted for the strong force, introducing a linear component some increasing this force on very short distances, then decreasing some more rapidly on large distances. This component is name lineforce in the program.
CALCULUS OF PARTICLE MASSES
Usually the program put out 4 different values, corresponding to each individual particle resonance. The rule is, that if calculated values are strongly diverging, the mass shall be associated to a separate particle. If the mass values are very close, the mean value is the calculated particle mass.
The orbiting particle may be controlled by 4 different resonances in a system containing 2 particles. 2 of these belong to the centre particle, the other 2 to the orbiting particles own oscillating frequencies.
Copyright Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2007 Copyright Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2007XXXXXX
11/016 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 11/013
Our theory can motivate two different low resonance of K+ that are known as KL and K3.
Our theory explains in a good way spectra of different particle forms.
The neutron is an electric uncharged particle for an outer observer. Investigations have been made showing that this particle is negative near its surface but positive in its inner parts.
The neutron decays into one proton,. one electron plus radiation (neutrinos), where the electron radiates with near the velocity of light, hence this velocity it has in its orbit.
Why should a neutron, being built by quarks decay in this way?
Xxxxxx
FROM NEW SCIENTIST 26 NOVEMBER 1987 WE CAN READ THE FOLLOWING:
An experiment at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in Oxfordshire has closed some of the remaining loopholes in the mass of evidence against the existence of free quarks
Since quarks were first mooted as fundamental
A1109
A1110
Copyright Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2007 Copyright Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2007XXXXXX
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A1112
A1113 A1102
XXXXXX
SOME CONCLUSIONS
Our theory can in a good way calculate masses of both singular and complex particle forms
Our base particles e, (E), u, K, p, t , have never been observed as electrical neutral particles. They just appear as electric charged entities.
Our theory motivate in a good way the presence of electrical neutral particle forms.
Copyright Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2007 Copyright Ove Tedenstig Sweden 200711/020 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 11/017XXXXXX
new particles which not fit into the pattern of quarks etc. So the hope for the future seems dark and the possibilities of finding a solution within the framework of current theories do not seem hopeful.
HELP PROGRAM PCOMPLEX, TURBO PASCAL
The program is a Turbo Pascal program and can be compiled in such an editor. But the program easily can be rewritten to any other program language.
program pcomplex;
(* revised 20/8/1999 *)
(* Calculus of complex elementary particle forms in accord with *)
(* basic theory of Matter Unified *)
(* programmer Ove Tedenstig, Idungatan 37, 19 551 Maersta Sweden *)
(* programming version 208/99 *)
label 1;
VAR Kt:real; (* electromagnetic time constant *)
A,z,z1,Result:real; (* help variables *)
XXX:INTEGER;
n:integer; (* help parameter *)
M0:real; (* start orbit mass *)
Mc:real; (* start center mass *)
Mo:real; (* intermittent orbit mass during computing *)
Fee,Foo,Forb,Fext:real; (* system forces *)
Norb:integer; (* number of orbital particles *)
nc:integer; (* type of center particle 1,2,3.... *)
no:integer; (* type of orbital particle *)
constituents of matter, physicists have searched in vain for evidence of single quarks. The quarks seemed to be bound together in groups of three or in quarkantiquark pairs, in subatomic particles such as protons, neutrons or pions.
Quarks possess electric charges that are fractions of the charge of the electron. This should make single quarks particularly easy to detect, yet most experiments have had no success at all in finding such fractional charges. One famous exception is colleagues at Stanford University in California, reported between 1976 and 1981.
These researchers claim to have measured fractional charges of 1/3 e on several tiny spheres of superconducting niobium. They measured the charges on the balls as they were levitated magnetically.
Measurements by other groups, however, have failed to observe similar effects in other materials and even in niobium. One reason for this is that perhaps the teams niobium spheres picked up fractional
Copyright Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2007 Copyright Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2007XXXXXX
11/018 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 11/019
charges from the tungsten plate on which they lay during preparation. Peter Smith and colleagues at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and Imperial College, London, have put this possibility to rest.
They have used their magnetic levitation apparatus in 350 tests on a variety of samples, including niobium balls like those used by Fairbank. None of them showed any sign of fractional charge. Their most recent report describes measurements on tungsten carbide balls and tungstencoated niobium balls to test the hypothesis that Fairbanks fractional charges were somehow due to the tungsten. However, Smiths team still finds no signs of charges of 1/3e (Physics Letter B, Vol 197, p447).
Other experiments at the collider have found no evidence for single quarks, but this could be because free quarks interact very readily with matter and therefore never reach the usual detector beyond the beam pipe. Smiths team hoped to test this idea by catching single
quarks in the steel balls within the beam pipe.
If single quarks where produced, measurements with the levitation apparatus should reveal single fractional charges on the balls.
Again, however, the researchers report that they found no evidence for fractional charge (Zeitshrift fur Physik C, vol 36, p 363). In test on 60 balls exposed to protonantiproton collisions, they have found no signs of the fractional charge that would indicate single quarks...
 end of quotation 
There are a steady stream of reports in this researching area of physics. But reading between lines it is easy to see, that the scientists are unsure and that existing theories very badly confirm done experiments. There are steady reports of failure of finding free quarks, fractional charges, monopoles and so on, discovering
Copyright Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2007 Copyright Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2007XXXXXX
11/024 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 11/021
writeln;writeln;writeln;writeln;writeln;writeln;writeln;writeln;
if (No=0) then M0:=1;(*electron mass*)
if (No=1) then M0:=31; (* E mass *)
if (No=2) then M0:=206.77;(*muon mass*)
if (No=3) then M0:=966.6;(*kaonmass*)
if (No=4) then M0:=1836.12;(*protonmass*)
if (No=5) then M0:=1784.2/ev;(*taumass*)
if (No=6) then M0:=2978/ev;(*etamass*)
if (No=7) then M0:=5277.6/ev; (*B meson mass*)
if (No=8) then M0:=8300/ev;
if (Nc=1) then Mc:=31;
if (Nc=2) then Mc:=206.77;(*muonmass*)
if (Nc=3) then Mc:=966.6;(*kaonmass*)
if (Nc=4) then Mc:=1836.12;(*protonmass*)
if (Nc=5) then Mc:=1784.2/ev;(*taumass*)
if (Nc=6) then Mc:=2978/ev;(*etamass*)
if (Nc=7) then M0:=5277.6/ev; (*B meson mass*)
if (Nc=8) then Mc:=8300/ev;
end;
procedure calc_mean;
var n:integer;
m:real;
begin
m:=0;
for n:=1 to 4 do begin
m:= m+arr(.n.);
end;
(* write(' MMean = ',m/4:5:4);
writeln(' Mev ',m/4*ev:5:4); *)
end;
procedure parameters;
begin
Kt:=5.3455; (* electromagnetic time constant *)
Z1:=0.001; (* test incrementation of orbit mass *)
end;
(******** START PROGRAM ********)
State:integer; (* resonance state *)
Mout:real; (* total system mass *)
arr:array(.1..4.) of real; (* help array *)
Dorb:real; (* distans orbit center particle *)
MX:real; (* help parameter *)
linforce:real; (* linear strong force factor *)
Dc:real; (* center particle radius *)
Drel:real; (* realtion Dorb/Dc *)
Ddiff:real; (* realation DorbDc *)
test1,test2,test3,test4:boolean; (* test parameters *)
CONST pi=3.1415926;
e=0.5109990615E3;
ev=0.5109990615;
me=9.1066E31;
Procedure explain_terms;
begin
writeln; writeln; writeln; writeln;
writeln(' The program computes the mass of a complex particle');
writeln(' according to a new model for elementary particles ');
writeln(' consisting of a center mass and one or several orbital masses');
writeln(' 0 for electron, 0.51099906 Mev or 1 em');
writeln(' 1 for Electron, 15.84 Mew or 31 em ');
writeln(' 2 for myon 0.10565839 Gev or 206.77 em');
writeln(' 3 for Kon 0.493646 Gev or 966 em');
writeln(' 4 for proton, 0.93827232 Gev or 1836.12 em');
writeln(' 5 for Tauon, 1.7841 Gev or 3491.4 em');
writeln(' 6 for nc, 2.980 Gev or 5832 em ');
writeln(' 7 for B, 5.2776 Gev or 10327 em ');
writeln(' 8 for z, 8.3 Gev or 16243 em');
writeln;
Copyright Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2007 Copyright Ove Tedenstig Sweden 200711/022 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 11/023
writeln(' These base particles approximately follows the ');
writeln(' mathematical relation M=electron_mass*(k*Pi*n)**3 ');
writeln;
end;
PROCEDURE SPOLA;
BEGIN
FOR XXX:=1 TO 20 DO BEGIN
WRITELN;
END;
END;
PROCEDURE calc(State,n:integer;var r,z1,Mo:real);
var Kn:real;
begin
Mo:=Mo*(1Z1);
A:=MX/Mo;
if A=0 then Mo:=m0;
if ((result<1) and (result>0.1)) then z1:=0.001;
if ((result<0.1) and (result>0.01)) then z1:=0.0001;
z:=1/(1+Mo/(Mc+(Norb1)*Mo));
case State of
1: Kn:=exp(2/3*ln(Mo*Norb));
2: Kn:=Kt*exp(1/3*ln(Mo*Norb));
3: Kn:=exp(2/3*ln(Mc));
4: Kn:=Kt*exp(1/3*ln(Mc));
end;
Dorb:=sqrt(1A*A)*Kn/ z;
Dc:=exp(1/3*ln(Mc));
Drel:=Dorb/Dc;
Ddiff:=DorbDc;
(* revised 20/8 1999 *)
linforce:=49/Dorb; (* stronger force on short distances *)
(* weaker force at long distances *)
Fee:=z*z/(1A*A)/(Kn*Kn)*Norb;
Foo:=z*z/(1A*A)/(Kn*Kn)*exp(4/3*ln(Mo));
Forb:=sqrt(1A*A)/Kn*Mo;
(* revised 20/8/199 *)
Fext:=linforce*z*z/(1A*A)/(Kn*Kn)*exp(2/3*ln(Mo))*exp(2/3*ln(Mc));
Result:=ForbFooFextFee;
(* revised 20/8/199 *)
(* if an electron comes in and get a mass >E, it *)
(* will be converted to an Eelectron *)
if ((No=0) and (Mo>31) and (Mo<207) and (Result<=0) and (test1=false))
then begin
MX:=31;Mo:=MX/0.0001;test1:=true;Result:=10;end;
(* revised 20/8 1999 *)
(* if an electron comes in and get a mass >E, it *)
(* will be converted to an Eelectron *)
if ((No=0) and (Mo>=207) and (Result<=0) and (test2=false))
then begin
MX:=207;Mo:=MX/0.0001;test2:=true;result:=10;end;
(* if an Eelectron comes in and get a mass >u, it *)
(* will be converted to a u *)
if ((No=1) and (Mo>207) and (Result<=0) and (test3=false)) then begin
MX:=207;Mo:=MX/0.0001;test3:=true;result:=10;end;
end;(*calc*)
procedure inputs;
begin
if n=0 then begin
write(' Write centre particle type 1,2,3,4,5... ');readln(Nc);end;
if n=0 then begin
write(' Write orbit particle type 0,1,2,3,4.... ');readln(No);end;
if n=0 then begin
write(' Number of orbits 1,2,3... ');readln(Norb);end;
Copyright Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2007 Copyright Ove Tedenstig Sweden 200711/028 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 11/025
Readers notes:
A11end
begin
explain_terms;
spola;
1: parameters;
inputs;
for State:=1 to 4 do
begin
test1:=false;
test2:=false;
test3:=false;
test4:=false;
MX:=M0;
Mo:=MX/Z1; (* start orbit mass value, high to low value *)
result:=100;
while Result>0 do begin
calc(State,n,Result,z1,Mo);
end;(*while rloop*)
Mout:=Mc+(Norb*Mo);
arr(.State.):=Mout;
Ddiff:=dorbdc;
If state=1 then
writeln(' O1= ',Mout:5:2,' ',Mout*ev:5:2,' Mev');
if state=2 then
writeln(' O2= ',Mout:5:2,' ',Mout*ev:5:2,' Mev');
if state=3 then
writeln(' C1= ',Mout:5:2,' ',Mout*ev:5:2,' Mev');
Copyright Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2007 Copyright Ove Tedenstig Sweden 200711/026 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 11/027
if state=4 then
writeln(' C2= ',Mout:5:2,' ',Mout*ev:5:2,' Mev');
writeln;
end; (* State *)
calc_mean;
writeln;writeln;writeln;writeln;writeln;writeln;writeln;
writeln;writeln;writeln;writeln;writeln;writeln;writeln;
readln;
goto 1;
end.
(* end of program pcomplex *)
end of progran
xxx
xxxx
Readers notes:
Copyright Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2007 Copyright Ove Tedenstig Sweden 2007
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, where the main quantum number n=1. The electrons orbital velocity in this case is got from our formula 0624, and the orbital radius from 0626. The electrical charged electron is regarded as an equivalent electric current i=e/t, where e is the electrons charge and t is the orbital time.
A1202
a) The base definition for the magnetic momentum , the equation 1201
Chapter 12
ELEMENTARY PARTICLES
The singular forms
MAGNETIC MOMENTUM
002
THE BOHR MAGNETON
003
THE PROTONS MAGNETIC MOMENTUM
005
THE PROTON MAGNETIC MOMENTUM
007
THE MUONS MAGNETICAL MOMENTUM
008
THE ELECTRON MAGNETIC MOMENTUM
010
THE MAGNETIC MOMENTUM OF THE NEUTRON
012
THE CLASSIC ELECTRON RADIUS
013
THE ELECTRON RADIUS DERIVED FROM THE VACUUM MASS
014
THE PROTON RADIUS FROM MASS
015
PROTON RADIUS BASED ON THE ATOMS QUANTUM MECHANICS
017
PROTON RADIUS FROM THE NUCLEUS CORE
018
OUR OWN ANALYSIS OF THE EXPERIMENT ABOVE
022
THE SHAPE OF THE ELECTRON
024
ANNIHILATION OF ELECTRONS
025
CREATION OF AN ELECTRON
026
THE PROTONS FORM AND VOLUME
027
SUMMARIZING RESULTS OF THE PROTONS SPATIAL RADIUS
028
AN PROTON GET PLACE INTO AND ELECTRON
029
HELP PROGRAM FOR CALCULATING THE ATOMIC CORE RADIUS*)
030
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MAGNETIC MOMENTUM
Magnetic momentum is in physics defined as that entity being the product of electrical current in a closed loop and that area this loop encloses. The concept even is used in that case the current constitutes of a single, charged particle, moving in a closed loop around a force centre, as for example is the case of an electron moving around the nucleus core. The Bohr magneton is such a case, constituting the magnetic momentum for an electron that is situated in the innermost orbit of a hydrogen atom.
We will use this definition also for singular base particles, constituting a vortex, plasma ring of matter. There we associate the particle spin equivalent with an electric current, then being able to calculate the particles magnetic momentum and, then comparing the result with experimental measurements. In this comparing, we can show that the calculated value well is in agree with experimental findings. In some cases our calculated values are in a better agree with experiments that in comparison
with established theory findings. At first we define the concept of magnetic momentum:
A1201
a) The magnetic momentum of an orbiting particle around a centre point
b) The magnetic momentum for an electric current in a closed magnetic loop
c) The magnetic momentum for a vortex ring loop in accord with our model of a singular particle form
THE BOHR MAGNETON
The Bohrmagneton is calculated for the innermost orbital electron of a hydrogen atom
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THE MUONS MAGNETICAL 1205 MOMENTUM
The magnetic momentum of myon as calculated from our formula :
mu = 4.5790E26
The myon magnetic momentum as got from experiment :
mu = 4.49047E26
THE ELECTRON S MAGNETIC MOMENTUM
The electron is also of vortex form but its
internal spin velocity is much higher than for other singular particle forms. Hence, the
electron is a some different and special
particle. The spin velocity around the max
axis is the same as for the vacuum velocity C=5.3557 x c, as calculated in the equations 0317, 0437, where the factor Kt has been calculated to Kt = 5.35556 in formula 0317, 0437. And the revolving radius of the main axis
b) The definition of electric current, equation 0342
c) The area that an orbiting electron is enclosing having the rotation orbiting radius of D
d) The time it will take for an electron to rotate one turn around the atomic core ( see 0621b)
e) The orbital radius in accord with 0626
f) The orbital velocity in accord with 0624 )
g) Plancks constant in accord with 0631
THE PROTONS MAGNETIC MOMENTUM
The proton is regarded as having vortex form, where matter revolve around 2 axis with radii Rmax and Rmin respectively. The magnetic momentum is associated with a spin around the main axis. A formula is derived that also is valid for the myonen and some other
A
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singularly particle forms. Approximately is assumed that Rmax and Rmin are the same, hence the factor k=1 in the formula.
a1203
a) The basic definition of magnetic momentum the equation 0643
b) Definition of electric current, equation 0342
c) Time for an envelope of the particles
spin (see 0621b)
d) The particles spin velocity at the periphery, equation 0326a
e) Equation 0217
f) From equation 0217
g) Relation between the particles maximum and minima radius
THE PROTON MAGNETIC MOMENTUM 1204
Magnetic momentum of proton as calculated from our formula :
mp = 2.21E26
From measurement
mp = 1.41062E26
THE MUON S MAGNETICAL MOMENTUM
In the same way as for the proton, the myon is regarded as a singular particle form. We use the same formula as for the proton with inserting of the mass M=206.7 electron mass units:
Copyright Cadelco AB Sweden 2006 Copyright Cadelco AB Sweden 200612/012 MatterUnified ISBN9197381845 MatterUnified ISBN9197381845 12/009XXCC
a) The basic definition of the magnetic momentum of a particle, equation 0646
b) The orbital enclosed surface
c) The definition of electric current, equation 0342
d) The estimated distance for the electron to the centre point, see equation 0723
e) The electron s velocity in the neutron, see equation 0723
) Equation 0217
THE MAGNETIC MOMENTUM OF THE NEUTRON
The magnetic momentum of the neutron :
mn = 1.41E26  (928.49E26 + 850E26 = X.E26
Experimental value is 0.966E26, hence not an exact value calculated. But the orbiting radius of the electron in the neutron and its velocity is not exactly known, so that may be the reason for de discrepancy.
xxxxxx
will be much larger than re, associated with the normal velocity c.
A1206
a) The basic definition of the magnetic momentum of a particle, equation 0643
b) The definition of electric current, equation 0342
c) The electrons orbiting time around the large axis (0621b)
d) The same centrifugal force or surface pressure on both radii
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e) The electron radius stand in relation to spin velocity squared
THE ELECTRON MAGNETIC MOMENTUM
The magnetic momentum of an electron as calculated from out model : me = 9.68E124
The magnetic momentum of electron as measured from experiment:
ue = 9.2849E24
THE NETRON MAGNETIC MOMENTUM
From our model of the neutron, chapter (see formula 0724 ), we know that the neutron is
built up of a proton and an electron, where the electron revolve in an orbit with a very high velocity and also very closed to the protons core.
In such a system there are 3 different magnetic momentum, that cooperate so that the sum of them all will be
the resulting momentum. The momentum in question are listed as :
The protons magnetic momentum
The electron magnetic momentum
The electron orbital magnetic momentum
Up to now we know the protons and the electrons magnetic momentum, hence we have to calculate the electron orbital momentum. We find that this momentum is in same scale as for the electrons moment. The electrons momentum is negative so we may assume these two moment entities are inhibiting, or near inhibiting each other.
A1208
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a) Equation 0217
b) From common experimental data
c) The classic electron radius.
A1213
THE PROTON RADIUS AS FUNCTION OF THE GRAVITY CONSTANT
The gravity field acts on the surface of elementary particles, mainly protons and neutrons. Of that reason there exists a relationship between the proton radius and the gravity constant (see 0934).. (Observe that the gravity force not primarily is any mass force, but at surface force. The relationship with mass is the number of interactive mass point, types protons present in matter).
xxxxxx
THE CLASSIC ELECTRON RADIUS
The classical electron radius usually is defined as that value of the electrons spatial extension as denoted in physical handbooks as calculated on the basis, that an electron is able to store the maximum of energy that is stored in the particles electromagnetic field, integrating from a distant point of infinity to the limit of the particles own limiting radius (even see equation 0323d using q, 1/q and K variables)..
A1209
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THE ELECTRON RADIUS DERIVED FROM THE VACUUM MASS
Hence, with start from our theory, we can derive the electron radius with start from the formulae 0322f and 0323d.
A1210
THE ELECTRON RADIUS CALCULATED FROM START OF ELEMENTARY CHARGE
In accord with our theory, the formula 0323c
the elementary charge contain parameters of electron radius.
A1211
THE PROTON RADIUS FROM MASS
In this theory we have assumed the mass density of all point formed particles being approximately the same. See the formula 0217.
A1212
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In these cases when the positron get maximum energy, the neutrino get no energy. Then we have assumed that the neutrinos rest mass may be neglected. Then we can write :
A1217
E(B) is the nucleus binding energy + Coulomb energy =W1 +W2
A1218
Inserting of numerical values
A1219
a) Equation 0933d
b) Equation 0933a
c) Equation 0933b
d) Equation 0933i
e) Solvimg out the proton radius from equation 1213a,b and c
Proton radius based on the atoms quantum mechanics
In chapter 06, we have found that the atoms quantum process emanates from an oscillation of the proton in the kernel. With start from that we can calculate a value of the proton radius. A small discrepancy is found in relation to values found by other methods.
A1214
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a) Equation 0623
b) Equation 0217
c) Combination of equation 1214a and b
PROTON RADIUS FROM THE NUCLEUS CORE
AN EXPERIMENT
The experiment here referred to is fetched directly from student literature of atomic physics. Lets examine it in detail in aim to later on using it for calculating the proton radius:
Some types of nucleus cores have such a
Property that they can be transformed to
another type of core, where the neutron and the proton change identity. Such nuclei are named mirrornuclei.
One example of such a transformation is when a oxygen atom is transformed to one nitrogen atom plus a beta decay (a positron in this case), plus neutrinos
xxxxxxA1215
The positron energy can be measured and by the knowledge of the systems total energy content, the nucleus radius is calculated. (OBS! calculated, not measured! The result of the experiment therefore naturally will be very dependent of the theoretical assumptions that are made in the calculation, my comment).
The total relativistic energy is conserved in the Betadecay and when we can neglect the kinetic energy of O and N the following equality is assumed valid:
A1216
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THE SHAPE OF THE ELECTRON
An electron seems to be a vortex with the volume 4. p.r3e . This volume correspond not directly with any known geometrical form but this value has another background.
We assume the electron is a vortex, having 2 different radii Re around its main axis, and re around its minimum axis. Beside that, the electron is to be seen as having a hole inside with thickness Dr..
A1224
dW1 and dW2 here represent the difference in the 15 nucleon s core binding energy O(15) and N(15) respectively. If we assume that the charge density in the atomic core is constant, the charged core represents a potential nergy, given by :
A1220 1217
Because the relation between A and Z into the atomic core is A =2.Z 1, for an arbitrary pair of mirrorcores is the following valid : AA
A1221
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And at last :
For this reaction E(B+) =1.66 Mev, giving Ro = 1.5 fermi using the drop model formula Ra = Ro.(A)1/3, where Ro is the estimated value of the proton radius.
Ref erences: Krnfysik, (Nuclear physics), Ingmar Bergstrm, Lennart Eriksson, Stockholm 1964, pages 8789.
OUR CALCULATION OF THE PROTON RADIUS BASED ON OUR ATOMIC AND DEUTRON MODEL
In a computer program in the end of this chapter, we will estimate this result with start from our own atomic core model and our neutron model The core is assumed granular and the net force on the positron is the active accelerating force.
In a computer program we will later estimate this result with start from our own atomic core model and our neutron model
The acceleration of the positron is assumed going on as long as this particle is within the nucleus domain. By integrating on energy, here being 1.66 Mev, the nucleus radius must be in the range of 80 fermi.
The computer program will be found in the appendix section.
A1223
Hence we find that the protons radius even in this calculating model is in the range of 2535 fermi, in well agree with results calculated from other starting points.
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Summarizing results of the protons spatial radius
Formula
Access
Radius in fermi
1203
Magn. mom
31
1212a
Mass density
34.5
1213e
Gravitation
35.1
0622
Quantum atom
29.4
1223
Atomic decay
32
ANNIHILATION OF ELECTRONS
When an electron and a positron collide, they are dissolving each other in a burst of two energy rich photons. The frequency of this photon burst is determined by the electromechanical resonance that is created by these particles in a similar way as for that process accounted for in our atomic theory.
The force effect between the 2 particles coming near each other, is
A1225
a) Equation 0612
b) The minimum distance between 2 electrons
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c) The calculated frequency when annihilating
d) The electrons maxi radius, 1224
CREATION OF AN ELECTRON
An electron and a positron can be created by a materializing process of colliding photons.
The process is not exactly completely reversible to the annihilation process as described above, claiming not 2 single photons, instead one single photon with the double of energy. Hence, if we make use of a photon generated by a common atomic system, the following energy and photon frequency is needed :
A1226
a) The photon energy needed for creating an electron
b) The photons energy in the atomic system, the equation 0632
c) Solving out the photon frequency needed for creating an electron
d) The numerical computed frequency value
which means, a frequency of the same order as we got at the annihilations process. The fact that the frequency is in the same range, doesnt mean that the process is reversible.
THE PROTONS FORM AND VOLUME
Earlier into in our theory, we have found the protons volume being equal to 4.pR3 (see the equation 0437). It appear that the proton partly is empty void ??
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writeln(' Nuclear reaction : ');
writeln;
writeln(' 7 15 8 15 + ');
writeln(' O N > B + v ');
writeln(' 8 7 ');
writeln;
write('Input assumed nuclear radius in fermi ');readln(Rcore);
write('Input number of protons in core (15) = ');readln(protons);
e:=1.6021773349; (* x 1E19 unity elementary charge *)
Eo:=8.854187817; (* x 1E12 permeablity vacuum constant *)
Mev:=1; (* convertion factor of eV 1E6 *)
MasseV:=1.6; (* convertion factor mass to eV 1E19 *)
z:=2*protons; (* number of protons+ neutrons in core *)
Qtot:=protons*e; (* total core charge *)
Rmax:=5*Rcore; (* x1E15 integral distance in ydirection *)
Vtot:=(4*pi*Rcore*Rcore*Rcore/3); (* total core volume *)
Qtat:=Qtot/Vtot; (* charge density in core *)
part:=5;
da:=2*pi/part; (* integrale part for angle a *)
dy:=Rmax/part; (* integrale part of y *)
dr:=Rcore/part; (* integrale part of core radius *)
dE:=0;
EE:=0;
Ftat:=Qtat*e/4/pi/Eo; (* force density in core *)
for ny:=0 to part do begin (* integrating from 0 > Rmax *)
writeln('% done = ',trunc(100*ny/part));
writeln('electron energy = ',EE*scale:3,' Mev compare with 1.66 Mev' );
for nr:=0 to part do begin
for na:=0 to part do begin
alfa:=da*na; (* actual angle a *)
r:=dr*nr+dr/2; (* actual radius r *)
y:=ny*dy; (* actual distance y *)
x1:=r*cos(alfa); (* vector element of charge element in core *)
AN PROTON GET PLACE INTO AN ELECTRON
Our calculations show that an electron has the maximum radius of 86.6 fermi and the proton the radius 34.6 fermi. That can imply that a proton in principle get room into an electron. Is that a neutron?
The nass density of an electron
A11229
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a) The max radius of an electron 1206e
b) The electron volume
c) The electron mass density compared with the vacuum mass density 0323d
Hence it seems as the electron is a vacuum particle with approximate the same or some lower mass density than the vacuum itself.
Help program for estimating the proton radius with start of decay of mirror nuclei
(*HELP PROGRAM FOR CALCULATING THE ATOMIC CORE RADIUS*)
(* = and energy got of an positron repelled out of this core ==== *)
(* = because of inherent charges into the core ================== *)
(* = COMPILED and RUN by Turbo Pascal ============================ *)
program protrad;
var fermi:real; (* One fermi is 1E15 meters *)
Rcore:real; (* Charge radius of nucleus core *)
Vtot:real; (* Total volume of nucleus core *)
Qtot:real; (* Total charge content of nucleus core *)
Qtat:real; (* Charge density of nucleus core *)
Ftat:real; (* force density of charge in nucleus core *)
Force:real; (* actual force on charge element *)
Eo:real; (* Permittivity constant of vacuum space *)
e:real; (* Elementary charge of electron *)
rmax:real; (* max integral part in Ydirection *)
Z:integer; (* Number of proton and neutrons in core *)
r:real; (* Intermittent integral radius value *)
dE:real; (* Incremental energy value *)
EE:real; (* Total energy value *)
na:integer; (* Help variable, step size in alpha *)
ny:integer; (* Help variable, number of steps in y *)
nr:integer; (* Help variable, number of steps in r *)
dr:real; (* Help variable, step size in r *)
dy:real; (* Help variable, step size in y *)
part:integer; (* Help variable *)
protons:integer; (* number of protons in core *)
alfa:real; (* Angel between vector and xaxis
AA:real; (* Help variable *)
y:real; (* Y location of particle *)
X1,Y1:real; (* x,y coordinate of vector *)
cosb:real; (* Trigonometric function *)
Pi:real; (* The number of Pi = 3.141592... *)
da:real; (* Part of alpha angle *)
Ro:real; (* Radius of individual nuclues particle *)
MasseV:real; (* converting factor mass tol eV *)
Mev:real; (* converting factor eV to Mev *)
scaleQ:real; (* scale factor for charge *)
scaleEo:real; (* scale factor for Eo *)
scaleD:real; (* scale factor for distance *)
scaleMasseV:real;(* scale factor for mass Ev *)
scaleMev:real; (* scale factor for eV, MEV *)
Scale:real; (* scale coefficient *)
begin
pi:=3.141592;
scaleQ:=1E19;
scaleEo:=1E12;
scaleD:=1E15;
scaleMasseV:=1E19;
scaleMev:=1E6;
scale:=scaleQ/ScaleEo/ScaleD*scaleQ/scaleMassev*scaleMev;
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f) Combining formulae 1230a,c.e
g) Inserting vs from formula 1230b.
h) Quadruple both sides
And solving out parameters from1231h: (Even see 0217)
A1232
y1:=r*sin(alfa); (* vector element of charge element in core *)
AA:=x1*x1+(y1y)*(y1y);
cosb:=(y1y)/sqrt(AA);
Force:=Ftat*2*pi*abs(x1)*dr*r*da/AA*cosb;
(* effective force on charge in Ydirection *)
dE:=Force*dy; (* element of energy for step dy *)
EE:=EE+dE;
end; (* end loop a *)
end; (* end loop r *)
end; (* end loop y *)
writeln;
writeln('Coulomb energy Mev= ',EE*scale:3,' Mev');
writeln('To be compared with input value 1.66 Mev ');
Ro:=Rcore*exp(1/3*ln(1/z));
writeln('Proton radius'Ro:1:0 );
readln;
end.
(* end program PROTRAD *)
********** END OF PROGRAM ***********
XA4
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Relations between particle mass and its spatial radius
In the formula 0217 it has on arbitrary basis been assumed a close relation between a particles mass and its radius in relation to the same parameters of an electron.
In the first instance the idea was that mass density of all particles are the same. But that not seems true becase electrons and protons /for instance) have different forms and extensions.
The base of this relationships seems to be founded on a quantum effect of the particles inherent properties.
A1230
Spin time of a particle
Spin velocity of a particle 0336
Oshillating time of the particle in its own electric field 1015
Active force of the oscikkation process
The spin time and the oscillating time is in resonance and equal
We combine these formulae an by this solving ot the relations between mass and radius
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13/004 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 13/001
were supported by the power elite, both in science and in church during a long period of time, were later on revealed as totally mad and wrong. In most cases change was propelled, not by the scientific community itself, but by individual well informed peoples, thinkers and true scientists, most often working in direct confrontation with the current opinion, sometimes with risk for their own lives, incorruptible and brave peoples who placed the truth on the first place in their scientific work. We know that there still exist such peoples active in our time but their messages are like a silent voice in the dessert, few are prepared to listen.
To officially cast suspicion upon the theory of relativity, hence exposing it for criticism, is to confess your silliness and that you not has grasped anything. H.C.Andersens anecdote of the emperors new closes gives a good illustration. Persons who not were competent for their jobs, could not see the nice clothes the emperor was wearing, woven by the lying and cunning
Chapter 13
EINSTEINs THEORY OF RELATIVITY
EINSTEINS THEORY in BRIEF
002
AND WHAT CONTAIN THE THEORY ?
012
HISTORY IN BRIEF
014
A BRIEF EXAMINATION OF THESIS AND RESULTS
019
TIME DILATION
021
ATOMIC WATCHES
024
LENGTH CONTRACTION
025
SIMULTANEITY
028, 048
FIXATION OF LIMITS OF VELOCITY
029
MASS INCREASE
030
THE DOPPLER EFFECT
032,057
EINSTEINA GRAVITY THEORY
033
IN THE HEAD OF A CONVINCED RELATIVIST
034
THE TWIN PARADOX
053,056
MEASUREMENT OF LIGHT VELOCITY
060
SPECIAL REMARKS
066
MASS INCREASE IN ACCORD WITH EINSTEIN
067
RELATIVISTIX MATHEMATICS
066
THE CLOCK ON THE NORTH POLE AND THE CLOCK ON THE EQUATOR
069
EQUOVALENCE MASS ENERGY
070
AND THE MOST BAD THINGS
071
CONCLUSIONS
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The bicycling Einstein. Unfortunately Einstein also was bicycling in the physics, his theories of relativity does not hold for a critical analysis. Many scientists have pointed out the weaknesses in his theories but without any apparent effect on it. This sad mentality disqualify the modern physics ability of finding truth in physics
EINSTEINS THEORY OF RELATIVITY
A BRIEF ANALYSIS
Einsteins theory of relativity, both the special and the general, belongs to the most well known mental buildings in philosophy and science. The number of published works today can be counted in tens of thousands (no one knows exactly) and the originator himself, Albert Einstein has been subject for a countless number of person biographical works.
The interest for his person in many respects can be compared with the interest dedicated the great religious leaders (Jesus, Mohammed) or the great prophets or founders of the great political mass movements (Marx, Lenin). And dealing with the theory also reminds what is characterizing such mass movements and doctrinaire systems.
Characteristics common for all types of those mass movements are the presence of a doctrinaire system of theses not permitted to be questioned, a prophet or dominant leader with an unlimited authority, a church or institution administrating the doctrines and a lot of high priests, predecessors of the scientific power establishment.
The fact that a mental building has been widely spread and got broad acceptance necessarily not constitutes any guarantee for that a theory is correct and true. In a flashback of the history looking at theory buildings of similar dogmatic nature, inspire
to reflection. Most of these theories that
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13/008 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 13/005prestige and power over the research resources, both regarding money and human brain resources.
The theory of relativity has been very successful in that special task. The relativists have reached a position which they not are prepared to give up, even if alternative theories should be offered, which in a better way would describe the world around us. And the relativists have of that reason got access to very great resources as well as succeeded to usurp common sympathy from peoples in common, from mass media, from publishing houses, from contributors of different kinds, giving money or pure moral support to the research activity associated to the theory. In this way the relativists have reached full control of the free scientific press and the mass media, which without any murmur of protest proceed to spread the Einsteinium dogmas. Given critics or offering competitive alternative theories can in this way effectively be suppressed, controlled and stopped.
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weavers. An innocent child said that which the prudent peoples not dared to confess, namely that the emperor was naked and that his clothes just was bluff and humbug.
Einsteins theory is naked but very few dare to confess it. What the theory has to offer of solution of real physical problems are only of pure fictive and imaginary nature, in the same way as in the story of the emperors new clothes, lacking substance and content. Its apparent that most problems, which plead for a solution within the conceptual framework of this theory, only is of artificial, fictive and imaginary nature.
A theory that has got so a large spreading and common acceptance in the world of science, impossibly can be wrong! How can serious working scientists be so mad that they support an erroneous theory for so long time, spending so much time, sweat and troubles on a hopeless erroneous idea? Is the fact that a theory get large acceptances a guaranty of that a theory is correct and true? No. In a flashback of the history of science
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many theories have got large support during long periods of time, but was later on shown to be totally wrong. And the historians cannot either really explain why some theories or thoughts get a higher degree of acceptance and penetration than other comparable and competing alternative theories.
One reason of the popularity may be that the theory of relativity contains parts of mystic and elements of near religious supernatural nature. Many are attracted by such things, even scientist obviously. The theory also has a pronounced mathematical structure that attracts personalities specifically appreciating theoretical abstractions, not being disturbed by the fact that these abstractions not correspond to anything real in the outside world. The theory has been criticized by many since its birth, by individual researchers, prominent scientists as well as by more unknown individual researchers, both from outside and inside the scientific and academic community. But commonly all this critics has been leafed notanswered. The relativists feel so secure
and so safe in their position, that they not bother to reply to a given criticism. Silence is one of the weapon used, exposing an enormous selfreliance, superciliousness and disregards against them who venture to hint doubts about Einsteins theories.
The question of right or wrong, contrary to what commonly is declared, not only is a question of the presence of substantial facts. Many other factors involved are of significant importance, factors being of quite another nature than pure scientific. That is a fruitful field of research engaging historians trying to understand the mechanisms behind development of scientific theories and how the scientific community works.
One important factor in this trend is the control of power of knowledge. When a theory has been established, it seems not so important whether the theory is correct or wrong. What is important is to maintain the position of power that has been reached.
That gives access to money,
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been a hint for a true and sound searching for truth in science and the way of solving the deep mysteries of nature.
AND WHAT CONTAIN THE THEORY?
Einsteins theory from 1905 is founded on two basic hypotheses or concepts, even named postulates, which are as follows :
. THE SAME LAWS OF ELECTRODYNAMICS WILL BE VALID FOR ALL FRAMES OF REFERENSES FOR WHICH THE EQUATIONS OF MECHANICS HOLD GOOD
II. LIGHT IS ALWAYS PROPAGATED IN EMPTY SPACE
WITH A DEFINITE SPEED, c, WHICH IS INDEPENDENT OF THE STATE OF MOTION OF THE EMITTING BODY.
Einstein published his theory in year 1905 of the title ON THE ELECTRODYNAMICS OF MOVING BODIES. Another principle being a part of the theory and also giving the theory its popular name is THE PRINCIPLE OF RELATIVITY from the beginning originated by Poincare about five years before that Einstein published his theory.
Many who start to have a very positive attitude to Einstein and his theories, in addition having real ambitions of understand and learning the theory, very soon is frustrated and give up. They give up, not because of intellectual inability to understand, but because there is nothing substantial to be understood. Those who still support the theory, saying they have grasped something or at least giving impression of it, obviously not is disturbed by the fact that the theory just is producing empty, fictive and imaginary results.
And to dig ones way out of the labyrinth of relativity mostly seems to be a hopeless and frustrating task, claiming a waste of time and effort resulting in nothing. And a critical analysis of the theory, based on common scientific methods, of common sense and logical analysis, produces pure confusions which intelligent persons claiming logical consequences of their thinking, impossibly can accept.
The confusions arises by that all the time logical contradictions are pointed out,
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amplified by that the basic concepts used are elastic and continuously accommodated in time to that the ongoing analysis produces their own problems. By this way everything seems to float around in a chaotic mixture of hypothetical concepts and assumptions impossible to get in any structure and order.
In spite of that the theory now is more than 100 years old, the relativists themselves are not in agree how the basic concepts of the theory shall be interpreted or how the critics of the theory shall be treated. In the light of all given criticism, if the theory was to be regarded as normal science, not much would remain by it. But obviously the theory is not normal science but something quite else, it seems to balance in the grey zone of science, science fiction, religion and pure philosophy not reachable for any common analytical method.
Science is said to be a selfcontrolled process where erroneous theories automatically are eliminated. But that seems
not to be true for this theory that consequently seems to disregard basic, ethical rules of science. In spite of that the critics since long time ago has rejected the theory from the scene of science, the theory seems today more popular than even before.
The relativists will make show of being sound and rational in their thinking, but at the same time one are prepared to accept conclusions which are completely against ever scientific rule and all common sense. And without any sign of selfcriticism one are manipulating nature on pure arbitrary basis, refusing the ability of the human mind of deciding right or wrong, true or false.
Common sense, Einstein said, only is these predestined meanings a man works out when 18teen, then keeping these ideas the life out. And when the theory produces obvious contradicting results, one even are prepared to dispute the ability of the human intellect, that instead of rejecting the theory as physically invalid. By this criminal and dishonest attitude, the theory of relativity has
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The special theory was later followed by the general theory 1916. Besides these works, for which he got his most fame, he did achievements in the area of quantum physics, the photo electrical effect, a theory that later gave him the Nobel Prize Award. Hence not, contrary to what commonly is believed, he did not get the prize for his relativity theory that was judged to be too controversial of the members of the Swedish Nobel Committee.
Einstein published his theory at a time c of a climax of debate concerning the fundamental nature of light and space going on since Newtons days. So, much was discussed and investigated when Einstein entered the scene. At an official lectures about five years earlier Poincare had suggested THE PRINCIPLE OF RELATIVITY in Paris and in St. Louis in USA. THE LENGTH CONTRACTION OF PHYSICAL OBJECTS had been suggested 1892 by Lorenz and Fitzgerald undependable of each other as a suggestion of solving Michelson and Morleys
The including of the relativity principle shows that the Einsteins second postulate was Incomplete, which conceals that Einstein himself not understood the meaning of his own postulate. The principle namely imply that the velocity of light in free space is invariant even to an observer moving in relation to the source, that is to say, the propagation of light is a real universal invariant cosmic constant, useable as a reference for all movements in the physical world. Of that reason the second postulate has to be redefined to:
II. THE PROPAGATING VELOCITY OF LIGHT IN THIS WAY IT CAN BE MEASURED BY ANY OBSERVER IS ALWAYS CONSTANT AND INDEPENDENT OF BO9TH SOURCE AND OBSERVER MOVEMENTS.
In a personal letter from Einstein to a friend of him, Erwin Finley Freundlich 1913 he says
IF THE SPEED OF LIGHT IN THE LEAST BIT IS AFFECTED BY THE SPEED OF THE LIGHT SOURCE, THEN MY WHOLE THEORY OF RELATIVITY AND THE THEORY OF GRAVITY IS FALSE.
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HISTORY IN BRIEF
All revolutionary theories have had its own prehistory. A new theory will not pop up from nothing, it will be a product of many individual contributors both successful and less successful collected over a long period of time.
In this time when Einstein suggested his theory, it had been preceded by a tedious scientific debate about properties of space and the basic nature of light. In the first place it was the ether theories for the propagation of light which was dominating the debate and which was amplified by Maxwells electromagnetic theory from 1873.
Einstein was one of these persons who in this chaotic situation presented a quite different and radical idea. Instead of solving the problems that were discussed, he declared them as nonexistent. He did that by introducing two postulates, where one of them proclaimed that the propagating velocity of light in vacuum was an absolute
physical constant, not effected either by movements of the source nor by movements of the observer. The ether concept was eliminated, replacing it by nothing. Einstein has been praised for his originality and boldness while he suggested principles of nature that was challenging common sense.
However, his originality can be put into question because research has shown that many of his ideas were common known long before him. But Einstein was lucky because his ideas were accepted by a group of well known and prominent academics of that time : von Laue, Minkowski, Lorenz, Mach, Planck, Poincare and others. Einstein became an enormous authority in science and became a symbol for geniality and originality, a guarantee for that the theory of relativity was correct and true.
Einsteins theory of relativity was published 1905 by the name ON THE ELECTRODYNAMICS OF MOVING BODIES
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Relative velocity between two objects cannot exceed the standard velocity of light even if each single object move with velocity c relative a common point.
Physical objects contract as function of relative motion in relation to another objects in the vicinity void.
The mass content of physical objects increases as function of relative movement related to an object in the vicinity
An event that for one observer is apprehended as simultaneous is not simultaneous for another observer who move in relation to the first observer
Einsteins theories can in many respects be compared with a labyrinth without way out. This person who want to understand will very soon feel frustrated and desperate. The reason to it depends on using not precise and elastic definitions that are changed all the time critics points out logical contradictions produced by the theory itself. And the supporters all the time are prepared to defend the theory against every such attack..
experiments some years earlier with beginning from 1887 (note however that length contraction never has been proved experimentally, hence not any physical reality). THE TIME DILATION HYPOTHESIS saying that physical clocks will slow down as a result of moving in relation to a light source was suggested by J.Larmor already 1900 and the formula for it is that formula used in the modern particle physics (hence not Einsteins original formulae).
THE MASS INCREASE of moving particles was experimentally discovered by Kaufman in 1901, hence was no theoretical prediction by the relativity theory. This phenomenon some years later was investigated by A. Pais and Lorenz who also were suggesting mathematical expressions for this mass increase, expressions which appear in Einsteins theory later
And even THE FORMULA E=m.c2 suggesting a close relationship between energy and mass was suggested several years before Einstein by Lorenz, Poincare, Langevin and others. THE MATHEMATICS OF SPACE AND
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THE CONSTANT PROPAGATING VELOCITY OF LIGHT IN VACUUM had with increasing precision been confirmed by experiments with beginning by Ole Remer in the seventeenth century but not covered by any ultimate experiments including moving sources and observers, which Einsteins theory claims. It was not any great achievement to suggest it and the risk of disclosing it was minimal. And in addition, from the beginning it was Maxwells idea to define that the velocity of light from moving sources was invariant and he had good reasons for it because his theory was an ether theory. Einstein had no such concrete reason to offer.
Hence, Einsteins theory was mainly constructed by two fundamental postulates, combined with the principle of relativity. The theory generates results that violate common sense, but the theory has in spite of that succeeded to get common acceptance.
That is very strange in light of the fact that science in common is very careful in judging results from new theories.
A BRIEF EXAMINATION OF THESIS AND RESULTS
A brief list over some physical facts which are treated in the theory of relativity may looks like as follows :
The velocity of light in that way it can be measured by an observer (by using measuring rods and clocks), always is constant undependable by whether the source or the observer move
Only relative movements between objects is physically relevant, absolute movements cannot be either measured, nor defined
Physical clocks go slower as result of relative movements in relation to another objects moving in the vicinity
Absolute time doesnt exists and cannot even be defined
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systems are achieved. In this case its not possible to argue for a time dilation effect even if every physical parameters are included.
ATOMIC WATCHES
During several years atomic clocks have been installed all around the world for many different purposes.
These watches are very precise and stable, and if Einsteins prediction was true, the accumulated effect from clocks placed out on different places easily would be observed.
But no such effects have been registered (Einstein predicted differences between a clock placed on the equator and the pole by a factor .t(v/c)2 ). But the relativists blame that fact on that the theory of relativity not is valid for rotating movements and that factors of acceleration and gravitation eliminates the predicted effect. So where in Universe can we find a place where this experiment can be performed?
TIME DILATION
Einsteins theory says that physical clocks go slower in a system that moves compared with clocks in another system, being in rest. However, its not clear if this effect is real (physical clocks really go slower which can be registered by inspection afterwards) or only imaginary (hence being only a pseudo effect caused by that light rays delay the information between the clock and the observer of the clock). This distinction is essential but the supporters of the theory never have succeeded to make this distinction clear.
Hence, a clock situated on the earths equator will be slowed down in relation to a clock situated on the north pole (all that in accord with Einsteins own example), but not valid for pendulum clocks or mechanical clocks of some very strange reason (if Einsteins idea has to be taken seriously, the time concept cannot be dependent of what kind of watch is used for its measurement). Even life processes and chemical processes go slower in
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accord with velocity, an idea that has given rise to the twin paradox. For demonstrating the time dilation effect, Einstein suggested two twin brothers where one of them was starting a long journey in space, approaching near the velocity of light and where the other brother reminded on earth.
When returning, the travelling brother was said to be younger than his twin brother staying in rest on earth.
But critics has pointed out that, using the relativistic principle, that both brothers have the same moving status, which means, they both have the same rights to say they are in rest or they are travelling.
This critic has irritated supporters ever since beginning, by reason that it leads to a paradox. The reason for that is simple and easy to understand. The predicted physical effect is namely based solely on the special theory where no consideration has been taken to the presence of mass, force and acceleration in
the systems. Hence, when only relative movement as active factor is present, it is impossible to determine whether the travelling space ship is moving or the earth is moving. In a physical point of view, the two systems are symmetrical and equal.
Even convinced relativists have realized that dilemma but not drawn the correct consequence by it, namely that the idea is mad and wrong.
They deny presence of a paradox by introducing factors that not were present in the original example. By saying that the travelling twin brother is more accelerated than the other brother, then they insist on they have eliminated the paradox. But by that one have rejected Einsteins own proposal and replaced it by another theory, that we assume, not was the intention.
But even if this idea works, this way of eliminating the paradox easily can be rejected. If both twin brothers start a journey at the same time, but in the opposite directions, two completely symmetrical
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SIMULTANEITY
One of the most strange and perverse results of the theory is how the concept of an event the is how the concept of an event is treated. The theory says that a single event not is simultaneous for two observers who move with different velocities in relation to the observed event. That may be interpreted in two different ways.
In the same way as we interpreted time dilation and length contraction one of the alternative is to interpret the effect just as a distortion effect caused by that light consume time for transmitting the information of the event
the other interpretation is that the event really is equivalent with two separate events, or several events, one separate event for every separate observer.
The first interpretation may be acceptable in a physical point of view, but being only an illusive effect
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LENGTH CONTRACTION
Length contraction of physical objects as function of relative motion is another meaningless pseudo effect proposed by the theory. The appearance of this idea emanates from Lorenz and Fitzgeralds suggestion of solving a problem in Michelson and Morleys light ether experiment, which contrary prediction gave zero result. The physical motivation to the length contraction effect was that the assumed light ether actuated a pressure in the direction of motion, pressing parts of the apparatus together.
Obviously, it was this idea that inspired Einstein, but inhibited at the same time the suggested physical reason to it (the ether drag), replacing it by a meaningless nothing.
Experiments have been performed in purpose to verify length contraction, but for obvious reasons that is troublesome because the measuring rods used will contract in the same degree as that object which is subject for measurement.
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But the length contraction is real if you try to measure a rod belonging another reference system. The reasoning is approximately as follows:
A person in system A is observing a well known object in system B and find that the object observed is shorter compared with the own reference object.
A person in system B is observing a well known object in system A and find that the object observed is shorter compared with the own reference object.
If the observed effect was real, there are two possible solutions 1) the effect is purely of imagined nature caused by that light takes time, distorting the effect 2) the effect is real and can be measured.
There are 2 possible alternatives of solution
1) The picture of the observed object is distorted by the limited speed of the light rays.
2) The effect is of real nature as suggested from the beginning by Lorenz and Fitzgeralds hypothesis.
In the second case the contraction effect would be the same in both the systems, hence being irrelevant in a pure physical point of view, and a complete meaningless physical concept.
In the first case the effect is pure imagined and not real. This effect can be motivated by the fact that information consume time, hence giving rise to distortion of the observed object. But such effects can be considered and predicted by ordinary classic theory, the theory of relativity is not necessary to be used..
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As a remark, Einstein suggested 2 different expressions for the same particle, one for each moving direction, one for the linear direction, one for the transversal direction. No one of these expressions correspond with this formula that is used in the modern particle physics
THE DOPPLER EFFECT
The Doppler effect is named after the discover Christian Doppler. The effect is created by that sound propagates through a medium, air. But even for light there are similar effects, indicated by that the wavelength is displaced in direction of blue when the source approach and displaced against red in the opposite case. Einsteins supporters mean that it is an easy task to explain the effect within the conceptual framework of the theory. But sorry to say, the arguments here is weak as usual. They think that the Doppler shift has the same cause as for sound in air, but it cannot be. The reason for it is that light has no ether to propagate in. so there is no physical mechanism
But there is still only one event for both observers, they only apprehend the event on two different times. In the other interpretation we override the border of what we regard as normal science.
The idea that the same event would be different events dependent of who is the observer, is absurd and lack reality.
To give an some absurd example : The US president J.F. Kennedy was murdered by a shoot in Dallas the 22nd of November 1963. If someone would imply this murder was many murders, one murder for each single person who heard of this event, he should be regarded as a complete idiot. Obviously not Einstein and his supporters do that.
FIXATION OF THE LIMITS OF VELOCITY
Another remarkable effect of relativity is that velocities not can be added arithmetically. If for instance two cars drive on a road with 100 km/hour
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each, but in different directions, the relative velocity between them will be 200 km/hour, that in accord with normal calculations.
In the relativity theory, that is correct with good accuracy for low velocities, but not for very high velocities. Because the maximum velocity possible to define is limited to c, the velocity of light, Einstein was forced to construct an artificial formula that gave this limit as awaited by the theorys basic postulate.
Of course all that is pure fiction, constructed results having the only motivation that Einsteins theory claims it. The idea serves no purpose and deserves not to be taken seriously.
MASS INCREASE
As here discussed before in examining this theory, the mass increasing phenomenon, if interpreted as such an effect, was discovered by experiment with cathode rays(electrons) so early as in 1901. Hence, the phenomenon was not predicted by the theory of relativity but was enclosed in the
theory some years later. Before that several other scientists had developed the experimental results as well as even presented mathematical expressions for it, being similar as in Einsteins theory later.
The physical reason to the mass increase phenomenon may be discussed, but there is no reason to interpret it as an effect of relativistic concepts. The effect only has been registered when accelerating elementary particles in particle accelerators, so the most probable reason is that the effect is of pure electromagnetic nature.
There is no reason that a rocket in free space, for instance, driven forwards by its own force, should increase in mass.
No matter the reason to this phenomenon, we can be sure of that this effect has nothing with relativity to do. Those theoretical formulae derived to the greatest extent is built on classic Newtonian laws of mass, energy and force, parameters not contained in the origin theory of relativity.
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in the general theory it was added another postulate, that of the equivalence between heavy and inertial mass, the theory was in this way done complete.
(O): Hence, does that imply that if somebody can show that the constant velocity of light hypothesis not always is true, that can be used as an argument against the theory? (In fact, Einstein himself said that was possible).
(R): Yes, its true. But no experiments up to now have shown that the light velocity is variant, all experiments show that Einstein was correct on this point.
(O): How can you be so sure about that? Several experiments with light that have been performed during periods of many centuries, like as well can be interpreted in the way that light velocity according to the emission theories, show that light only is invariant in relation to its source but not in free space.
available to motivate the relativistic Doppler effect. So the Doppler/sound/air model doesnt work, but the theory of relativity doesnt confess it. The only remaining reason to the equivalent Doppler shift is that the light velocity effected by the relative velocity between source and observer, but then the theory once time for all must be rejected as invalid. Its easy to understand that but few are prepared to take this step.
EINSTEINa GRAVITY THEORY
In Einsteins world gravitation is no force, just a curvature in free space. So if we load a spring with a heavy stone, then letting the spring do a work on that spring, we have done a free energy machine. The conclusion is that no energy (force times distance) is needed when pressing the spring together but that energy is developed when releasing the spring. In this way Einsteins theory has overtrumped the energy preserving law, which means that energy can be created from nothing.
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IN THE HEAD OF A CONVINCED RELATIVIST
Einsteins theory of relativity is said to be science in its true meaning, but is defended by their supporters by unscientific methods. And for legitimisation, he has developed a kind of a system or method, making it possible for him to in every thinkable situation of external criticism, defend or reject it as ignorance or just ill will.
Besides learning the relativistic dogmas, a convinced supporter of the theory of relativity must learn the most effective way of neutralizing the criticism. Methods used are, as to mention some of them, to put the opponents scientific competence into question, and from time to time even put his honourable intentions and moralistic honesty into question. And therefore, to discussing the theory with a convinced supporter of the theory, is a depressing and hopeless task that seldom leads to any clarifying conclusions. A debate with a convinced relativist may look as follows, usually following a predestined pattern:
At start, the debate uses to be rather calm and silence. The relativist want to make sense of being an objective and serious scientist. But in a later stage, when he discover that his opponent not is so easy to convince, he start changing his attitude and argumentation, being more aggressive. Then his arguments begin to be more and more apart from science and he begin to use subjective and unjust argumentation.
Einsteins theory is founded on two basic postulates, that of the constant propagating of light velocity, used as a universal, common reference, together with the postulate that all physical laws are the same in all inertial systems, moving with constant, linear velocity.
The opponent: (O): Is it true that these two postulates are enough as base for the whole theory building?
The relativist (R): Yes, its so. They are fully enough. It was Einsteins genius to in this way succeeded to simplify physics. However,
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here seems to disagree with the basic assumptions, the theory says that no inertial system is more preferred than another system, hence every system can be used as a reference system, being a new platform for calculating or measuring relative motion. That means for our rocket, that between releasing two successive sections, no occasion occurs where the velocity of c, is exceeded and the rocket is not in any stage aware of its real velocity in relation to any external point. The only velocity the rocket know or feel is its velocity as related to its previous stage or the starting point.
(R): In fact, its shown that the mass increases with increasing velocity, no question about that. When accelerating particles in particle accelerators, its necessary to take consideration of this effect. If you not do so, everything would be wrong.
(O): Of course, its so. But that is quite another experimental situation compared with our space rocket.
The space rocket moves in the free space,
Hence, isnt possible that only is a question of how you like to interpret an experiment, just in this way? And which theory that belongs to your personal favourite theory?
(R): That is wrong! No experiment has violated the relativistic postulate!
(O) : In my opinion, I mean that it was a very strange and farfetched idea to use the light velocity in vacuum as a common reference parameter for all processes and all movements taking place in Universe. What have the free velocity of light to do with other kinds of physical processes taking place in matte? If one had made use of the standard velocity of light as measured for sources in rest and observers in rest, there had been no problem,
OK, so it had been not much to discuss about. But by the done definition, a lot of very strange pseudo effects have arisen, where scientists are prepared to explain things in physics which has nothing to do with light propagation or how it behave in free space.
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(R): The light postulate must be accepted and it is not permitted to put it into question. And there are no doubts that light not can be used as a measurement reference, no information can propagate faster than light and nothing can go faster than it.
(O): When you are talking about light velocity, then what do you mean by it? The concept of velocity is a relative concept and for using it, it must be defined a reference point to which it is determined. In my view, I have always though that the relativists have taken it easy on this point. You are talking about the velocity of light that without defining what you mean by it or what you refer to!
(R): Its very easy to do that, no velocity between two relative moving systems can be larger than c, and the velocity of light is always equal to c, in all systems and between all systems. And beside that, unregarding how much you accelerate, you never can exceed c, the light velocity in space. And because of these facts about how nature really behave, we have the fully right
to talk about velocity as we do.
(O): But, now assume, a space rocket, constructed in 20 sections and where each such section has the ability of accelerating the rocket 0.1 times the velocity of c, related to the previous section. Then of what reason cannot the rockets last section reach a velocity larger than c, in relation to the starting point?
(R): In that case the rocket mass will increases, and when reaching equal or near the light velocity this mass will be so large that the rocket motor not is able to accelerate it further. Einstein constructed an adding formula that in fact showed that it will be in this way. In fact!
(O): Oh! so he did!!, what a genius! But Im not so sure on this point. With aid of mathematics you are able to prove most everything, if you want to do so. Im more interested to known about the physical reason to it, why it is impossible to accelerate our rocket to 2 times c, related to the starting point? And the limit velocity, what is it related to, the starting point or the nearest rocket platform? Something
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(O): Oh, indeed! Then Im curious of why Einstein already in his special theory from 1905, not took consideration to these parameters of mass, acceleration and gravitation effects when he suggested this time dilation effect when? And another question, of what reason was the pole clock regarded as more in rest (more stationary) than the pole clock? Strictly relativistic, no one of these clocks have the right to be more or less in rest, no one of the clocks where more static than the other.
(R): Surely, even Einstein had his fully rights to be wrong but also having chance of developing and improving his theory later, that in the same way as how other scientists work, theories are developed and improved as time goes by.
Regarding the question which clock that would be regarded as being in more rest, is decided by whom are the observer. It is always the observer in the other system who believe that the clock in the other system goes slow. Thats even true for the observer at the position of the polar clock.
interacting with nothing, the particle is situated and driven forwards with an electromagnetic field that interact and influence the particle.
The rocket is accelerating itself by mass inertial forces from the inside motor, the particle is accelerated by a field from outside, presumably adding mass to the accelerated particle (the field lose mass). Furthermore, the mass increasing phenomenon was not predicted by any relativity theory, but was discovered by experiment so early as 1901 and theoretical suggestions of the reason to this effect also was given at this time. Hence, there are very good reasons to assume that the mass increasing phenomenon has nothing with relativity theory to do at all.
(R): Mass increase when accelerating particles in particle accelerators is one of the strongest evidence on that the relativity theory works and is true. No matter what you say about it.
(O): The theory predicts a lot of physical
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effects where some of them are that physical clocks are going slow, twins growing old by differing rates in differing systems, rods being shorter and other strange things, all but effect of that things move in relation to undefined external points. The same event is a different event for another observer in another system and many, many other, very strange things. Are all these effects real physical effects or are they just something that are imagined by observers (subjective experiences), presupposed that they are proven to exists of course?
(R): Oh yes, the effects are real and is a part of the normal physical world that we live in. Einstein, as the genius he was, showed that nothing around us is of an absolute nature, but woven together by time, space and movement as integrated parts that we not are able to separate from each other.
(O): Einstein suggested in his original theory from 1905, the special theory, that a watch
placed out on the earth equator, would go slower compared with a similar, synchronized clock placed out on the pole. The reason for it should be that the polar clock was more in rest than the equator clock. Einstein also gave a quantitative value of that time dilation and a calculation showed a value of several micro seconds each year. But no such effect has been observed or registered, that in spite of access to extremely sensible watches and detectors now available. How can you explain that?
(R): Ok, its true that no such effect has been observed, but the time dilation effect is only observable in systems which are moving with constant, linear velocity and being not influenced by any gravitational field. The earth rotates, hence the equator clock moves in circles and the earth has gravitation. Hence, not being any true relativistic system. But in his general theory from 1916, Einstein solved this problem where he also took consideration to the acceleration of mass, as well as also the gravitational effect on the systemocks.XXXXXXXXXXX
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No one of these two systems (the space shuttle system or the earth system have the privilege of being more stationary than the other system, that in accord with the theorys own, basic postulates?
(R): Its fully clear, that you not want or not are able to understand relativity theory. As I all the time clearly have pointed out, everything depends on from which system you are observing the clocks.
(O): Yes, but then all that is a pure imaginary effect, an observer believe that the time goes more slow in the other system, but its no real effect. Of what reason do you not want to confess that? That everything is imaginary effects, no real physical effects that can be registered by objective instruments?
LENGTHS CONTRACTION
O): Einstein suggested that a measuring rod hen moving was being shortened in the moving direction, is that phenomenon
O): OK, if we see it in this way, the effect obviously is symmetrical for both watches and both observers, both watches goes slow in the same rate , the effect must be symmetric. But that most become a pure imaginary effect and not real as measured by objective registering equipments (atomic watches and computers). The effect cannot be real, which means, no time difference can be measured between the two clocks by comparing time of the clocks after some elapsed time.
And if the effect is pure imaginary, hence not real, then whats the meaning by it? The physical effect never can be observed? Then what is the meaning by the theorys time dilation prediction?
(R): The effect is real, one have transported atomic clocks in airplanes around the earth and it was shown that the theory was correct. A time dilation effect was registered in the air born clocks. It has also been observed that shortlived particles live longer if they move very fast.
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Copyright Cadelco AB Sweden 2007 Copyright Cadelco AB Sweden 200713/046 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 Matter Unified ISBN9197381861 13/047(O): Surely, but what has these physical observations of particles with relativity to do?
Atomic particles are no clocks and not any watches. And what regards the airplanes, they were moving in circles around the earth and were effected by the earths gravitational field, hence two factors which inhibit application of the relativity theory, hence the same problem as why not Einsteins original suggestion of the polar clocks not worked. And further more, if clocks go fast or slow is easy to control afterwards by registering time of atomic clocks and computers, hence by no aid of human, subjective observers. Today are used electronic digital counters that with very high precision can register the number of ticks as well as also the time difference between successive ticks (the time intervals). What subjective registering human observers have to say is of no scientific interest, that is pure philosophy.
(R): No. its not so, its not the number of ticks but their length of them !!!!!!????????????????
(O): Whats that.. ? The number of ticks registered has nothing with the ticks length to do. Or do you mean that the time interval change in accord with velocity?. If the light velocity is invariant, no change can be transferred to the receiver side.
And by aid of a radio link, it would be possible to control the watches, in respect to each system. Einstein is founding his theory on that human observers are watching clocks on distance and by movement of human observers, but modern electronic measurement equipments can do that job i much better!
(R): Space experiments have been performed that shows that time dilation is a real effect. Space trips to the planet of Venus showed on several milliseconds in dilation effect
(O): Ok, if so, which clock was going slow, that clock attached to the space shuttle or that clock on earth? And, in case some of these clocks were more slowed down than the other, what was the physical reason for It ?
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(O): OK, now the question again, if length contraction is real, in which system is the contraction occurring? If not any special system can be pointed out, then what is the meaning by the length contraction concept at all? And of what physical reason will objects be shortened? And how shall an object know when to change its length and in relation to what? The world around the object is full of different other objects moving with all velocities and in all directions.
And which references shall be used? And were in Universe intermediate this super message to all moving bodies?
(R): Its fully clear that you have grasped nothing and perhaps not either is willing to understand and learn anything at all. So, I think there is no big meaning to try explaining things for you.
The basic presumption to understand is as always, the willingness to understand and it seems you are lacking it completely!
confirmed experimentally or has it been observed in any way?
(R): No, the effect never has been observed, but that is not the same as to say that the effect not is real. The only problem is that an observer in its own system, never can discover such an effect, that because his own references changes in the same degree. His measuring rod also is shortened in the same way as the object being measured.
(O): But that seems to be some kind of a reciprocal way of proof things. According to established and accepted methods in physics (the scientific method), zero results in experiments never are proofs, only experiments that produces real results differing from zero are regarded as physical relevant results.
(R): Length contraction is only real for an observer who is situated in another system, in the same way as for the time dilation effect. Hence, an observer in another system imagine the measuring rod being shortened,
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compared with its own rod.
(O): Yes, but again, then its a pure imaginary effect in the same way as for the time dilation as discussed before? An observer experiences or believe that an object is shortened in the other system and then the effect is symmetric in this way the theory claims. So, whats the meaning by that?
(R): No, thats wrong, the effect is real, but it depends on who is the observer. Its only an outer observer who apprehend or believe that the object is shortened, but real for him, of course!
(O): Hmm, now I grasp nothing! Hence, you mean that reality not is the same for all who observe things? If the limited velocity of light is the reason for this effect, distorting the image between objects and observers, it would be an easy task for anyone to compensate for such effects by a simple calculation using ordinary common physical laws.
If you know the relative velocity between the
two systems, the only thing is to calculate the consumed time for a light beam travelling between the two systems and compensate for this delay?
So, by what reason have relativity theory been introduced for predicting such simple imaginary effects?
So, by what reason have relativity theory been introduced for predicting such simple imaginary effects?
(R): No, the effect is not based on that light takes time for transmitting information between two points. To understand this fact you must use Lorenz&FHh0
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